Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effects of phosphorus supplementation in high-grain diets on blood, chemical and physical parameters of bones of feedlot Nellore bulls

Vinícius C. Souza A H , Pedro Malafaia B , Yury T. Granja-Salcedo A , Bruno R. Vieira A , Raphael S. Gomes C , Diogo F. A. Costa D , João Alberto Negrão E , Antônio C. Shimano F and Telma T. Berchielli A G
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Animal Science, São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal, Rodovia Professor Paulo Donato Castellane, km 5, Rural, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, CEP 14884-900, Brazil.

B Department of Animal Nutrition and Pastures, Institute of Animal Science, UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ, 23853-000, Brazil.

C Laboratory of Animal Science and Animal Nutrition, UENF–CCTA, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, 28013-602, Brazil.

D Beef Cattle Research Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

E Department of Basic Sciences, USP, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering. Pirassununga, SP, 13635-900, Brazil.

F Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor System, USP, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, 14049-900, Brazil.

G INCT/CA–UFV, Department of Animal Science, Avenuenida Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, Campus Universitário, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000, Brazil.

H Corresponding author. Email: vinicius2042@hotmail.com

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN17003
Submitted: 3 January 2017  Accepted: 27 April 2017   Published online: 20 June 2017

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphorus supplementation (PS) on blood, chemical and physical parameters from bones of feedlot Nellore bulls. Forty-two animals were distributed in a completely randomised design consisting of three treatments and 14 replicates. The treatments consisted of no supplementary phosphorus (P; T1; 2.4 g P/kg DM), a commercial mineral supplement formulated according to recommendations from the main Brazilian industries of mineral supplements for feedlot beef cattle (T2; 4.2 g P/kg DM) and dicalcium phosphate (T3; 5.0 g P/kg DM) in high-grain diets. The animals submitted or not to PS had similar calcium (Ca) and P values, Ca : P ratio, specific gravity, cortical thickness and bone mineral density in the 12th rib. However, a decrease in magnesium (Mg) concentration was observed in the 12th rib in T1 and T3 treatments throughout the study (P < 0.05). The animals in T1 had lower cortical thickness of the metacarpus (P < 0.05), without compromising its resistance and stiffness (P > 0.05). To evaluate the P status in the animals, we performed the needle test, which allowed an assessment of differences in bone strength on the basis of the resistance to needle penetration on the transverse process (TP) of the lumbar vertebrae. Throughout the trial period, no animals were positive for the needle test conducted in the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. The PS significantly changed parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase concentrations (P < 0.05) and the animals in T1 had lower concentrations of these hormones. However, there was no effect of PS on the concentration of Ca and P in the serum of animals (P > 0.05). The inclusion of a mineral mix supplement in T2 resulted in higher Mg concentrations in the serum of animals (P > 0.05). P supplementation for Nellore bulls, fed high proportions of concentrate during the feedlot period, resulted in no benefits in neither chemical nor physical properties of their bones and the level in the control diet appeared adequate in these circumstances.

Additional keywords: bone fracture force, bone quality, bone stiffness, cattle, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus.


References

Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (AOAC) (1990) ‘Association of official analytical chemists.’ 15th edn. (Association of Official Analytical Methods: Arlington, VA)

Beighle DE, Boyazoglu PA, Hemken RW, Serumaga-Zake PA (1994) Determination of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium values in rib bones from clinically normal cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 55, 85–89.

Burr DB, Hirano T, Turner CH, Hotchkiss C, Brommage R, Hock JM (2001) Intermittently administered human parathyroid hormone (1-34) treatment increases intracortical bone turnover and porosity without reducing bone strength in the humerus of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, 157–165.
Intermittently administered human parathyroid hormone (1-34) treatment increases intracortical bone turnover and porosity without reducing bone strength in the humerus of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXitlCgsQ%3D%3D&md5=63de7bbd554005d84ef7c35a353c5cd9CAS |

Castiglioni S, Cazzaniga A, Albisetti W, Maier JAM (2013) Magnesium and osteoporosis: current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients 5, 3022–3033.
Magnesium and osteoporosis: current state of knowledge and future research directions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXht1ygurjF&md5=66ba5069616200592d2371bdf853ec54CAS |

