Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science is a highly cited and prestigious journal publishing original research on advances in plant sciences, sustainable farming systems, and food quality. Read more about the journalMore

Editors-in-Chief: Sergio Atienza and Zed Rengel

Current Issue

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 8 2017


This study evaluated variation in photosynthetic parameters at various growth stages in 43 wheat genotypes under optimal and low nitrogen supply. Based on all studied parameters, a dissimilarity matrix was constructed, separating the 43 genotypes into groups. Some genotypes appear to have relative tolerance to low nitrogen supply and a potential to be used in discerning the molecular basis of tolerance to low nitrogen supply.

CP17156Elevated field atmospheric CO2 concentrations affect the characteristics of winter wheat (cv. Bologna) grains

Francesca Verrillo, Franz-Werner Badeck, Valeria Terzi, Fulvia Rizza, Letizia Bernardo, Antimo Di Maro, Clara Fares, Alessandro Zaldei, Francesco Miglietta, Anna Moschella, Marcella Bracale and Candida Vannini
pp. 713-725

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to reach ~550 ppm by mid-century, driven by human activities, and this increase is expected to have a great impact on the growth and development of crops. Cultivation under e[CO2] led to accumulation of oxidatively modified polypeptides, protein carbonylation and ROS-scavenging enzymes suggesting intensified pro-oxidative conditions

CP17178Alternate furrow irrigation affects yield and water-use efficiency of maize under deficit irrigation

Farid Golzardi, Amirsaleh Baghdadi and Reza Keshavarz Afshar
pp. 726-734

Implementation of Alternate Furrow Irrigation (AFI) resulted in a significant saving in irrigation water and improved IWUE in corn production in a semi-arid region. Due to the severe shortage of fresh water for agricultural use in these regions, AFI has good potential for developing water-saving strategies for maize production.

CP17166Biosolids differently affect seed yield, nodule growth, nodule-specific activity, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation of field bean

S. Pampana, A. Scartazza, R. Cardelli, A. Saviozzi, L. Guglielminetti, G. Vannacci, M. Mariotti, A. Masoni and I. Arduini
pp. 735-745

Biosolids are organic fertilisers derived from treated and stabilised sewage sludge that are able to improve soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties, thus representing an alternative to the use of livestock manure for crops. Compared with mineral fertiliser, biosolids reduced N2 fixation of field bean, but increased seed yield. Biosolids can be utilised as slow-release nitrogen sources in legume crops.


Cover crops of six different legumes and millet were compared to a chemical fallow control over a long-fallow in a subtropical farming system. Legume cover crops contributed little N benefits, were slower to accumulate biomass necessitating later termination, and had less persistent ground cover than millet. Legume cover crops induced higher risks of reduced soil water storage and resulting yield reductions in subsequent crops than millet.


Essential hedging in macadamia orchards affects fruit yield through diversion of stored resources to vegetative regrowth. Branches were pruned in autumn or spring, with factorial combinations of stem girdling, partial defoliation of the previous growth flush and progressive defoliation of the resulting vegetative flush shoot. Quantitative description of dry matter transfers from the stem and leaves of the previous growth flush, and from more distant parts of the tree and leaves of the new flush shoot, will enhance carbon allocation models for macadamia tree growth and management.

CP17116An assessment of weed flora 14 years after the introduction of glyphosate-tolerant cotton in Australia

Sudheesh Manalil, Jeff Werth, Rod Jackson, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan and Christopher Preston
pp. 773-780

ToC Abstract: A weed survey carried out in the Glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton regions of Australia has indicated a shift in weed populations compared to the previous surveys in the region. Volunteer GT cotton, Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and Sonchus oleraceus L. were some of the major weeds. The results of this study demand for diversified weed-management options to minimise the dominance of emerging weeds in the cotton producing regions.


