Crop and Pasture Science
Volume 68 Numbers 10 & 11 2017
Legumes in Sustainable Agriculture
CP17187Effects of ambient temperature and photoperiod on flowering time in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)
Flowering time is the most important adaptation trait of plants and is largely controlled by temperature and photoperiod. Evaluation of Australian faba bean genotypes found significant variation in flowering time, and in the plant responses to ambient temperature and photoperiod. This variation could be utilised to breed lines for specific growing environments, increasing yield, yield reliability and possibly expand the production zone into more marginal areas.
CP17064Design, assessment and feasibility of legume-based cropping systems in three European regions
Due to environmental and future food challenges, legume crops should be promoted in European fields, after several decades of decreasing areas. As agronomic and environmental benefits of those crops are mainly measurable at the cropping system level, innovative cropping systems with grain legumes were designed by scientists and assessed with stakeholders. Feasible cropping systems were identified in three European local pedoclimatic contexts with improved performance compared with current cropping systems, and could thus be developed.
CP16423Assessment of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain yield, aerial biomass and flowering date stability in Mediterranean environments
Mediterranean environments are of most interest in the current context of global climate change. In our work we have tested adaptation of nine pea cultivars in South European and North African locations, characterised by different agro climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate. Our results highlighted the potential interest of genotypes HR1 and Desso in breeding programs and further studies of drought tolerance.
CP17071Genotype by environment interactions in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in the Iberian Peninsula
Cowpea is one of the most widely adapted, versatile, and nutritious grain legumes. The aim of this work was to determine the genetic variability and environmental stability of 12 cowpea genotypes at three locations in the Iberian Peninsula in two consecutive years. This study could give rise to a breeding program to develop cowpea cultivars with interesting agronomic traits.
CP17068Performance of legume-based annual forage crops in three semi-arid Mediterranean environments
Legume-based annual forages, once optimized, could be pivotal to intensify sustainably drought-prone cereal-livestock systems. Production and farmers’ appreciation results collected for various legume and cereal species grown in monoculture and mixture in three sites of the western Mediterranean basin indicated that pea has much greater potential than hitherto believed. This encourages its breeding and cultivation for forage besides for grain.
CP17052Performance of lucerne genotypes for biomass production and nitrogen content differs in monoculture and in mixture with grasses and is partly predicted from traits recorded on isolated plants
On a set of 46 lucerne genotypes, a positive correlation between the performance of genotypes in monoculture and in mixture was obtained. However, significant changes in genotype ranking indicated that the species of its neighbours could modify the relative performance of a genotype. Traits measured on the same genotypes grown in isolated plants explained competition intensity depending on the neighbour species.
Cold-season dormancy and prostrate habit may challenge the selection of grazing-tolerant lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for mild-winter environments. The genetic variation and genetically based trade-offs for key traits (grazing tolerance, dormancy, plant morphology) and their implications for selection were assessed in different genetic backgrounds. The selection for grazing-tolerant germplasm can rely on large genetic variation, but it requires extensive genotype evaluation to produce material with acceptable dormancy and growth habit.
CP17067In vitro-assisted single-seed descent for breeding-cycle compression in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)
Subterranean clover is grown on over 29 Mha in southern Australia but its annual rate of genetic improvement is constrained by a long lifecycle. We present an in vitro-assisted single-seed descent system (IVASSD) to enable the turnover of up to 6.1 generations per year. To demonstrate the applicability of the system within a plant-breeding program, we have validated the IVASSD technique on a segregating breeding population, resulting in the turnover of three generations in less than one year.
CP17055Development of new kabuli large-seeded chickpea materials with resistance to Ascochyta blight
In this work 11 advanced chickpea lines with resistance to Ascochyta bligt and large seeds were developed as a result of the selection carried out during 10 successive years. Molecular markers associated with the resistance to blight were applied.
CP17002Changes in yield and agronomic traits of soybean cultivars released in China in the last 60 years
Planting density decreased significantly in the Yellow-Huai-Hai summer and South soybean regions but did not significantly change in the North spring soybean region. The increased soybean yields were mainly due to increased 100-seed weight and seed number per plant. Seed protein content has not significantly changed in 60 years, but oil content has increased in all three regions.
