Winter wheat genotypes can synergise with early establishment to deliver large increases in yield in southern Australia. The role that winter wheats have historically played in southern farming systems is reviewed, and opportunities for future synergies with management identified.
Crop and Pasture Science
Volume 68 Number 6 2017
CP17135In-field methods for rapid detection of frost damage in Australian dryland wheat during the reproductive and grain-filling phase
Frost damage causes significant economic losses to Australian dryland wheat. This research looks at remote sensing technologies including hyperspectral reflectance and active light fluorescence for detecting frost damage to wheat. Results indicate that non-destructive measurements may support detection and mapping of frost damage, allowing farmers to reduce losses through better tactical management around cutting the crop for hay.
Microbial insecticides are a biological alternative for chemical seed treatments to target root feeding insects such as New Zealand grass grub. Treatment with Serratia entomophila gave similar yield increases to organophosphate and neonicotinoid treatments of wheat seeds for two out of six trials. Seed treatment with S. entomophila is an alternative method for grass grub control, however development of a commercial product requires effective scale-up of the production process.
CP17112Response of wheat to post-anthesis water stress, and the nature of gene action as revealed by combining ability analysis
A full diallel analysis of four wheat genotypes revealed variable responses of the studied traits when the parents and their hybrids are subjected to post-anthesis water stress. Combining ability analysis indicated that both additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in governing the inheritance of the studied traits, with predominance of non-additive gene action for most of the traits. Specificity of some parental genotypes as female parents in cross combination was also discovered.
Drought tolerance mechanism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) needs to be better understood as terminal drought severely restricts its productivity. The influence of water deficit stress on antioxidative capacity due to scavenging of free radicals and the ability to maintain reduced cell state was investigated in two chickpea cultivars differing in rooting behaviour. ICC4958 (deep rooted) possessed better ability to combat water deficit induced oxidative stress relative to ILC3279 (shallow rooted). The results can improve our understanding about the role of antioxidative defense system in providing water stress tolerance in chickpea.
CP17158Detached-petiole inoculation method to evaluate Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean plants
Phytophthora root rot is one of the most important soybean diseases and planting the resistance cultivars is the most effective method to control this disease. In this study, a detached-petiole inoculation method were established for identifying soybean resistance to P. sojae and this new inoculation technique is effective, reliable, non-destructive to the plant. It could be used for the largescale screening of soybean cultivars and segregant populations.
CP17032Effects of pasture base and species mix complexity on persistence and weed ingress in summer-dry dairy pastures
We tested the hypotheses that sowing a more drought tolerant pasture base, or increasing the diversity of the sown mix, could increase pasture persistence. Persistence, quantified by changes over time in basal and canopy cover of sown species, was greater in tall fescue- than perennial ryegrass-based swards and greater in the 4- and 8-species than in the 2-species mix, although weed ingress was similar in all pasture mixes. The effects of changing the pasture base and diversity on persistence were similar, indicating that both options could be used to improve pasture persistence
Waterlogging is an important stress for pastures. Morpho-physiological and growth responses to 15-day waterlogging and 15-day recovery-period were evaluated on four grasses with alleged differential tolerance. Tolerance was apparent in Phalaris aquatica and Festuca arundinacea along both periods, while impact of waterlogging on growth reduction in the sensitive Dactilys glomerata and Bromus catharticus was only evident during recovery. It is essential to examine plant recovery in order to be conclusive about waterlogging tolerance.
CP17183Environmental factors affect seed germination and seedling emergence of invasive Centaurea balsamita
Centaurea balsamita is a problematic and invasive weed of agricultural fields in western Iran. Therefore, in this study the e?ect of different environmental factors on its seed germination and seedling emergence was examined. Results showed that C. balsamita has the potential to invade more areas and that this information would be beneficial in developing methods for its control.
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Large yield genotype by environment interactions generate uncertainty, complicating breeding selections. The identification of more heritable secondary traits offers opportunities for interpreting these interactions. We described specific traits relevant for assisting grain sorghum breeding selection on different temperate growth environments.
Blackleg is the most serious disease in canola in western Canada. The review highlights the present issues faced by growers and the industry due to the blackleg disease. The review also highlights a new strategy, R-gene rotation introduced to suit the Canadian situation in order to mitigate the disease and increase yield.
Spring canola is a very young crop type, less than fifty years old. Australian and Chinese spring canola look different but are very similar genetically, although with many deletions and duplications of chromosome segments. These chromosome deletions and duplications, coupled with strong inbreeding and selection for different traits, may have helped shape spring canola in China and Australia.
CP17071Genotype by environment interactions in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in the Iberian Peninsula
Cowpea is one of the most widely adapted, versatile, and nutritious grain legumes. The aim of this work was to determine the genetic variability and environmental stability of 12 cowpea genotypes at three locations in the Iberian Peninsula in two consecutive years. This study could give rise to a breeding program to develop cowpea cultivars with interesting agronomic traits.
