Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science is a highly cited and prestigious journal publishing original research on advances in plant sciences, sustainable farming systems, and food quality. Read more about the journalMore

Editors-in-Chief: Sergio Atienza and Zed Rengel

Current Issue

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 6 2017

Winter wheat genotypes can synergise with early establishment to deliver large increases in yield in southern Australia. The role that winter wheats have historically played in southern farming systems is reviewed, and opportunities for future synergies with management identified.

CP17135In-field methods for rapid detection of frost damage in Australian dryland wheat during the reproductive and grain-filling phase

Eileen M. Perry, James G. Nuttall, Ashley J. Wallace and Glenn J. Fitzgerald
pp. 516-526

Frost damage causes significant economic losses to Australian dryland wheat. This research looks at remote sensing technologies including hyperspectral reflectance and active light fluorescence for detecting frost damage to wheat. Results indicate that non-destructive measurements may support detection and mapping of frost damage, allowing farmers to reduce losses through better tactical management around cutting the crop for hay.

CP17176Novel bacterial seed treatment protects wheat seedlings from insect damage

Sarah Mansfield, Richard J. Chynoweth, Mark R. H. Hurst, Alasdair Noble, Sue M. Zydenbos and Maureen O'Callaghan
pp. 527-533

Microbial insecticides are a biological alternative for chemical seed treatments to target root feeding insects such as New Zealand grass grub. Treatment with Serratia entomophila gave similar yield increases to organophosphate and neonicotinoid treatments of wheat seeds for two out of six trials. Seed treatment with S. entomophila is an alternative method for grass grub control, however development of a commercial product requires effective scale-up of the production process.

A full diallel analysis of four wheat genotypes revealed variable responses of the studied traits when the parents and their hybrids are subjected to post-anthesis water stress. Combining ability analysis indicated that both additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in governing the inheritance of the studied traits, with predominance of non-additive gene action for most of the traits. Specificity of some parental genotypes as female parents in cross combination was also discovered.

CP17022Free radical scavenging activities can mitigate the effect of water stress in chickpea

Davinder Kaur, Satvir Kaur Grewal, Jagmeet Kaur and Sarvjeet Singh
pp. 544-554

Drought tolerance mechanism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) needs to be better understood as terminal drought severely restricts its productivity. The influence of water deficit stress on antioxidative capacity due to scavenging of free radicals and the ability to maintain reduced cell state was investigated in two chickpea cultivars differing in rooting behaviour. ICC4958 (deep rooted) possessed better ability to combat water deficit induced oxidative stress relative to ILC3279 (shallow rooted). The results can improve our understanding about the role of antioxidative defense system in providing water stress tolerance in chickpea.

Phytophthora root rot is one of the most important soybean diseases and planting the resistance cultivars is the most effective method to control this disease. In this study, a detached-petiole inoculation method were established for identifying soybean resistance to P. sojae and this new inoculation technique is effective, reliable, non-destructive to the plant. It could be used for the largescale screening of soybean cultivars and segregant populations.

CP17032Effects of pasture base and species mix complexity on persistence and weed ingress in summer-dry dairy pastures

K. N. Tozer, E. M. K. Minnee, R. M. Greenfield and C. A. Cameron
pp. 561-573

We tested the hypotheses­ that sowing a more drought tolerant pasture base, or increasing the diversity of the sown mix, could increase pasture persistence. Persistence, quantified by changes over time in basal and canopy cover of sown species, was greater in tall fescue- than perennial ryegrass-based swards and greater in the 4- and 8-species than in the 2-species mix, although weed ingress was similar in all pasture mixes. The effects of changing the pasture base and diversity on persistence were similar, indicating that both options could be used to improve pasture persistence

CP17137Growth during recovery evidences the waterlogging tolerance of forage grasses

R. A. Ploschuk, A. A. Grimoldi, E. L. Ploschuk and G. G. Striker
pp. 574-582

Waterlogging is an important stress for pastures. Morpho-physiological and growth responses to 15-day waterlogging and 15-day recovery-period were evaluated on four grasses with alleged differential tolerance. Tolerance was apparent in Phalaris aquatica and Festuca arundinacea along both periods, while impact of waterlogging on growth reduction in the sensitive Dactilys glomerata and Bromus catharticus was only evident during recovery. It is essential to examine plant recovery in order to be conclusive about waterlogging tolerance.

CP17183Environmental factors affect seed germination and seedling emergence of invasive Centaurea balsamita

Iraj Nosratti, Samira Soltanabadi, Saeid J. Honarmand and Bhagirath S. Chauhan
pp. 583-589

Centaurea balsamita is a problematic and invasive weed of agricultural fields in western Iran. Therefore, in this study the e?ect of different environmental factors on its seed germination and seedling emergence was examined. Results showed that C. balsamita has the potential to invade more areas and that this information would be beneficial in developing methods for its control.

