Herbicide-tolerant wheat is needed for effective weed management in broad acre cropping. A number of herbicide-tolerant wheat genotypes have been identified through screening 946 wheat lines. The identified lines can be used for breeding herbicide-tolerant wheat cultivars and for studying the mechanisms of herbicide tolerance in wheat and other crops.
Crop and Pasture Science
Volume 68 Number 5 2017
CP17113Cloning and functional analysis of a novel x-type high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit with altered cysteine residues from Aegilops umbellulata
A novel HMW-GS named 1Ux3.5 was characterized from wheat relative species Aegilops umbellulata, which improved the dough quality in vitro analysis. 1Ux3.5 is an valuable candidate gene for wheat quality improvement.
CP17061Root uptake and xylem transport of cadmium in wheat and triticale as affected by exogenous amino acids
The effects of histidine and glycine on root uptake and xylem sap transport of Cd in triticale and bread wheat was investigated. Histidine resulted in higher shoot Cd accumulations while glycine had no effects on shoot Cd content of wheat but decreased it in triticale shoots. Effects of amino acids on plant root uptake and xylem sap translocation of Cd depend on the type of amino acid supplemented.
CP16228Potential option for mitigating methane emission from tropical paddy rice through selection of suitable rice varieties
Physiological and anatomical characteristics of rice plants associated with CH4 emission were studied in high-yielding rice varieties of tropical India. The rice varieties, Kolong, Lachit and Dikhow were identified as low CH4 emitting varieties having smaller xylem vessels. Selection of suitable rice varieties with higher grain yield and lower CH4 emission is a viable option for reduction of this greenhouse gas from rice agriculture.
CP16435Transcriptional expression of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase genes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) on rice-leaf extract treatment and crystal structure of Xoo glutamyl-tRNA synthetase
Early responses of plant pathogens upon interaction with plants are important in development of diseases or hypersensitive responses. Expressions of aminoacyl tRNA genes in rice-leaf extract treated Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacterial blight, were studied and the crystal structure of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase from Xoo was determined. The structure provides useful information for development of pesticides against bacterial blight.
CP16416Understanding growth and development of three short-season grain legumes for improved adaptation in semi-arid Eastern Kenya
Two field experiments (water response and density trial) were conducted in semi-arid Eastern Kenya to estimate the production potential of promising short-season grain legumes (common bean, cowpea and lablab) in resource-constraint environments. The studied legumes showed pronounced temporal and spatial differences in growth, development and resource-use efficiency. This can be exploited to design strategies to cope with short growing periods and restricted water availability in the view of climate change for improved adaptation in the small-scale farming systems of semi-arid areas.
CP17105Proteomic prospects for tolerance of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) to drought stress during the flowering stage
Drought stress is a major challenge to agricultural productivity worldwide. The recently developed proteomics technique was used to uncover the molecular basis of drought tolerance in sunflower. The results can serve to provide putative biomarkers for efficient screening of sunflower genotypes and improve sunflower productivity under drought conditions.
This paper reports on an experiment that investigated a noval approach whereby cotton defoliation is delayed at a wet harvest in an attempt to reduce the soil compaction risk imposed by harvesting equipment. The work highlights a number of significant findings pertaining to the management soil compaction leading up to harvest as well as the effects of small changes in soil moisture to compaction risk.
CP16187Combined foliar application of nutrients and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) improved drought tolerance in Leymus chinensis by modulating its morpho-physiological characteristics
Drought stress disrupted Leymus chinensis plant growth, and photosynthetic pigments; while, increasing MDA and osmolytes. Nonetheless, foliar-applied NPK and ALA improved growth, chlorophyll content; further improving the osmolytes, stimulating antioxidant enzyme activities, and reducing MDA content under different water stress regimes. In summary, combined application of NPK and ALA was found effective to improve drought tolerance and may have significant practical applications for L. chinensis.
CP16197Sustainable use of salt-degraded and abandoned farms for forage production using halophytic grasses
Salt-tolerant grasses are valuable resources for forage production when conventional crops become uneconomic owing to increased salinity of irrigation water. We evaluated the productivity of four halophytic grasses established on three salt-affected study farms. The results confirmed that the grasses offer practical alternatives for sustainable forage production, and the methodology adopted in the study could serve as a model for productive use of salt-degraded and abandoned farms.
Interest in tropical perennial grasses in southern Australia is increasing but there is limited knowledge of the temperature requirements for successful establishment. The optimum temperature range for seed emergence of seven tropical grasses commonly sown in the frost-prone, summer-dominant rainfall region of inland northern New South Wales was determined in a growth cabinet study. The results could help guide sowing time recommendations and understand competitiveness of tropical grasses in mixes.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
CP16468The role of FLOWERING LOCUS C in vernalization of Brassica: the importance of vernalization research in the face of climate change
This review summarises the literature to date regarding vernalization research in Brassicaceae, providing both a historical context and current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. We cover the evolutionary conserved biology between the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica genus crops and contrast the differences between the genera to show the importance of Brassica-specific research into vernalization.