Challa J, Braithwaite GD, Dhanoa MS (1989) Phosphorus homeostasis in growing calves. The Journal of Agricultural Science 112, 217–226.
Phosphorus homeostasis in growing calves.CrossRef |

Ferreira T, Rasband W (2012) ImageJ User Guide IJ 1.46r. Avalaible at http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/docs/guide/user-guide.pdf [Verified May 2016]

Hiney KM, Nielsen BD, Rosenstein D, Orth MW, Marks BP (2004) High intensity exercise of short duration alters bovine bone density and shape. Journal of Animal Science 82, 1612–1620.
High intensity exercise of short duration alters bovine bone density and shape.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXks12it7w%3D&md5=575c27243dd44eaf7f5bc64a41e854d4CAS |

Hirano T, Burr DB, Turner CH, Sato M, Cain RL, Hock JM (1999) Anabolic effects of human biosynthetic parathyroid hormone fragment (1-34), LY333334, on remodeling and mechanical properties of cortical bone in rabbits. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 14, 536–545.
Anabolic effects of human biosynthetic parathyroid hormone fragment (1-34), LY333334, on remodeling and mechanical properties of cortical bone in rabbits.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXitlOrsrs%3D&md5=39a5bdce86edb8a7c28e683bc5f7e46aCAS |

Kincaid RL, Hillers JK, Cronrath JD (1981) Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of rations for lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 64, 754–758.
Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of rations for lactating cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXkt1ehsLY%3D&md5=e6afb8924cf612c94933d7d61ca0c9fbCAS |

Kincaid RL, Rodehutscord M (2005) Phosphorus metabolism in rumen. In ‘Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of cattle – reducing the environmental impact of cattle operations’. (Eds E Pfeffer, A Hristov) pp. 187–193. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Leach DH, Cymbaluk NF, Hendrix A, Williams K (1994) Mechanical properties of metacarpal bones of foals fed different energy and phosphorous levels. Equine Veterinary Journal 26, 61–66.
Mechanical properties of metacarpal bones of foals fed different energy and phosphorous levels.CrossRef |

Little DA (1972) Bone biopsy in cattle and sheep for studies of phosphorus status. Australian Veterinary Journal 48, 668–670.
Bone biopsy in cattle and sheep for studies of phosphorus status.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE3s7lsV2jug%3D%3D&md5=57a21a40437474fba544a4437035a2fdCAS |

Loretti AP, Oliveira LO, Cruz CEF, Driemeier D (2003) Clinical and phatological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 23, 61–64.
Clinical and phatological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil.CrossRef |

Malafaia P, Costa RM, Brito MF, Peixoto PV, Barbosa JD, Tokarnia CH, Döbereiner J (2014) Equívocos arraigados no meio pecuário sobre deficiências e suplementação minerais em bovinos no Brasil. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 34, 244–249.
Equívocos arraigados no meio pecuário sobre deficiências e suplementação minerais em bovinos no Brasil.CrossRef |

Malafaia P, Granja-Salcedo YT, Uscategui RAR, Souza VC, Costa DFA, Berchielli TT (2017) A simple and fast sampling method for chemical analyses and densitometry of bones through rib biopsies in cattle. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 37, 31–35.
A simple and fast sampling method for chemical analyses and densitometry of bones through rib biopsies in cattle.CrossRef |

Millen DD, Pacheco RDL, Arrigoni MDB, Galyean ML, Vasconcelos JT (2009) A snapshot of management pratices and nutritional recommendations used by feedlot nutritionists in Brazil. Journal of Animal Science 87, 3427–3439.
A snapshot of management pratices and nutritional recommendations used by feedlot nutritionists in Brazil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXht1WksL3E&md5=73e6c7c650b2ced609c7de6dc6236b2bCAS |

National Research Council (NRC) (2000) ‘Nutrient requirements of beef cattle.’ 7th rev. edn. (National Academy Press: Washington, DC)

Oliveira CA, Millen DD (2014) Survey of the nutritional recommendations and management practices adopted by feedlot cattle nutritionists in Brazil. Animal Feed Science and Technology 197, 64–75.
Survey of the nutritional recommendations and management practices adopted by feedlot cattle nutritionists in Brazil.CrossRef |