Heat stress, during reproductive phase, is a major threat to productivity of grain legumes. This review describes the impact of heat stress on photo-assimilation, grain quality and development processes, and proposes innovative strategies to improve heat tolerance in grain legumes.
CP16460Identification of new resistance sources to powdery mildew, and the genetic characterisation of resistance in three common bean genotypes
Powdery mildew is a devastating disease of many legume species, including common bean. In this work, we assessed the responses of 108 dry and snap bean accessions to PM, and characterized the genetic control of the resistance in three bean genotypes. This work provides new PM-resistance sources and markers linked to resistance genes, which will be very useful in common bean breeding programs focused on protecting bean crops against this disease.
CP17099Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) in Vicia faba
Resistance to faba bean rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) was identified by screening a large germplasm collection of Vicia faba under field conditions. Stability of resistance of the most-resistant accessions was further evaluated in a multi-location experiment and validated in three mega-environments defined in this work. These stable sources of resistance are highly promising to be included in international faba bean breeding programmes.
CP17258Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of lentil genotypes with durable resistance to fusarium wilt in India
Model diagnosis revealed that no scaling ‘GGE biplot’ analysis has been the best for interpretation of multi-year and multi-location lentil data set. GGE biplot analysis demonstrated that lentil genotypes PL 101 and L 4076 are the potential sources of resistance against wilt disease. Based on the representativeness and discriminating ability ‘Sehore’ location is the ideal test location for screening against fusarium wilt in lentil in India.
CP17129Characterisation of nutritional quality traits of a chickpea (Cicer arietinum) germplasm collection exploited in chickpea breeding in Europe
A representative collection of the chickpea germplasm used by the European breeders were evaluated. The accessions were characterized according, different seed traits and basic composition carotenoids and tocopherols. Greater concentration of carotenoids was related with specific seed traits and that can be explored in chickpea breeding programs for improvement of their nutritional quality.
Chickpea, commonly known as garbanzo beans, is of great importance for human nutrition, specifically due to its high protein content. In this report, 24 chickpea varieties were compared by biochemically characterizing the storage proteins. Two of these varieties, one light-colored Kabuli and one dark-colored desi, were compered by a more advanced proteomic approach. The data obtained reaffirmed the quality of this grain protein for human nutrition, and will be important in future plant-breeding studies.
CP17087Improved grain yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under water deficit after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Rhizophagus irregularis
Cowpea is broadly cultivated in drought-prone areas and there is a need to address the water scarcity issue in agriculture. We assessed the effects of inoculation with a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on plant performance and yield under water-deficit. Under moderate and severe water deficit, grain yield was increased in inoculated plants. The use of inoculated cowpea has great potential for sustainable agricultural production under drought conditions.
CP17070Winter cover crops as green manure in a temperate region: the effect on nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize
The study evaluated the effect of cover crops-legume, cereal, their mixture used as green manure, two doses of N fertilisation, and an unfertilised fallow as a control on the soil nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize (Zea mays L.). The highest value of apparent N remaining in the soil was in the mixture while the N fertilisation treatments and the control had significantly lower average values of residual N.
CP16459Weed response and crop growth in winter wheat–lucerne intercropping: a comparison of conventional and reduced soil-tillage conditions in northern France
Lucerne cover crop for winter wheat was studied as an alternative and sustainable weed-control strategy. Conventional and reduced tillage conditions, as well as presence or absence of cover crop were compared in terms of soil coverage and biomass of wheat, lucerne and weeds. Weed communities composition and functional group analysis were performed. To minimise cash-crop losses, the effect of several herbicide strategies controlling the cover crop under reduced tillage conditions were also tested.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
The productivity and profitability of Australia’s dairy are highly susceptible to climate change and extreme climatic events. We provide an insight into Australian dairy systems and present the existing and most relevant scientific literature on the impact on pastures and animals, outline adaptation and mitigation strategies and highlight important research gaps.