Production and environmental benefits of perennial grasses such as phalaris could be extended to the mixed farming zone of southern Australia if persistence in dry marginal rainfall areas was improved. Evaluation of genetic resources in phalaris in 430-460 mm annual rainfall environments found that adaptation was related to early reproductive maturity, higher summer dormancy and high winter growth activity. Resources potentially suitable for commercialisation were identified.

CP17243Biological nitrification inhibition by weeds: wild radish, brome grass, wild oats and annual ryegrass decrease nitrification rates in their rhizospheres

Cathryn A. O'Sullivan, Kelley Whisson, Karen Treble, Margaret M. Roper, Shayne F. Micin and Philip R. Ward
pp. 798-804

Increasing our understanding of how weeds compete with crops for critical nutrients such as nitrogen (N) may lead to innovative weed-management strategies. This study shows that several plant species commonly occurring as weeds in Australian cropping systems alter the N cycle in their root-zones through biological nitrification inhibition. By retaining N as ammonium in the rhizosphere, these weeds may gain a competitive advantage over crop species that prefer nitrate.

Online Early

The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue

Published online 18 October 2017

CP17028Effects of individual and combined heat and drought stress during seed filling on the oxidative metabolism and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes differing in heat and drought tolerance

Rashmi Awasthi, Pooran Gaur, Neil C. Turner, Vincent Vadez, Kadambot H. M. Siddique and Harsh Nayyar
 

Drought and heat often occur together at the time of seed filling in chickpea. Our study indicated severe reduction in antioxidants under combination of two stresses resulting in marked reduction in seed yield. Leaves showed more oxidative damage than seeds. The genotypes tolerant for heat and drought showed less oxidative damage and hence had higher yields, and also indicated the presence of cross tolerance mechanism.

Published online 18 October 2017

CP17048Seed production trait associations and inheritance in interspecific hybrids between Trifolium repens (white clover) and Trifolium uniflorum

Muhammad Naeem, I. M. Verry, P. D. Kemp, J. P. Millner and W. M. Williams
 

White clover (Trifolium repens) has shallow, fibrous roots vulnerable to drought and pest attack but this can be improved by hybridisation with T. uniflorum, a wild clover from the Mediterranean region that produces single flowers. Although initially poor, seed production of the hybrids was found to be heritable and was improved by breeding without affecting root or shoot traits. Consequently, good seed production in the hybrids can be achieved together with improved root morphology and without loss of forage production.

Published online 13 October 2017

CP17255DNA methylation of the TAA1 gene regulates formation of the pollen wall in chemically induced male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Guiping Li, Qingsong Ba, Gaisheng Zhang, Lanlan Zhang, Chu Chen and Zhaolin Fu
 

Higher methylation of the TAA1 gene was observed in chemically induced male sterility (CIMS), and the expression levels of the TAA1 gene were downregulated in CIMS, resulting in increments of tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid, and abnormal pollen wall formation in CIMS.

Published online 03 October 2017

CP17214Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of NBS-LRR resistance genes in Brassica napus

Salman Alamery, Soodeh Tirnaz, Philipp Bayer, Reece Tollenaere, Boulos Chaloub, David Edwards and Jacqueline Batley
 

NBS-LRR genes play an important role in plant disease resistance. We have identified and characterised these genes in three cultivated Brassica species and found that many were clustered and duplicates. These genes are valuable for identification of disease resistance genes underlying QTL or GWAS regions.

Published online 27 September 2017

CP17258Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of lentil genotypes with durable resistance to fusarium wilt in India

A. K. Parihar, Ashwani K. Basandrai, D. R. Saxena, K. P. S. Kushwaha, S. Chandra, K. Sharma, K. D. Singha, Deepak Singh, H. C. Lal and Sanjeev Gupta
 

Model diagnosis revealed that no scaling ‘GGE biplot’ analysis has been the best for interpretation of multi-year and multi-location lentil data set. GGE biplot analysis demonstrated that lentil genotypes PL 101 and L 4076 are the potential sources of resistance against wilt disease. Based on the representativeness and discriminating ability ‘Sehore’ location is the ideal test location for screening against fusarium wilt in lentil in India.

