Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science is a highly cited and prestigious journal publishing original research on advances in plant sciences, sustainable farming systems, and food quality. Read more about the journalMore

Editors-in-Chief: Sergio Atienza and Zed Rengel

Current Issue

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 4 2017

CP16224Phosphorus acquisition by three wheat cultivars contrasting in aluminium tolerance growing in an aluminium-rich volcanic soil

Alex Seguel, Pablo Cornejo, Ariel Ramos, Erik Von Baer, Jonathan Cumming and Fernando Borie
pp. 305-316

Phosphorus (P) deficiency and aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity are major limitations for crop yield in acid soils. The aim of this work was to study Al–P interactions on wheat genotypes of contrasting Al tolerance when grown in a volcanic soil with high Al saturation and low pH. The Al-tolerant genotypes were more effective at P acquisition from soil as well as from P fertiliser added, suggesting that plant traits such as Al tolerance, P efficiency, and AM colonisation potential co-operate in overcoming adverse acid soil conditions.

Two field experiments were conducted with three fungicide treatments, three N fertiliser rates and three cultivars. Fungicide applications and increasing N rates extended green-leaf-area duration. GPC increased in untreated plots mainly without N, whereas GPC, tenacity and dough strength were reduced with applications of triazole–strobilurin fungicide. Quality group of the cultivars influenced some rheological properties and the response of GPC under fungicide applications.

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is one of the most ubiquitous pathogens in cereal crops and grasses that cause significant yield losses in crops, particularly in wheat. The results describe in this article include comparative analysis of WSMV population based on coat protein sequences that occurs in wheat and grass hosts. A significant level of diversity of the virus was found between crop and non-crop grass hosts.

Variables determining growth and grain yield of rice at low-fertile soils are needed to be identified. Higher- seed weight and seed P content guarantee better crop establishment. Capacity to produce large root systems, higher P and K uptake rates, and longer crop duration are the determinants of higher grain yield.

Variation of stem-breaking strength depended on genotypes, internode position, developmental stages and crop density in foxtail millet. A linear correlation of the third to fifth basal internodes was observed across different developmental stages and crop densities. The measurement of stem-breaking strength of the fourth or fifth basal internode determined at the late grain-filling stage can differentiate the genotypes of this cereal crop.

CP16462Dissection of the genetic architecture for soybean seed weight across multiple environments

Weili Teng, Lei Feng, Wen Li, Depeng Wu, Xue Zhao, Yingpeng Han and Wenbin Li
pp. 358-365

Nine QTLs associated with soybean seed weight were identified through a RIL population derived from a cross between parents with large phenotypic difference across nine environments. These QTLs had additive and/or additive × environment interaction effects, which could explain 1.07–18.43% of the phenotypic variation in the different environments. Nine epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in different environments. These QTLs and their genetic information were valuable for marker-assisted breeding.

CP16426An improved CROPR model for estimating cotton yield under soil aeration stress

Long Qian, Xiu-Gui Wang, Wen-Bing Luo, Zhi-Ming Qi, Huai-Wei Sun and Yun-Ying Luo
pp. 366-377

Soil aeration stress, usually induced by rainstorm or over-irrigation, poses a threat to crop production, and it is crucial to estimate accurately the yield loss it causes. This study aimed to improve and apply a crop model that includes crop response mechanisms under aeration stress, and the model was demonstrated to be reliable. This work offers a theoretical and practical tool for estimating yield loss and managing the field water table during flooding control.

CP16193Mixed farming diversification may be costly: southern Queensland case study

A. F. Zull, J. Owens, M. Bourgault, B. Johnson, G. Peck and N. Christodoulou
pp. 378-389

Mixed farming may reduce risk, but the right scales of livestock and cropping enterprises is critical. We investigated expected farm profits, probability of breaking even, as-well-as the worst and best case scenarios using farm data and APSIM to simulate a typical, semi-arid, mixed-farm in southern Queensland. We found that too little cropping area decreased profits and increased risk due to higher overheads than more intensive cropping or livestock only enterprises.

CP17026Can management practices provide greenhouse gas abatement in grain farms in New South Wales, Australia?

Jeda Palmer, Peter J. Thorburn, Elizabeth A. Meier, Jody S. Biggs, Brett Whelan, Kanika Singh and David N. Eyre
pp. 390-400

Identifying strategies with the potential to abate greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural grains industry is important given the risks that global warming poses. Abatement can be achieved by changing land management practices. We found that management practices that sequester carbon can provide abatement in dryland farms in New South Wales, while practices that reduce nitrous oxide emissions can provide abatement in irrigated farms.

Online Early

The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue

Published online 29 May 2017

CP16197Sustainable use of salt-degraded and abandoned farms for forage production using halophytic grasses

Nanduri Kameswara Rao, Ian McCann, Shabbir Ahmad Shahid, Khalil Ur Rahman Butt, Basel Al Araj and Shoaib Ismail

Salt-tolerant grasses are valuable resources for forage production when conventional crops become uneconomic owing to increased salinity of irrigation water. We evaluated the productivity of four halophytic grasses established on three salt-affected study farms. The results confirmed that the grasses offer practical alternatives for sustainable forage production, and the methodology adopted in the study could serve as a model for productive use of salt-degraded and abandoned farms.

