Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effect of individual Ayurveda plants and mixtures thereof on in vitro ruminal fermentation, methane production and nutrient degradability

S. Wang A , A. Müller A , D. Hilfiker A , S. Marquardt A , M. Kreuzer A , U. Braun B and A. Schwarm A C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A ETH Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

B University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty, Clinic for Ruminants, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

C Corresponding author. Email: angela.schwarm@usys.ethz.ch

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN17174
Submitted: 17 August 2016  Accepted: 6 June 2017   Published online: 4 August 2017

Abstract

In order to identify new ways to mitigate methane emissions from ruminants, six medicinal plants, Achyranthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Andrographis paniculata, Helicteres isora, Tinospora cordifolia and Piper longum, were evaluated in vitro with respect to ruminal fermentation and methanogenesis. A three-stage approach with n = 6 per treatment was applied. Two 24-h Hohenheim gas test experiments were performed by incubating the plants first as sole substrate and then added to a basal diet (10 g/kg diet DM). Finally, in a 10-day Rusitec experiment, A. paniculata, P. longum and T. cordifolia were supplemented individually and in all binary combinations to a basal diet (25 g/kg DM). Provided as sole substrate, all plants, except P. longum, decreased methane and carbon dioxide production (P < 0.05), and reduced the methane : short-chain fatty acid ratio (P < 0.05) in the Hohenheim gas test. In Rusitec, none of the individual supplements decreased methane production. The combination of A. paniculata with P. longum as a supplement was effective in mitigating the methane : carbon dioxide ratio and simultaneously maintaining feeding value. In conclusion, all medicinal plants incubated as sole substrate, except P. longum, possess anti-methanogenic properties, especially T. cordifolia, A. indica and H. isora. When supplemented at the levels investigated, they were mostly neutral with respect to rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion. Combining A. paniculata with P. longum mitigated methane without side effects on general ruminal fermentation. Further investigations, carried out in vivo, will demonstrate how useful this plant combination is in ruminant nutrition.

Additional keywords: in vitro digestibility, medicinal plants, methanogenesis, supplements, tannins.


References

AOAC (1997) ‘Official methods of analysis.’ (Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Arlington, VA)

Bhatta R, Baruah L, Saravanan M, Suresh KP, Sampath KT (2013) Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis in vitro. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 97, 446–456.
Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis in vitro.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtVGiu7rM&md5=2b1e9690153ad3f828b7f570f9fc0940CAS |

Biswas K, Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK, Bandyopadhyay U (2002) Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Current Science 82, 1336–1345.

Bodas R, Prieto N, García-González R, Andrés S, Giráldez FJ, López S (2012) Manipulation of rumen fermentation and methane production with plant secondary metabolites. Animal Feed Science and Technology 176, 78–93.
Manipulation of rumen fermentation and methane production with plant secondary metabolites.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhtVyktLzM&md5=32dcc641e488e3822fb842db891560d8CAS |

Chao W-W, Lin B-F (2010) Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian). Chinese Medicine 5, 17
Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian).CrossRef |

Cottle DJ, Nolan JV, Wiedemann SG (2011) Ruminant enteric methane mitigation: a review. Animal Production Science 51, 491–514.
Ruminant enteric methane mitigation: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXntVGisLY%3D&md5=c0702bda50a9807b8e10eb1ddfde0a0bCAS |

Czerkawski JW, Breckenridge G (1977) Design and development of a long-term rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). British Journal of Nutrition 38, 371–384.
Design and development of a long-term rumen simulation technique (Rusitec).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1cXhs1Kiu7o%3D&md5=51abcd46e7e211644639176006b005c6CAS |

Dijkstra J, Oenema O, Van Groenigen JW, Spek JW, Van Vuuren AM, Bannink A (2013) Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions. Animal 7, 292–302.
Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions.CrossRef |

Doane PH, Pell AN, Schofield P (1998) Ensiling effects on the ethanol fractionation of forages using gas production. Journal of Animal Science 76, 888–895.
Ensiling effects on the ethanol fractionation of forages using gas production.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXhslOku7g%3D&md5=24a9a16f5073c9610f4cff3737a23d42CAS |