Published online 15 September 2017

CP17064Design, assessment and feasibility of legume-based cropping systems in three European regions

E. Pelzer, C. Bourlet, G. Carlsson, R. J. Lopez-Bellido, E. S. Jensen and M.-H. Jeuffroy
 

Due to environmental and future food challenges, legume crops should be promoted in European fields, after several decades of decreasing areas. As agronomic and environmental benefits of those crops are mainly measurable at the cropping system level, innovative cropping systems with grain legumes were designed by scientists and assessed with stakeholders. Feasible cropping systems were identified in three European local pedoclimatic contexts with improved performance compared with current cropping systems, and could thus be developed.

Published online 08 September 2017

CP17187Effects of ambient temperature and photoperiod on flowering time in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

Samuel C. Catt and Jeffrey G. Paull
 

Flowering time is the most important adaptation trait of plants and is largely controlled by temperature and photoperiod. Evaluation of Australian faba bean genotypes found significant variation in flowering time, and in the plant responses to ambient temperature and photoperiod. This variation could be utilised to breed lines for specific growing environments, increasing yield, yield reliability and possibly expand the production zone into more marginal areas.

Published online 22 August 2017

CP17140Detection, prevalence and severity of upper canopy infection on mature Brassica napus plants caused by Leptosphaeria maculans in Australia

Susan J. Sprague, Stephen J. Marcroft, Kurt D. Lindbeck, Andrew H. Ware, Ravjit K. Khangura and Angela P. Van de Wouw
 

Infection of flowers, peduncles, siliques, main stems and branches of canola by Leptosphaeria maculans has increased in prevalence and severity in Australian canola-growing regions since 2011. The term upper canopy infection is proposed to encompass these symptoms as they generally occur together on the same plant and appear after the plant has undergone elongation. Earlier onset of flowering is a key risk factor for more severe upper canopy infection, however, host genetic resistance may be an effective control strategy.

Published online 15 August 2017

CP16401Insights into fighting against blackleg disease of Brassica napus in Canada

Xuehua Zhang and W. G. Dilantha Fernando
 

Blackleg is the most serious disease in canola in western Canada. The review highlights the present issues faced by growers and the industry due to the blackleg disease. The review also highlights a new strategy, R-gene rotation introduced to suit the Canadian situation in order to mitigate the disease and increase yield.

Published online 14 August 2017

CP17161Agricultural selection and presence–absence variation in spring-type canola germplasm

Annaliese S. Mason, Pratibha Chauhan, Shashi Banga, Surinder S. Banga, Phil Salisbury, Martin J. Barbetti and Jacqueline Batley
 

Spring canola is a very young crop type, less than fifty years old. Australian and Chinese spring canola look different but are very similar genetically, although with many deletions and duplications of chromosome segments. These chromosome deletions and duplications, coupled with strong inbreeding and selection for different traits, may have helped shape spring canola in China and Australia.

Published online 11 August 2017

CP17071Genotype by environment interactions in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in the Iberian Peninsula

Marina Martos-Fuentes, Juan A. Fernández, Jesús Ochoa, Márcia Carvalho, Valdemar Carnide, Eduardo Rosa, Graça Pereira, Carina Barcelos, Penelope J. Bebeli and Catalina Egea-Gilabert
 

Cowpea is one of the most widely adapted, versatile, and nutritious grain legumes. The aim of this work was to determine the genetic variability and environmental stability of 12 cowpea genotypes at three locations in the Iberian Peninsula in two consecutive years. This study could give rise to a breeding program to develop cowpea cultivars with interesting agronomic traits.