Prados LF, Valadares Filho SC, Santos SA, Zanetti D, Nunes AN, Costa DR, Mariz LDS, Detmann E, Amaral PM, Rodrigues FC, Valadares RFD (2015) Reducing calcium and phosphorus in crossbred beef cattle diets: impacts on productive performance during the growing and finishing phase. Animal Production Science 56, 1643–1649.
Reducing calcium and phosphorus in crossbred beef cattle diets: impacts on productive performance during the growing and finishing phase.CrossRef |

Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD (2007) Diseases associated with nutritional deficiencies. In ‘Veternary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats’. 10th edn. pp. 1761–1761. (Saunders: Philadelphia)

Ravaglioli A, Krajewski A, Celotti GC, Piancastelli A, Baccini B, Montanari L, Zama G, Piombi L (1996) Mineral evolution of bone. Biomaterials 17, 617–622.
Mineral evolution of bone.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XhslSmtrg%3D&md5=ac628d40288ad209432e0a5afc67a777CAS |

Riet-Correa F, Timm CD (2007) Deficiência de fósforo. In ‘Doenças de ruminantes e eqüídeos’. (Eds F Riet-Correa, AL Shild, RAA Lemos, IRJ Borges) pp. 248–257. (Palloti, Santa Maria: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)

Salazar JAE, Ferguson JD, Beegle DB, Remsburg DW, Wu Z (2013) Body phosphorus mobilization and deposition during lactation in dairy cows. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 97, 502–514.
Body phosphorus mobilization and deposition during lactation in dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtVGiu7rK&md5=c80a25adbfcaf9c6d599b8d685cfc06eCAS |

Seedor JG, Quarraccio HH, Thompson DD (1991) The bisphosphonate alendronate (MK-217) inhibits bone loss due to ovariectomy in rats. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 6, 339–346.
The bisphosphonate alendronate (MK-217) inhibits bone loss due to ovariectomy in rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXks1Cnu7c%3D&md5=68c6f04a5798cf2c928c8a43e3cc73f0CAS |

Souza VC, Malafaia P, Vieira BR, Granja-Salcedo YT, Berchielli TT (2016) Phosphorus supplementation with or without other minerals, ionophore and antibiotic did not affect performance of Nellore bulls receiving high-grain diets, but increased phosphorus excretion and dietary costs. Animal Production Science
Phosphorus supplementation with or without other minerals, ionophore and antibiotic did not affect performance of Nellore bulls receiving high-grain diets, but increased phosphorus excretion and dietary costs.CrossRef |

Suttle NF (2010) ‘The mineral nutrition of livestock.’ 4th edn. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Tokarnia CH, Döbereiner J, Peixoto PV (2000) Deficiências minerais em animais de fazenda, principalmente bovinos em regime de campo. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 20, 127–138.
Deficiências minerais em animais de fazenda, principalmente bovinos em regime de campo.CrossRef |

Tokarnia CH, Peixoto PV, Barbosa JD, Brito MF, Döbereiner J (2010) ‘Deficiências minerais em animais de produção.’ (Helianthus: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Underwood EJ, Suttle NF (1999) Phosphorus. In ‘The mineral nutrition of livestock’. 3rd edn. (Eds EJ Underwood, NF Suttle) (CABI: Wallingford, UK)

Williams SN, Lawrence LA, Mcdowell LR, Wilkinson NS, Fergunson PW, Warnick AC (1991) Criteria to evaluate bone mineralization in cattle: I. Effect of dietary phosphorus on chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. Journal of Animal Science 69, 1232–1242.
Criteria to evaluate bone mineralization in cattle: I. Effect of dietary phosphorus on chemical, physical, and mechanical properties.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK3M3os1Wgsg%3D%3D&md5=5771622776e954d1875736c33ab3325dCAS |

Wu Z, Satter LD, Blohowiak AJ, Stauffacher RH, Wilson JH (2001) Milk production, estimated phosphorus excretion and bone characteristics of dairy cows fed different amounts of phosphorus for two or three years. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 1738–1748.
Milk production, estimated phosphorus excretion and bone characteristics of dairy cows fed different amounts of phosphorus for two or three years.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlvFalsrw%3D&md5=52a422fcdcd3a9be23b20658633202bfCAS |



Export Citation