Australian Journal of Chemistry Australian Journal of Chemistry Society
An international journal for chemical science
Australian Journal of Chemistry

Australian Journal of Chemistry

Volume 69 Number 11 2016

RESEARCH FRONT: Young Scientists Advancing Green Chemistry

CH16022Development of Lignocellulosic Biorefinery Technologies: Recent Advances and Current Challenges

Antonella Amore, Peter N. Ciesielski, Chien-Yuan Lin, Davinia Salvachúa and Violeta Sànchez i Nogué
pp. 1201-1218
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Biomass deconstruction and conversion of sugar and lignin to high-value products are the essential steps in the implementation of next-generation lignocellulosic biorefineries. Understanding the interplay between conversion processes and the structure of lignocellulosic feedstocks is a critical point, warranting the development of feedstock engineering techniques and advanced characterization methods, in tandem with the deployment of tailored deconstruction and upgrading processes.

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Multigram quantities of asperuloside, a glycoside natural product, have been isolated from Coprosma quadrifida in a time-efficient and practical manner via rapid pressurised hot water extraction employing an unmodified household espresso machine. By this approach one of the highest yields of asperuloside from a plant species was obtained.

CH16144Polyanhydrides: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

Katie L. Poetz and Devon A. Shipp
pp. 1223-1239
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Polyanhydrides are a fascinating class of degradable polymers that have application in drug delivery, stimuli-responsive materials, and novel nanotechnologies because of their degradability and capacity to undergo surface erosion. This review examines approaches for polyanhydride synthesis, thermomechanical properties, biocompatibility, and hydrolysis and degradation processes.

CH16151A New Technique for Studying Vapour–liquid Equilibria of Multi-Component Systems

Federico M. Ferrero Vallana, Lynette A. M. Holland and Kenneth R. Seddon
pp. 1240-1246
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A new Fourier transform infrared gas-phase method for measuring the vapour pressure of each component of a poorly volatile mixture, and determining the vapour phase composition for each system, is described. The method has been validated using two standards, and a Raoult’s plot surface of a ternary system is reported as proof-of-principle.

CH16074Hydrophilic Magnetite Nanoparticles Enhance Anticancer Activity of Anthracyclines In Vitro

Bin Yang, Lin Luo, Ying Ma, Chunyan Chen, Xiaoming Chen and Changqun Cai
pp. 1247-1253
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Citric acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles Fe3O4 (nano-Fe3O4-CA) interacted with anthracyclines, and the aggregates (nano-Fe3O4-CA-drug) formed. Further studies indicated that the interactions between them were electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of nano-Fe3O4-CA-drug was investigated by cytotoxicity experiment and cell morphology study, which indicated that the nano-Fe3O4-CA-drug has a lower cytotoxicity than anthracyclines.

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Two barium(II) 2D coordination polymers, {[Ba(µ-H2O)(H2O)2(µ-pyzdc)]}n (1) and {[Ba(H2O)2(µ-Hpyzdc)(Hpyzdc)]2H2O}n (2) (pyzdcH2 = pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid), were prepared by reaction of barium(II) chloride dihydrate and pyzdcH2 under slightly different pH values. The barium(II) ion has distorted bicapped square antiprismatic coordination geometry in 1 and distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry in 2.

CH16169Substituted Carbazoles – A New Class of Anthelmintic Agent

David Rennison, Stephanie M. Gueret, Olivia Laita, Ross J. Bland, Ian A. Sutherland, Ian K. Boddy and Margaret A. Brimble
pp. 1268-1276
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A series of novel carbazoles were synthesized based on structural modifications to lead carbazole 1; several analogues were subsequently demonstrated to exhibit anthelmintic activity both in vitro (H. contortus) and in vivo (H. polygyrus).

CH16102Novel Thymohydroquinone Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Screening

Ahmed H. Abdelazeem, Yasser M. A. Mohamed, Ahmed M. Gouda, Hany A. Omar and Majed M. Al Robaian
pp. 1277-1284
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Three series of THQ-based derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their anticancer activity against a panel of cancer cell lines. Initial screening revealed that compounds 5d and 6 exerted better activity against MCF-7 than TQ, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 10.0 μM, respectively. These compounds were able to elicit apoptotic cell death through activation of caspase 3/7.

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Palladium(II) complexes with N-benzyliminodiacetic acid derivatives, RN(CH2COOH)2 (RidaH2; R = benzyl, para-chlorobenzyl, para-nitrobenzyl, or para-methoxybenzyl), were prepared and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Two types of complexes, dihydrates [Pd(RidaH)2]·2H2O and anhydrous complexes [Pd(RidaH)2], were successfully distinguished on the basis of their infrared spectra with the aid of density function theory calculations at the BP86/6–311+G(d,p) level of theory with SDD pseudopotentials.

CH16176A Colorimetric Approach towards Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Sensing

Walmiria Woodland, Cherie A. Motti, Paul Irving, Lynne Van Herwerden and George Vamvounis
pp. 1292-1295
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The colorimetric sensing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was achieved using a photochromic compound. This detection technology was highly sensitive (by absorbing UV radiation) and selective (using different excitation wavelengths). PAH mixtures were successfully identified, allowing fast in-field identification of spilled oil sources.

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Oxidation of the biologically active compound d-penicillamine (Depen) by acidic bromate has been studied. It is oxidized as far as its sulfonic acid. ESI spectroscopy shows that Depen is oxidized through addition of oxygen atoms on the sulfur centre to successively yield sulfenic and sulfinic acids before the product sulfonic acid.

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Ketoconazole (KCZ) is an antifungal compound and an active ingredient of anti-scaling shampoos and skin ointments. In this work, the cyclic voltammetric behaviour of KCZ was studied with a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode.

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