Edwin S, Jarald EE, Deb L, Jain A, Kinger H, Dutt KR, Raj AA (2008) Wound healing and antioxidant activity of Achyranthes aspera. Pharmaceutical Biology 46, 824–828.
Wound healing and antioxidant activity of Achyranthes aspera.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXit1Cnt7c%3D&md5=44ab81c4735273558dfd0f9876126326CAS |

Gautam RD, Singh DP, Niwas R, Albial AM (2013) Manipulation of ruminal protozoa of crossbred calves by herbal rumenotoric drugs. International Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2, 162–165.

Gayathri P, Gayathri Devi S, Sivagami S, Saroja S (2010) Screening and quantitation of phytochemicals and nutritional components of the fruit and bark of Helicteres isora. Hygeia Journal for Drugs and Medicines 2, 57–62.

Goel G, Makkar HPS (2012) Methane mitigation from ruminants using tannins and saponins. Tropical Animal Health and Production 44, 729–739.
Methane mitigation from ruminants using tannins and saponins.CrossRef |

Hristov AN, Oh J, Firkins JL, Dijkstra J, Kebreab E, Waghorn G, Makkar HPS, Adesogan AT, Yang W, Lee C, Gerber PJ, Henderson B, Tricarico JM (2013) Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: I. A review of enteric methane mitigation options. Journal of Animal Science 91, 5045–5069.
Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: I. A review of enteric methane mitigation options.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhslKktrrL&md5=4abf4796603b820b82771e0b42ed0139CAS |

Jayanegara A, Wina E, Soliva CR, Marquardt S, Kreuzer M, Leiber F (2011) Dependence of forage quality and methanogenic potential of tropical plants on their phenolic fractions as determined by principal component analysis. Animal Feed Science and Technology 163, 231–243.
Dependence of forage quality and methanogenic potential of tropical plants on their phenolic fractions as determined by principal component analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtlWjtrY%3D&md5=e03df474426787feca4c1a8ed101bee0CAS |

Jayanegara A, Leiber F, Kreuzer M (2012) Meta-analysis of the relationship between dietary tannin level and methane formation in ruminants from in vivo and in vitro experiments. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96, 365–375.
Meta-analysis of the relationship between dietary tannin level and methane formation in ruminants from in vivo and in vitro experiments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xpt12jtbw%3D&md5=828e6f2f77e45fdcd5805a619ce3c4f2CAS |

Jayanegara A, Marquardt S, Wina E, Kreuzer M, Leiber F (2013) In vitro indications for favourable non-additive effects on ruminal methane mitigation between high-phenolic and high-quality forages. British Journal of Nutrition 109, 615–622.
In vitro indications for favourable non-additive effects on ruminal methane mitigation between high-phenolic and high-quality forages.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXksFKms7c%3D&md5=2d957a54b860592e168062a9ff07f2f6CAS |

Kumar S, Kamboj J, Suman , Sharma S (2011) Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper longum Linn. fruit. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 4, 134–140.
Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper longum Linn. fruit.CrossRef |

Li X, Durmic Z, Liu S, McSweeney CS, Vercoe PE (2014) Eremophila glabra reduces methane production and methanogen populations when fermented in a Rusitec. Anaerobe 29, 100–107.
Eremophila glabra reduces methane production and methanogen populations when fermented in a Rusitec.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhvVKis7nM&md5=1face80ff8070dbe152eb12fd7a1c8e3CAS |

Makkar HPS (2003) ‘Quantification of tannins in tree and shrub foliage: a laboratory manual.’ (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Menke KH, Steingass H (1988) Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development 28, 7–55.