In the south-west slopes region of NSW, Australia, there is little financial difference between sowing lucerne alone or under a cover crop at low stocking rates (<10 dry sheep equivalents/ha). Sowing lucerne alone gives farmers the option to run higher stocking rates for higher median decadal cash margins without additional financial risk; however, the high variability around the medians can mask these differences in the short term.
CP16385Quantifying the interactions between defoliation interval, defoliation intensity and nitrogen fertiliser application on the nutritive value of rainfed and irrigated perennial ryegrass
A 2-year experiment was undertaken at Elliott Tasmania to quantify the interactions between defoliation interval, intensity, nitrogen fertiliser and irrigation. While defoliating to 3 mm at the 1-leaf stage did statistically increase the concentration of crude protein and lower in the concertation of fibre in the pasture, these improvements were biologically minimal. Perennial ryegrass pastures should be defoliated at the 3-leaf stage to approximately 55 mm as this will maximise production and persistence.
CP17193Introgression of allelic diversity from genetically distinct variants of Brassica rapa into Brassica napus canola and inheritance of the B. rapa alleles
Brassica napus × B. rapa interspecific crosses were made to introgress exotic alleles from B. rapa into B. napus canola. Progeny of this interspecific cross stabilised into B. napus type only. Of the theoretical expected number of SSR alleles of B. rapa, only 45% of the alleles were detected in F4 and F8 plants suggesting that the loss of alleles occurred prior to the F4 generation. Genetically distinct canola quality lines were developed from these interspecific crosses by using genetically diverse B. rapa lines in the crosses.
CP17214Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of NBS-LRR resistance genes in Brassica napus
NBS-LRR genes play an important role in plant disease resistance. We have identified and characterised these genes in three cultivated Brassica species and found that many were clustered and duplicates. These genes are valuable for identification of disease resistance genes underlying QTL or GWAS regions.
CP17140Detection, prevalence and severity of upper canopy infection on mature Brassica napus plants caused by Leptosphaeria maculans in Australia
Infection of flowers, peduncles, siliques, main stems and branches of canola by Leptosphaeria maculans has increased in prevalence and severity in Australian canola-growing regions since 2011. The term upper canopy infection is proposed to encompass these symptoms as they generally occur together on the same plant and appear after the plant has undergone elongation. Earlier onset of flowering is a key risk factor for more severe upper canopy infection, however, host genetic resistance may be an effective control strategy.
Blackleg is the most serious disease in canola in western Canada. The review highlights the present issues faced by growers and the industry due to the blackleg disease. The review also highlights a new strategy, R-gene rotation introduced to suit the Canadian situation in order to mitigate the disease and increase yield.
Spring canola is a very young crop type, less than fifty years old. Australian and Chinese spring canola look different but are very similar genetically, although with many deletions and duplications of chromosome segments. These chromosome deletions and duplications, coupled with strong inbreeding and selection for different traits, may have helped shape spring canola in China and Australia.
CP16351Development of an ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the rapid quantification of seed carotenoid content in oilseed rape
The nutritional value of rapeseed oil is significantly improved by breeding new cultivars with high seed carotenoid content, successful development of an efficient method for the quantification of carotenoids in oilseed rape is a prerequisite for this breeding initiative, a rapid, accurate, simple and low cost protocol was successfully developed by using ultrasound-assisted extraction.
CP16396Better management of intensive rotational grazing systems maintains pastures and improves animal performance
This paper examines how the management of intensive rotational grazing systems influences pasture composition, diet quality and livestock performance. There was substantial opportunity to enhance the production of intensive rotational grazing systems through fast rotations at a high stocking rate. Intensive rotational grazing can be managed flexibly to improve animal performance by using green herbage allowance, with higher allowances needed as feed quality declines.
CP16468The role of FLOWERING LOCUS C in vernalization of Brassica: the importance of vernalization research in the face of climate change
This review summarises the literature to date regarding vernalization research in Brassicaceae, providing both a historical context and current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. We cover the evolutionary conserved biology between the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica genus crops and contrast the differences between the genera to show the importance of Brassica-specific research into vernalization.