CP16405An initial investigation of forage production and feed quality of perennial wheat derivatives
A redesign of agricultural production away from annual grain crops to a system that utilizes perennial grain crops, offers an opportunity to improve sustainable grain production and food security into the future. An important component in this redesign will be the profitable integration of livestock into the system through grazing. This study demonstrates that early generation perennial grain crops can be used as successful dual purpose crops and deployment of commercial cultivars may soon be at hand.
CP17067In vitro-assisted single-seed descent for breeding-cycle compression in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)
Subterranean clover is grown on over 29 Mha in southern Australia but its annual rate of genetic improvement is constrained by a long lifecycle. We present an in vitro-assisted single-seed descent system (IVASSD) to enable the turnover of up to 6.1 generations per year. To demonstrate the applicability of the system within a plant-breeding program, we have validated the IVASSD technique on a segregating breeding population, resulting in the turnover of three generations in less than one year.
CP17052Performance of lucerne genotypes for biomass production and nitrogen content differs in monoculture and in mixture with grasses and is partly predicted from traits recorded on isolated plants
On a set of 46 lucerne genotypes, a positive correlation between the performance of genotypes in monoculture and in mixture was obtained. However, significant changes in genotype ranking indicated that the species of its neighbours could modify the relative performance of a genotype. Traits measured on the same genotypes grown in isolated plants explained competition intensity depending on the neighbour species.
CP16460Identification of new resistance sources to powdery mildew, and the genetic characterisation of resistance in three common bean genotypes
Powdery mildew is a devastating disease of many legume species, including common bean. In this work, we assessed the responses of 108 dry and snap bean accessions to PM, and characterized the genetic control of the resistance in three bean genotypes. This work provides new PM-resistance sources and markers linked to resistance genes, which will be very useful in common bean breeding programs focused on protecting bean crops against this disease.
CP17002Changes in yield and agronomic traits of soybean cultivars released in China in the last 60 years
Planting density decreased significantly in the Yellow-Huai-Hai summer and South soybean regions but did not significantly change in the North spring soybean region. The increased soybean yields were mainly due to increased 100-seed weight and seed number per plant. Seed protein content has not significantly changed in 60 years, but oil content has increased in all three regions.
CP16395Enhancing composition and persistence of mixed pasture swards in southern New South Wales through alternative spatial configurations and improved legume performance
The study examined whether the productivity and persistence of mixed pastures were improved if species were spatially separated rather than being sown together in each drill row. Results of the present study were highly site-specific, or season-dependent, but subterranean clover regeneration was consistently improved where it was spatially separated from lucerne. There were fewer consistent benefits of alternative spatial configurations on swards containing phalaris with subterranean clover or with lucerne.
CP16411Changes in allele frequencies of avirulence genes in the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, over two decades in Australia
Avirulence allele frequencies change in response to selection pressure from sowing of cultivars with the corresponding major gene resistance. Analysis of 2091 isolates collected over the past 20 years shows how allele frequencies have changed in Australia in response to cultivar use and which major resistance genes are at risk of being overcome in the field.
Cold-season dormancy and prostrate habit may challenge the selection of grazing-tolerant lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for mild-winter environments. The genetic variation and genetically based trade-offs for key traits (grazing tolerance, dormancy, plant morphology) and their implications for selection were assessed in different genetic backgrounds. The selection for grazing-tolerant germplasm can rely on large genetic variation, but it requires extensive genotype evaluation to produce material with acceptable dormancy and growth habit.
Six grazing-management treatments were applied for 3 years to a tall fescue–white clover pasture in northern Victoria.A grazing regime based up the 3-leaf stage resulted in 30% higher dry matter removal, higher tall fescue content and greater plant persistence compared to the most frequently grazed treatments.The practicality of this approach to grazing tall fescue needs to be tested at the whole-farm level.
CP16404Changes in farming practices impact on spore release patterns of the blackleg pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans
Changes in farming practices such as inter-row sowing, has impacts on stubble retention such that some stubble remains standing at the start of the following season. Spore release patterns for the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, are delayed as well as reduced in standing stubble compared to laying down stubble. These changes in spore release patterns has the potential to impact of disease epidemiology.
CP16445Host–pathogen interactions in relation to management of light leaf spot disease (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on Brassica species
Light leaf spot (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) is an increasingly damaging disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and vegetable brassicas. This paper reviews the disease epidemiology, pathogen population structure and host range, and disease management strategies. Use of new genomic information to improve understanding of the molecular interactions between B. napus and P. brassicae and of the pathogen population structure is discussed.
