Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 64 Number 2 2013

This study was carried out to measure the phenotypic diversity among 380 durum wheat landraces and the relationships among landraces with different geographical regions. The landraces with a wide genetic diversity were identified and can be used to achieve breakthrough in the durum wheat genetic improvement.

CP13086Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1 and their effects in southern Australian wheat

Karen Cane, H. A. Eagles, D. A. Laurie, Ben Trevaskis, Neil Vallance, R. F. Eastwood, N. N. Gororo, Haydn Kuchel and P. J. Martin
pp. 100-114

Since William Farrer began wheat breeding 120 years ago, manipulation of genes that control when a wheat crop flowers and matures has greatly improved the reliability of production in Australia’s variable and drought-prone environments. Now, these genes are being precisely identified, molecular markers developed, and the effects of the genes individually, and in combinations, determined. This research will accelerate the development of varieties with higher and more stable yields in Australia’s challenging wheat production environments.

In Mediterranean environments, translocation of pre-anthesis assimilates to the fruit is of great importance, because hot and dry conditions during fruit ripening diminish net assimilation rate and nitrogen uptake. This study was conducted to assess the pattern of dry matter and N accumulation and the role of assimilate translocation in pod development of oilseed rape plants. Results indicated that hot and dry weather post-anthesis reduced dramatically the net assimilation rates; thus, translocation of pre-anthesis assimilates was crucial for pod development.

Farmers need methods to assess the capability of saltland for productive use. We assessed the survival and growth of five perennial plant species on three saltland transects in the wheatbelt of south-western Australia. The most important factor affecting plant success was the presence of shallow groundwater in summer.

CP12271Morphological and molecular genetic variability analyses of Saudi lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) landraces

Sulieman A. Al-Faifi, Hussein M. Migdadi, Abedallah Al-doss, Megahed H. Ammar, Ehab H. El-Harty, Muhammad Altaf. Khan, Javed Matlob Muhammad and Salem S. Alghamdi
pp. 137-146

Conservation of Arabian lucerne ecotypes as forage crop is important worldwide, and in the Middle East in particular. Many of the Arabian lucerne populations have evolved under unique environmental conditions. The isolation and local environmental conditions in each oasis have imprinted the characteristics of each population. Middle Eastern lucerne ecotypes have been evaluated and showed forage yields superior to most non-dormant cultivars. Our genetic diversity assessment will help in assessing selections for lucerne breeding programs to develop new cultivars adapted to harsh environmental conditions.

Due to their complex nature, pasture based dairy farms are often analysed using models.  This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of the biophysical model APSIM in simulating the growth, development and nutritive value of forage crops grown in the south eastern Australian dairy regions.  APSIM was found to accurately predict forage crop growth and development and consequently will be a useful tool in the study of forage crops as components of pasture based dairy systems.

The investments made by plants into their root systems are usually assessed by periodic measurements of the net size of the root populations; however, this approach might be misleading if individual roots have short life expectancies. We reanalysed previously published data for five ryegrass types grown in New Zealand and found that, in terms of root length, the root systems were turning over ~8 times per year, which suggests an average life expectancy of ~44 days. Although root biomass may be more stable, this fast turnover of root length will have substantial implications for the management and uptake of nutrients and water by ryegrass pastures.

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