A novel HMW-GS named 1Ux3.5 was characterized from wheat relative species Aegilops umbellulata, which improved the dough quality in vitro analysis. 1Ux3.5 is an valuable candidate gene for wheat quality improvement.

Published online 19 May 2017

CP17017Identification of new metribuzin-tolerant wheat (Triticum spp.) genotypes

Roopali N. Bhoite, Ping Si, Katia T. Stefanova, Kadambot H. M. Siddique and Guijun Yan

Herbicide-tolerant wheat is needed for effective weed management in broad acre cropping. A number of herbicide-tolerant wheat genotypes have been identified through screening 946 wheat lines. The identified lines can be used for breeding herbicide-tolerant wheat cultivars and for studying the mechanisms of herbicide tolerance in wheat and other crops.

Published online 17 May 2017

CP16395Enhancing composition and persistence of mixed pasture swards in southern New South Wales through alternative spatial configurations and improved legume performance

Richard C. Hayes, Guangdi D. Li, Graeme A. Sandral, Tony D. Swan, Andrew Price, Shane Hildebrand, Laura Goward, Chris Fuller and Mark B. Peoples

The study examined whether the productivity and persistence of mixed pastures were improved if species were spatially separated rather than being sown together in each drill row. Results of the present study were highly site-specific, or season-dependent, but subterranean clover regeneration was consistently improved where it was spatially separated from lucerne. There were fewer consistent benefits of alternative spatial configurations on swards containing phalaris with subterranean clover or with lucerne.

Published online 17 May 2017

CP16411Changes in allele frequencies of avirulence genes in the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, over two decades in Australia

Angela P. Van de Wouw, Barbara J. Howlett and Alexander Idnurm

Avirulence allele frequencies change in response to selection pressure from sowing of cultivars with the corresponding major gene resistance. Analysis of 2091 isolates collected over the past 20 years shows how allele frequencies have changed in Australia in response to cultivar use and which major resistance genes are at risk of being overcome in the field.

Published online 15 May 2017

CP16422Assessing and overcoming genetic trade-offs in breeding grazing-tolerant lucerne

L. Pecetti and P. Annicchiarico

Cold-season dormancy and prostrate habit may challenge the selection of grazing-tolerant lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for mild-winter environments. The genetic variation and genetically based trade-offs for key traits (grazing tolerance, dormancy, plant morphology) and their implications for selection were assessed in different genetic backgrounds. The selection for grazing-tolerant germplasm can rely on large genetic variation, but it requires extensive genotype evaluation to produce material with acceptable dormancy and growth habit.

Published online 06 May 2017

CP16375Grazing management of dairy pastures based on tall fescue in southern Australia

A. R. Lawson, K. B. Kelly and M. E. Rogers

Six grazing-management treatments were applied for 3 years to a tall fescue–white clover pasture in northern Victoria.A grazing regime based up the 3-leaf stage resulted in 30% higher dry matter removal, higher tall fescue content and greater plant persistence compared to the most frequently grazed treatments.The practicality of this approach to grazing tall fescue needs to be tested at the whole-farm level.

Published online 26 April 2017

CP16404Changes in farming practices impact on spore release patterns of the blackleg pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans

J. McCredden, R. B. Cowley, S. J. Marcroft and A. P. Van de Wouw

Changes in farming practices such as inter-row sowing, has impacts on stubble retention such that some stubble remains standing at the start of the following season. Spore release patterns for the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, are delayed as well as reduced in standing stubble compared to laying down stubble. These changes in spore release patterns has the potential to impact of disease epidemiology.

Published online 26 April 2017

CP16445Host–pathogen interactions in relation to management of light leaf spot disease (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on Brassica species

Chinthani S. Karandeni Dewage, Coretta A. Klöppel, Henrik U. Stotz and Bruce D. L. Fitt

Light leaf spot (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) is an increasingly damaging disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and vegetable brassicas. This paper reviews the disease epidemiology, pathogen population structure and host range, and disease management strategies. Use of new genomic information to improve understanding of the molecular interactions between B. napus and P. brassicae and of the pathogen population structure is discussed.

Published online 13 April 2017

CP16383Use of sensor-determined behaviours to develop algorithms for pasture intake by individual grazing cattle

P. L. Greenwood, D. R. Paull, J. McNally, T. Kalinowski, D. Ebert, B. Little, D. V. Smith, A. Rahman, P. Valencia, A. B. Ingham and G. J. Bishop-Hurley

Practical and reliable measurement of individual pasture intake will improve precision in livestock and pasture management, provide input data for prediction and simulation models, and allow animals to be ranked on grazing efficiency for genetic improvement. We used sensors to determine pasture intake of individual grazing cattle. Grazing behaviour classified using data from collar-mounted sensors, and benchmark pasture-intake data, allowed establishment of initial pasture-intake algorithms for use with sensors.

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