Published online 11 August 2017

CP16351Development of an ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the rapid quantification of seed carotenoid content in oilseed rape

Lei Xue, Fang Wei, Guizhen Gao, Guixin Yan, Weilin Song, Biyun Chen, Kun Xu, Hong Chen and Xiaoming Wu
 

The nutritional value of rapeseed oil is significantly improved by breeding new cultivars with high seed carotenoid content, successful development of an efficient method for the quantification of carotenoids in oilseed rape is a prerequisite for this breeding initiative, a rapid, accurate, simple and low cost protocol was successfully developed by using ultrasound-assisted extraction.

Published online 04 August 2017

CP16423Assessment of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain yield, aerial biomass and flowering date stability in Mediterranean environments

R. Iglesias-García, E. Prats, F. Flores, M. Amri, A. Mikić and D. Rubiales
 

Mediterranean environments are of most interest in the current context of global climate change. In our work we have tested adaptation of nine pea cultivars in South European and North African locations, characterised by different agro climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate. Our results highlighted the potential interest of genotypes HR1 and Desso in breeding programs and further studies of drought tolerance.

Published online 04 August 2017

CP17068Performance of legume-based annual forage crops in three semi-arid Mediterranean environments

P. Annicchiarico, I. Thami Alami, K. Abbas, L. Pecetti, R. A. M. Melis and C. Porqueddu
 

Legume-based annual forages, once optimized, could be pivotal to intensify sustainably drought-prone cereal-livestock systems. Production and farmers’ appreciation results collected for various legume and cereal species grown in monoculture and mixture in three sites of the western Mediterranean basin indicated that pea has much greater potential than hitherto believed. This encourages its breeding and cultivation for forage besides for grain.

Published online 01 August 2017

CP17099Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) in Vicia faba

Josefina C. Sillero, María M. Rojas-Molina, Amero A. Emeran, Mohamed Kharrat, Johanna Winkler, Habib R. Khan, Fernando Flores and Diego Rubiales
 

Resistance to faba bean rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) was identified by screening a large germplasm collection of Vicia faba under field conditions. Stability of resistance of the most-resistant accessions was further evaluated in a multi-location experiment and validated in three mega-environments defined in this work. These stable sources of resistance are highly promising to be included in international faba bean breeding programmes.

Published online 17 July 2017

CP17087Improved grain yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under water deficit after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Rhizophagus irregularis

Rui S. Oliveira, Patrícia Carvalho, Guilhermina Marques, Luís Ferreira, Sandra Pereira, Mafalda Nunes, Inês Rocha, Ying Ma, Maria F. Carvalho, Miroslav Vosátka and Helena Freitas
 

Cowpea is broadly cultivated in drought-prone areas and there is a need to address the water scarcity issue in agriculture. We assessed the effects of inoculation with a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on plant performance and yield under water-deficit. Under moderate and severe water deficit, grain yield was increased in inoculated plants. The use of inoculated cowpea has great potential for sustainable agricultural production under drought conditions.


Lucerne cover crop for winter wheat was studied as an alternative and sustainable weed-control strategy. Conventional and reduced tillage conditions, as well as presence or absence of cover crop were compared in terms of soil coverage and biomass of wheat, lucerne and weeds. Weed communities composition and functional group analysis were performed. To minimise cash-crop losses, the effect of several herbicide strategies controlling the cover crop under reduced tillage conditions were also tested.

Published online 05 July 2017

CP17070Winter cover crops as green manure in a temperate region: the effect on nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize

B. Ćupina, S. Vujić, Dj. Krstić, Z. Radanović, R. Čabilovski, M. Manojlović and D. Latković
 

The study evaluated the effect of cover crops-legume, cereal, their mixture used as green manure, two doses of N fertilisation, and an unfertilised fallow as a control on the soil nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize (Zea mays L.). The highest value of apparent N remaining in the soil was in the mixture while the N fertilisation treatments and the control had significantly lower average values of residual N.