Morgavi DP, Forano E, Martin C, Newbold CJ (2010) Microbial ecosystem and methanogenesis in ruminants. Animal 4, 1024–1036.
Microbial ecosystem and methanogenesis in ruminants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmvVajtr0%3D&md5=5df0e8c243178a4aca94c2390bcfffaeCAS |

Niderkorn V, Baumont R, Le Morvan A, Macheboeuf D (2011) Occurrence of associative effects between grasses and legumes in binary mixtures on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 89, 1138–1145.
Occurrence of associative effects between grasses and legumes in binary mixtures on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXntFKlurw%3D&md5=81f3f92a5b3759e988f987881c8e455eCAS |

Panda SK, Mohanta YK, Padhi L, Park Y-H, Mohanta TK, Bae H (2016) Large scale screening of ethnomedicinal plants for identification of potential antibacterial compounds. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 21, 293
Large scale screening of ethnomedicinal plants for identification of potential antibacterial compounds.CrossRef |

Patra AK, Yu Z (2014) Combinations of nitrate, saponin, and sulfate additively reduce methane production by rumen cultures in vitro while not adversely affecting feed digestion, fermentation or microbial communities. Bioresource Technology 155, 129–135.
Combinations of nitrate, saponin, and sulfate additively reduce methane production by rumen cultures in vitro while not adversely affecting feed digestion, fermentation or microbial communities.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXmslWqtbY%3D&md5=b8e097b54826353cc83839c278f49883CAS |

Purcell PJ, Grant J, Boland TM, Grogan D, O’Kiely P (2012) The in vitro rumen methane output of perennial grass species and white clover varieties, and associative effects for their binary mixtures, evaluated using a batch-culture technique. Animal Production Science 52, 1077–1088.
The in vitro rumen methane output of perennial grass species and white clover varieties, and associative effects for their binary mixtures, evaluated using a batch-culture technique.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xhs1Wju73N&md5=cea2cc2afd5bfa37d5f9741ce5a87ea0CAS |

Santra A, Banerjee A, Das SK, Chatterjee A (2012) Effect of plants containing secondary metabolites on ruminal fermentation and methanogenesis in vitro. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 82, 194–199.

Saravanan P, Ramasamy V, Shivakumar T (2008) Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Asian Journal of Chemistry 20, 823–825.

Shriram V, Jahagirdar S, Latha C, Kumar V, Dhakephalkar P, Rojatkar S, Shitole MG (2010) Antibacterial & antiplasmid activities of Helicteres isora L. The Indian Journal of Medical Research 132, 94–99.

Singh SS, Pandey SC, Srivastava S, Gupta VS, Patro B, Ghosh AC (2003) Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi). Indian Journal of Pharmacology 35, 83–91.

Singha PK, Roy S, Dey S (2003) Antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata. Fitoterapia 74, 692–694.
Antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata.CrossRef |

Soliva CR, Hess HD (2007) Measuring methane emission of ruminants by in vitro and in vivo techniques. In ‘Measuring methane production from ruminants’. (Eds HPS Makkar, PE Vercoe) pp. 15–31. (Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Soliva CR, Amelchanka SL, Kreuzer M (2015) The requirements for rumen-degradable protein per unit of fermentable organic matter differ between fibrous feed sources. Frontiers in Microbiology 6, 715
The requirements for rumen-degradable protein per unit of fermentable organic matter differ between fibrous feed sources.CrossRef |

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583–3597.
Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK38%2FnvVCltA%3D%3D&md5=134fffdb99e7905cf25104d139000225CAS |

Yáñez-Ruiz DR, Bannink A, Dijkstra J, Kebreab E, Morgavi DP, O’Kiely P, Reynolds CK, Schwarm A, Shingfield KJ, Yu Z, Hristov AN (2016) Design, implementation and interpretation of in vitro batch culture experiments to assess enteric methane mitigation in ruminants—a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 216, 1–18.
Design, implementation and interpretation of in vitro batch culture experiments to assess enteric methane mitigation in ruminants—a review.CrossRef |

Yusuf AL, Sazili A, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, Samsudin AA, Idris AB, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ (2012) In vitro digestibility of diets containing different parts of Andrographis paniculata using rumen fluid from goats. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 11, 3921–3927.



Export Citation

View Altmetrics