CP16383Use of sensor-determined behaviours to develop algorithms for pasture intake by individual grazing cattle
Practical and reliable measurement of individual pasture intake will improve precision in livestock and pasture management, provide input data for prediction and simulation models, and allow animals to be ranked on grazing efficiency for genetic improvement. We used sensors to determine pasture intake of individual grazing cattle. Grazing behaviour classified using data from collar-mounted sensors, and benchmark pasture-intake data, allowed establishment of initial pasture-intake algorithms for use with sensors.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Genotype by environment interactions in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in the Iberian Peninsula
Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) in Vicia faba
Effects of pasture base and species mix complexity on persistence and weed ingress in summer-dry dairy pastures
In-field Methods for Rapid Detection of Frost Damage in Australian Dryland Wheat During the Reproductive and Grain Filling Phase
Improved grain yield of cowpea under water deficit after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Rhizophagus irregularis
Weed response and crop growth in winter wheat-lucerne intercrop comparing conventional and reduced soil tillage conditions in northern France
Assessment of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain yield, aerial biomass and flowering date stability in Mediterranean environments
Understanding growth and development of three short-season grain legumes for improved adaptation in semi-arid Eastern Kenya
Winter cover crops as green manure in temperate region: The effect on nitrogen budget and yield of silage corn
Better management of intensive rotational grazing systems maintains pastures and improves animal performance
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Phosphorus acquisition by three wheat cultivars contrasting in aluminium tolerance growing in an aluminium-rich volcanic soilCrop and Pasture Science 68 (4)Alex Seguel, Pablo Cornejo, Ariel Ramos, Erik Von Baer, Jonathan Cumming, Fernando Borie
Crop and Pasture Science 68 (4)A. F. Zull, J. Owens, M. Bourgault, B. Johnson, G. Peck, N. Christodoulou
Can management practices provide greenhouse gas abatement in grain farms in New South Wales, Australia?Crop and Pasture Science 68 (4)Jeda Palmer, Peter J. Thorburn, Elizabeth A. Meier, Jody S. Biggs, Brett Whelan, Kanika Singh, David N. Eyre
Crop and Pasture Science 68 (3)F. A. J. Harris, H. A. Eagles, J. M. Virgona, P. J. Martin, J. R. Condon, J. F. Angus
Crop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Brian L. Machovina, Kenneth J. Feeley, Brett J. Machovina
Referencing laser and ultrasonic height measurements of barleycultivars by using a herbometre as standardCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Gero Barmeier, Bodo Mistele, Urs Schmidhalter
Crop area increases drive earlier and dry sowing in Western Australia: implications for farming systemsCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Andrew Fletcher, Roger Lawes, Cameron Weeks
Quality and yield response to the control of Mycosphaerella graminicola in wheat as affected by nitrogen rate and cultivar bread-making characteristicsCrop and Pasture Science 68 (4)María Constanza Fleitas, Ana Carolina Castro, María Rosa Simón
Interactions between water and nitrogen in Australian cropping systems: physiological, agronomic, economic, breeding and modelling perspectivesCrop and Pasture Science 67 (10)V. O. Sadras, P. T. Hayman, D. Rodriguez, M. Monjardino, M. Bielich, M. Unkovich, B. Mudge, E. Wang
Herbage accumulation, plant-part composition and nutritive value on grazed signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) pastures in response to stubble height and rest period based on canopy light interceptionCrop and Pasture Science 68 (1)Carlos G. S. Pedreira, Gustavo J. Braga, Jorge N. Portela
Crop and Pasture Science 68 (2)Lachlan Lake, Victor Sadras
Crop and Pasture Science 67 (11)D. C. Abreu, A. K. Hoshide, E. B. Mallory, E. H. Roche, A. S. Oliveira, R. J. Kersbergen, R. P. Lana, M. A. Fonseca
Crop and Pasture Science 67 (8)Steven Jeffery Crimp, Bangyou Zheng, Nirav Khimashia, David Lyon Gobbett, Scott Chapman, Mark Howden, Neville Nicholls
Prospects to utilise intercrops and crop variety mixtures in mechanised, rain-fed, temperate cropping systemsCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Andrew L. Fletcher, John A. Kirkegaard, Mark B. Peoples, Michael J. Robertson, Jeremy Whish, Antony D. Swan
Crop and Pasture Science 68 (4)Khushwant Singh, Jiban Kumar Kundu
Effects of straw management, inorganic fertiliser, and manure amendment on soil microbial properties, nutrient availability, and root growth in a drip-irrigated cotton fieldCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)X. Z. Pu, G. J. Zhang, P. P. Zhang, Y. J. Liu, W. F. Zhang
Assessment of phenotypic diversity in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] germplasm of Indian origin and identification of trait-specific germplasmCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Jyoti Kumari, Manas K. Bag, S. Pandey, S. K. Jha, S. S. Chauhan, Girish K. Jha, N. K. Gautam, M. Dutta
Organisms with potential to assist in the control of Helicoverpa armigera in Australian cotton production systemsCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Oliver G. G. Knox, Chris M. T. Anderson, Jenna L. Ross, Colin C. R. Tann, Vadakattu V. S. R. Gupta
Expression and heritability of late flowering and other quantitative traits in cultivated×Australian wild mungbean hybridsCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Thuan D. Nguyen, Hang T. T. Vu, L. M. Bielig, R. J. Lawn
In-field film antitranspirant application shows potential yield protection from flowering-stage drought periods in winter canola (Brassica napus)Crop and Pasture Science 68 (3)Michele Faralli, Ivan G. Grove, Martin C. Hare, Peter S. Kettlewell