Online Early

The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue

Published online 17 July 2017

CP17087Improved grain yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under water deficit after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Rhizophagus irregularis

Rui S. Oliveira, Patrícia Carvalho, Guilhermina Marques, Luís Ferreira, Sandra Pereira, Mafalda Nunes, Inês Rocha, Ying Ma, Maria F. Carvalho, Miroslav Vosátka and Helena Freitas

Cowpea is broadly cultivated in drought-prone areas and there is a need to address the water scarcity issue in agriculture. We assessed the effects of inoculation with a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on plant performance and yield under water-deficit. Under moderate and severe water deficit, grain yield was increased in inoculated plants. The use of inoculated cowpea has great potential for sustainable agricultural production under drought conditions.

Lucerne cover crop for winter wheat was studied as an alternative and sustainable weed-control strategy. Conventional and reduced tillage conditions, as well as presence or absence of cover crop were compared in terms of soil coverage and biomass of wheat, lucerne and weeds. Weed communities composition and functional group analysis were performed. To minimise cash-crop losses, the effect of several herbicide strategies controlling the cover crop under reduced tillage conditions were also tested.

Published online 05 July 2017

CP17070Winter cover crops as green manure in a temperate region: the effect on nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize

B. Ćupina, S. Vujić, Dj. Krstić, Z. Radanović, R. Čabilovski, M. Manojlović and D. Latković

The study evaluated the effect of cover crops-legume, cereal, their mixture used as green manure, two doses of N fertilisation, and an unfertilised fallow as a control on the soil nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize (Zea mays L.). The highest value of apparent N remaining in the soil was in the mixture while the N fertilisation treatments and the control had significantly lower average values of residual N.

Published online 05 July 2017

CP17012Heat stress in grain legumes during reproductive and grain-filling phases

Muhammad Farooq, Faisal Nadeem, Nirmali Gogoi, Aman Ullah, Salem S. Alghamdi, Harsh Nayyar and Kadambot H. M. Siddique

Heat stress, during reproductive phase, is a major threat to productivity of grain legumes. This review describes the impact of heat stress on photo-assimilation, grain quality and development processes, and proposes innovative strategies to improve heat tolerance in grain legumes.

Published online 04 July 2017

CP16396Better management of intensive rotational grazing systems maintains pastures and improves animal performance

W. Badgery, G. Millar, K. Broadfoot, J. Martin, D. Pottie, A. Simmons and P. Cranney

This paper examines how the management of intensive rotational grazing systems influences pasture composition, diet quality and livestock performance. There was substantial opportunity to enhance the production of intensive rotational grazing systems through fast rotations at a high stocking rate. Intensive rotational grazing can be managed flexibly to improve animal performance by using green herbage allowance, with higher allowances needed as feed quality declines.

Published online 19 June 2017

CP16468The role of FLOWERING LOCUS C in vernalization of Brassica: the importance of vernalization research in the face of climate change

Daniel J. Shea, Etsuko Itabashi, Satoko Takada, Eigo Fukai, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Ryo Fujimoto and Keiichi Okazaki

This review summarises the literature to date regarding vernalization research in Brassicaceae, providing both a historical context and current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. We cover the evolutionary conserved biology between the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica genus crops and contrast the differences between the genera to show the importance of Brassica-specific research into vernalization.

Published online 19 June 2017

CP16405An initial investigation of forage production and feed quality of perennial wheat derivatives

Matthew T. Newell and Richard C. Hayes

A redesign of agricultural production away from annual grain crops to a system that utilizes perennial grain crops, offers an opportunity to improve sustainable grain production and food security into the future. An important component in this redesign will be the profitable integration of livestock into the system through grazing. This study demonstrates that early generation perennial grain crops can be used as successful dual purpose crops and deployment of commercial cultivars may soon be at hand.

Published online 13 June 2017

CP17067In vitro-assisted single-seed descent for breeding-cycle compression in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)

Maria Pazos-Navarro, Marieclaire Castello, Richard G. Bennett, Phillip Nichols and Janine Croser

Subterranean clover is grown on over 29 Mha in southern Australia but its annual rate of genetic improvement is constrained by a long lifecycle. We present an in vitro-assisted single-seed descent system (IVASSD) to enable the turnover of up to 6.1 generations per year. To demonstrate the applicability of the system within a plant-breeding program, we have validated the IVASSD technique on a segregating breeding population, resulting in the turnover of three generations in less than one year.

On a set of 46 lucerne genotypes, a positive correlation between the performance of genotypes in monoculture and in mixture was obtained. However, significant changes in genotype ranking indicated that the species of its neighbours could modify the relative performance of a genotype. Traits measured on the same genotypes grown in isolated plants explained competition intensity depending on the neighbour species.