Published online 05 July 2017

CP17012Heat stress in grain legumes during reproductive and grain-filling phases

Muhammad Farooq, Faisal Nadeem, Nirmali Gogoi, Aman Ullah, Salem S. Alghamdi, Harsh Nayyar and Kadambot H. M. Siddique
 

Heat stress, during reproductive phase, is a major threat to productivity of grain legumes. This review describes the impact of heat stress on photo-assimilation, grain quality and development processes, and proposes innovative strategies to improve heat tolerance in grain legumes.

Published online 04 July 2017

CP16396Better management of intensive rotational grazing systems maintains pastures and improves animal performance

W. Badgery, G. Millar, K. Broadfoot, J. Martin, D. Pottie, A. Simmons and P. Cranney
 

This paper examines how the management of intensive rotational grazing systems influences pasture composition, diet quality and livestock performance. There was substantial opportunity to enhance the production of intensive rotational grazing systems through fast rotations at a high stocking rate. Intensive rotational grazing can be managed flexibly to improve animal performance by using green herbage allowance, with higher allowances needed as feed quality declines.

Published online 19 June 2017

CP16468The role of FLOWERING LOCUS C in vernalization of Brassica: the importance of vernalization research in the face of climate change

Daniel J. Shea, Etsuko Itabashi, Satoko Takada, Eigo Fukai, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Ryo Fujimoto and Keiichi Okazaki
 

This review summarises the literature to date regarding vernalization research in Brassicaceae, providing both a historical context and current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. We cover the evolutionary conserved biology between the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica genus crops and contrast the differences between the genera to show the importance of Brassica-specific research into vernalization.

Published online 19 June 2017

CP16405An initial investigation of forage production and feed quality of perennial wheat derivatives

Matthew T. Newell and Richard C. Hayes
 

A redesign of agricultural production away from annual grain crops to a system that utilizes perennial grain crops, offers an opportunity to improve sustainable grain production and food security into the future. An important component in this redesign will be the profitable integration of livestock into the system through grazing. This study demonstrates that early generation perennial grain crops can be used as successful dual purpose crops and deployment of commercial cultivars may soon be at hand.

Published online 13 June 2017

CP17067In vitro-assisted single-seed descent for breeding-cycle compression in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)

Maria Pazos-Navarro, Marieclaire Castello, Richard G. Bennett, Phillip Nichols and Janine Croser
 

Subterranean clover is grown on over 29 Mha in southern Australia but its annual rate of genetic improvement is constrained by a long lifecycle. We present an in vitro-assisted single-seed descent system (IVASSD) to enable the turnover of up to 6.1 generations per year. To demonstrate the applicability of the system within a plant-breeding program, we have validated the IVASSD technique on a segregating breeding population, resulting in the turnover of three generations in less than one year.


On a set of 46 lucerne genotypes, a positive correlation between the performance of genotypes in monoculture and in mixture was obtained. However, significant changes in genotype ranking indicated that the species of its neighbours could modify the relative performance of a genotype. Traits measured on the same genotypes grown in isolated plants explained competition intensity depending on the neighbour species.


Powdery mildew is a devastating disease of many legume species, including common bean. In this work, we assessed the responses of 108 dry and snap bean accessions to PM, and characterized the genetic control of the resistance in three bean genotypes. This work provides new PM-resistance sources and markers linked to resistance genes, which will be very useful in common bean breeding programs focused on protecting bean crops against this disease.

Published online 02 June 2017

CP17002Changes in yield and agronomic traits of soybean cultivars released in China in the last 60 years

Xiaoliang Qin, Fan Feng, Dexiao Li, Stephen J. Herbert, Yuncheng Liao and Kadambot H. M. Siddique
 

Planting density decreased significantly in the Yellow-Huai-Hai summer and South soybean regions but did not significantly change in the North spring soybean region. The increased soybean yields were mainly due to increased 100-seed weight and seed number per plant. Seed protein content has not significantly changed in 60 years, but oil content has increased in all three regions.