CP16405An initial investigation of forage production and feed quality of perennial wheat derivatives
A redesign of agricultural production away from annual grain crops to a system that utilizes perennial grain crops, offers an opportunity to improve sustainable grain production and food security into the future. An important component in this redesign will be the profitable integration of livestock into the system through grazing. This study demonstrates that early generation perennial grain crops can be used as successful dual purpose crops and deployment of commercial cultivars may soon be at hand.
CP16395Enhancing composition and persistence of mixed pasture swards in southern New South Wales through alternative spatial configurations and improved legume performance
The study examined whether the productivity and persistence of mixed pastures were improved if species were spatially separated rather than being sown together in each drill row. Results of the present study were highly site-specific, or season-dependent, but subterranean clover regeneration was consistently improved where it was spatially separated from lucerne. There were fewer consistent benefits of alternative spatial configurations on swards containing phalaris with subterranean clover or with lucerne.
CP16411Changes in allele frequencies of avirulence genes in the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, over two decades in Australia
Avirulence allele frequencies change in response to selection pressure from sowing of cultivars with the corresponding major gene resistance. Analysis of 2091 isolates collected over the past 20 years shows how allele frequencies have changed in Australia in response to cultivar use and which major resistance genes are at risk of being overcome in the field.
Six grazing-management treatments were applied for 3 years to a tall fescue–white clover pasture in northern Victoria.A grazing regime based up the 3-leaf stage resulted in 30% higher dry matter removal, higher tall fescue content and greater plant persistence compared to the most frequently grazed treatments.The practicality of this approach to grazing tall fescue needs to be tested at the whole-farm level.
CP16404Changes in farming practices impact on spore release patterns of the blackleg pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans
Changes in farming practices such as inter-row sowing, has impacts on stubble retention such that some stubble remains standing at the start of the following season. Spore release patterns for the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, are delayed as well as reduced in standing stubble compared to laying down stubble. These changes in spore release patterns has the potential to impact of disease epidemiology.
CP16445Host–pathogen interactions in relation to management of light leaf spot disease (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on Brassica species
Light leaf spot (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) is an increasingly damaging disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and vegetable brassicas. This paper reviews the disease epidemiology, pathogen population structure and host range, and disease management strategies. Use of new genomic information to improve understanding of the molecular interactions between B. napus and P. brassicae and of the pathogen population structure is discussed.
CP16383Use of sensor-determined behaviours to develop algorithms for pasture intake by individual grazing cattle
Practical and reliable measurement of individual pasture intake will improve precision in livestock and pasture management, provide input data for prediction and simulation models, and allow animals to be ranked on grazing efficiency for genetic improvement. We used sensors to determine pasture intake of individual grazing cattle. Grazing behaviour classified using data from collar-mounted sensors, and benchmark pasture-intake data, allowed establishment of initial pasture-intake algorithms for use with sensors.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Crop yield responses to surface and subsoil applications of poultry litter and inorganic fertiliser in south eastern Australia
Seed germination response of a noxious agricultural weed Echium plantagineum to temperature and light, pH, drought stress, salinity, heat and smoke
ASSESSING THE ROLE OF GENETICS FOR IMPROVING THE POTENTIAL YIELD OF AUSTRALIA’S MAJOR GRAIN CROPS ON ACID SOILS
A cytological and molecular analysis of D-genome chromosome retention in the F2 to F6 generation of hexaploid/tetraploid wheat crosses
Identification of DNA methylated regions using Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing in Brassica rapa L.
Mapping quantitative trait loci for cold tolerance at the booting stage in rice using chromosome segment substitution lines
Molecular and Phenotypic Diversity among Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes as a function of drought tolerance
Sodium-silicate and calcium-silicate differentially affect silicon and aluminium uptake, antioxidant performance and phenolics metabolism of ryegrass in an acid Andisol
Combining ability and heterosis analysis for mineral elements using CMS systems in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.)
Assessment of crop management strategies to improve soybean resilience to climate change in Southern Brazil
Intrinsic capacity for nutrient foraging predicts critical external phosphorus requirement of 12 pasture legumes
No longer a west-side story – pesticide resistance discovered in the eastern range of a major Australian crop pest, Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae)
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