Powdery mildew is a devastating disease of many legume species, including common bean. In this work, we assessed the responses of 108 dry and snap bean accessions to PM, and characterized the genetic control of the resistance in three bean genotypes. This work provides new PM-resistance sources and markers linked to resistance genes, which will be very useful in common bean breeding programs focused on protecting bean crops against this disease.

Published online 02 June 2017

CP17002Changes in yield and agronomic traits of soybean cultivars released in China in the last 60 years

Xiaoliang Qin, Fan Feng, Dexiao Li, Stephen J. Herbert, Yuncheng Liao and Kadambot H. M. Siddique

Planting density decreased significantly in the Yellow-Huai-Hai summer and South soybean regions but did not significantly change in the North spring soybean region. The increased soybean yields were mainly due to increased 100-seed weight and seed number per plant. Seed protein content has not significantly changed in 60 years, but oil content has increased in all three regions.

Published online 17 May 2017

CP16395Enhancing composition and persistence of mixed pasture swards in southern New South Wales through alternative spatial configurations and improved legume performance

Richard C. Hayes, Guangdi D. Li, Graeme A. Sandral, Tony D. Swan, Andrew Price, Shane Hildebrand, Laura Goward, Chris Fuller and Mark B. Peoples

The study examined whether the productivity and persistence of mixed pastures were improved if species were spatially separated rather than being sown together in each drill row. Results of the present study were highly site-specific, or season-dependent, but subterranean clover regeneration was consistently improved where it was spatially separated from lucerne. There were fewer consistent benefits of alternative spatial configurations on swards containing phalaris with subterranean clover or with lucerne.

Published online 17 May 2017

CP16411Changes in allele frequencies of avirulence genes in the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, over two decades in Australia

Angela P. Van de Wouw, Barbara J. Howlett and Alexander Idnurm

Avirulence allele frequencies change in response to selection pressure from sowing of cultivars with the corresponding major gene resistance. Analysis of 2091 isolates collected over the past 20 years shows how allele frequencies have changed in Australia in response to cultivar use and which major resistance genes are at risk of being overcome in the field.

Published online 15 May 2017

CP16422Assessing and overcoming genetic trade-offs in breeding grazing-tolerant lucerne

L. Pecetti and P. Annicchiarico

Cold-season dormancy and prostrate habit may challenge the selection of grazing-tolerant lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for mild-winter environments. The genetic variation and genetically based trade-offs for key traits (grazing tolerance, dormancy, plant morphology) and their implications for selection were assessed in different genetic backgrounds. The selection for grazing-tolerant germplasm can rely on large genetic variation, but it requires extensive genotype evaluation to produce material with acceptable dormancy and growth habit.

Published online 06 May 2017

CP16375Grazing management of dairy pastures based on tall fescue in southern Australia

A. R. Lawson, K. B. Kelly and M. E. Rogers

Six grazing-management treatments were applied for 3 years to a tall fescue–white clover pasture in northern Victoria.A grazing regime based up the 3-leaf stage resulted in 30% higher dry matter removal, higher tall fescue content and greater plant persistence compared to the most frequently grazed treatments.The practicality of this approach to grazing tall fescue needs to be tested at the whole-farm level.

Published online 26 April 2017

CP16404Changes in farming practices impact on spore release patterns of the blackleg pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans

J. McCredden, R. B. Cowley, S. J. Marcroft and A. P. Van de Wouw

Changes in farming practices such as inter-row sowing, has impacts on stubble retention such that some stubble remains standing at the start of the following season. Spore release patterns for the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, are delayed as well as reduced in standing stubble compared to laying down stubble. These changes in spore release patterns has the potential to impact of disease epidemiology.

Published online 26 April 2017

CP16445Host–pathogen interactions in relation to management of light leaf spot disease (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on Brassica species

Chinthani S. Karandeni Dewage, Coretta A. Klöppel, Henrik U. Stotz and Bruce D. L. Fitt

Light leaf spot (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) is an increasingly damaging disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and vegetable brassicas. This paper reviews the disease epidemiology, pathogen population structure and host range, and disease management strategies. Use of new genomic information to improve understanding of the molecular interactions between B. napus and P. brassicae and of the pathogen population structure is discussed.

Published online 13 April 2017

CP16383Use of sensor-determined behaviours to develop algorithms for pasture intake by individual grazing cattle

P. L. Greenwood, D. R. Paull, J. McNally, T. Kalinowski, D. Ebert, B. Little, D. V. Smith, A. Rahman, P. Valencia, A. B. Ingham and G. J. Bishop-Hurley

Practical and reliable measurement of individual pasture intake will improve precision in livestock and pasture management, provide input data for prediction and simulation models, and allow animals to be ranked on grazing efficiency for genetic improvement. We used sensors to determine pasture intake of individual grazing cattle. Grazing behaviour classified using data from collar-mounted sensors, and benchmark pasture-intake data, allowed establishment of initial pasture-intake algorithms for use with sensors.

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