Published online 17 May 2017

CP16395Enhancing composition and persistence of mixed pasture swards in southern New South Wales through alternative spatial configurations and improved legume performance

Richard C. Hayes, Guangdi D. Li, Graeme A. Sandral, Tony D. Swan, Andrew Price, Shane Hildebrand, Laura Goward, Chris Fuller and Mark B. Peoples
 

The study examined whether the productivity and persistence of mixed pastures were improved if species were spatially separated rather than being sown together in each drill row. Results of the present study were highly site-specific, or season-dependent, but subterranean clover regeneration was consistently improved where it was spatially separated from lucerne. There were fewer consistent benefits of alternative spatial configurations on swards containing phalaris with subterranean clover or with lucerne.

Published online 17 May 2017

CP16411Changes in allele frequencies of avirulence genes in the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, over two decades in Australia

Angela P. Van de Wouw, Barbara J. Howlett and Alexander Idnurm
 

Avirulence allele frequencies change in response to selection pressure from sowing of cultivars with the corresponding major gene resistance. Analysis of 2091 isolates collected over the past 20 years shows how allele frequencies have changed in Australia in response to cultivar use and which major resistance genes are at risk of being overcome in the field.

Published online 15 May 2017

CP16422Assessing and overcoming genetic trade-offs in breeding grazing-tolerant lucerne

L. Pecetti and P. Annicchiarico
 

Cold-season dormancy and prostrate habit may challenge the selection of grazing-tolerant lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for mild-winter environments. The genetic variation and genetically based trade-offs for key traits (grazing tolerance, dormancy, plant morphology) and their implications for selection were assessed in different genetic backgrounds. The selection for grazing-tolerant germplasm can rely on large genetic variation, but it requires extensive genotype evaluation to produce material with acceptable dormancy and growth habit.

Published online 06 May 2017

CP16375Grazing management of dairy pastures based on tall fescue in southern Australia

A. R. Lawson, K. B. Kelly and M. E. Rogers
 

Six grazing-management treatments were applied for 3 years to a tall fescue–white clover pasture in northern Victoria.A grazing regime based up the 3-leaf stage resulted in 30% higher dry matter removal, higher tall fescue content and greater plant persistence compared to the most frequently grazed treatments.The practicality of this approach to grazing tall fescue needs to be tested at the whole-farm level.

Published online 26 April 2017

CP16404Changes in farming practices impact on spore release patterns of the blackleg pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans

J. McCredden, R. B. Cowley, S. J. Marcroft and A. P. Van de Wouw
 

Changes in farming practices such as inter-row sowing, has impacts on stubble retention such that some stubble remains standing at the start of the following season. Spore release patterns for the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, are delayed as well as reduced in standing stubble compared to laying down stubble. These changes in spore release patterns has the potential to impact of disease epidemiology.

Published online 26 April 2017

CP16445Host–pathogen interactions in relation to management of light leaf spot disease (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on Brassica species

Chinthani S. Karandeni Dewage, Coretta A. Klöppel, Henrik U. Stotz and Bruce D. L. Fitt
 

Light leaf spot (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) is an increasingly damaging disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and vegetable brassicas. This paper reviews the disease epidemiology, pathogen population structure and host range, and disease management strategies. Use of new genomic information to improve understanding of the molecular interactions between B. napus and P. brassicae and of the pathogen population structure is discussed.

Published online 13 April 2017

CP16383Use of sensor-determined behaviours to develop algorithms for pasture intake by individual grazing cattle

P. L. Greenwood, D. R. Paull, J. McNally, T. Kalinowski, D. Ebert, B. Little, D. V. Smith, A. Rahman, P. Valencia, A. B. Ingham and G. J. Bishop-Hurley
 

Practical and reliable measurement of individual pasture intake will improve precision in livestock and pasture management, provide input data for prediction and simulation models, and allow animals to be ranked on grazing efficiency for genetic improvement. We used sensors to determine pasture intake of individual grazing cattle. Grazing behaviour classified using data from collar-mounted sensors, and benchmark pasture-intake data, allowed establishment of initial pasture-intake algorithms for use with sensors.

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