CP16351Development of an ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the rapid quantification of seed carotenoid content in oilseed rape
The nutritional value of rapeseed oil is significantly improved by breeding new cultivars with high seed carotenoid content, successful development of an efficient method for the quantification of carotenoids in oilseed rape is a prerequisite for this breeding initiative, a rapid, accurate, simple and low cost protocol was successfully developed by using ultrasound-assisted extraction.
CP16423Assessment of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain yield, aerial biomass and flowering date stability in Mediterranean environments
Mediterranean environments are of most interest in the current context of global climate change. In our work we have tested adaptation of nine pea cultivars in South European and North African locations, characterised by different agro climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate. Our results highlighted the potential interest of genotypes HR1 and Desso in breeding programs and further studies of drought tolerance.
CP17068Performance of legume-based annual forage crops in three semi-arid Mediterranean environments
Legume-based annual forages, once optimized, could be pivotal to intensify sustainably drought-prone cereal-livestock systems. Production and farmers’ appreciation results collected for various legume and cereal species grown in monoculture and mixture in three sites of the western Mediterranean basin indicated that pea has much greater potential than hitherto believed. This encourages its breeding and cultivation for forage besides for grain.
CP17099Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) in Vicia faba
Resistance to faba bean rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) was identified by screening a large germplasm collection of Vicia faba under field conditions. Stability of resistance of the most-resistant accessions was further evaluated in a multi-location experiment and validated in three mega-environments defined in this work. These stable sources of resistance are highly promising to be included in international faba bean breeding programmes.
CP17087Improved grain yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under water deficit after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Rhizophagus irregularis
Cowpea is broadly cultivated in drought-prone areas and there is a need to address the water scarcity issue in agriculture. We assessed the effects of inoculation with a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on plant performance and yield under water-deficit. Under moderate and severe water deficit, grain yield was increased in inoculated plants. The use of inoculated cowpea has great potential for sustainable agricultural production under drought conditions.
CP16459Weed response and crop growth in winter wheat–lucerne intercropping: a comparison of conventional and reduced soil-tillage conditions in northern France
Lucerne cover crop for winter wheat was studied as an alternative and sustainable weed-control strategy. Conventional and reduced tillage conditions, as well as presence or absence of cover crop were compared in terms of soil coverage and biomass of wheat, lucerne and weeds. Weed communities composition and functional group analysis were performed. To minimise cash-crop losses, the effect of several herbicide strategies controlling the cover crop under reduced tillage conditions were also tested.
CP17070Winter cover crops as green manure in a temperate region: the effect on nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize
The study evaluated the effect of cover crops-legume, cereal, their mixture used as green manure, two doses of N fertilisation, and an unfertilised fallow as a control on the soil nitrogen budget and yield of silage maize (Zea mays L.). The highest value of apparent N remaining in the soil was in the mixture while the N fertilisation treatments and the control had significantly lower average values of residual N.
Heat stress, during reproductive phase, is a major threat to productivity of grain legumes. This review describes the impact of heat stress on photo-assimilation, grain quality and development processes, and proposes innovative strategies to improve heat tolerance in grain legumes.
CP17055Development of new kabuli large-seeded chickpea materials with resistance to Ascochyta blight
In this work 11 advanced chickpea lines with resistance to Ascochyta bligt and large seeds were developed as a result of the selection carried out during 10 successive years. Molecular markers associated with the resistance to blight were applied.
CP16396Better management of intensive rotational grazing systems maintains pastures and improves animal performance
This paper examines how the management of intensive rotational grazing systems influences pasture composition, diet quality and livestock performance. There was substantial opportunity to enhance the production of intensive rotational grazing systems through fast rotations at a high stocking rate. Intensive rotational grazing can be managed flexibly to improve animal performance by using green herbage allowance, with higher allowances needed as feed quality declines.
CP16468The role of FLOWERING LOCUS C in vernalization of Brassica: the importance of vernalization research in the face of climate change
This review summarises the literature to date regarding vernalization research in Brassicaceae, providing both a historical context and current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. We cover the evolutionary conserved biology between the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica genus crops and contrast the differences between the genera to show the importance of Brassica-specific research into vernalization.
CP16405An initial investigation of forage production and feed quality of perennial wheat derivatives
A redesign of agricultural production away from annual grain crops to a system that utilizes perennial grain crops, offers an opportunity to improve sustainable grain production and food security into the future. An important component in this redesign will be the profitable integration of livestock into the system through grazing. This study demonstrates that early generation perennial grain crops can be used as successful dual purpose crops and deployment of commercial cultivars may soon be at hand.
CP17067In vitro-assisted single-seed descent for breeding-cycle compression in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)
Subterranean clover is grown on over 29 Mha in southern Australia but its annual rate of genetic improvement is constrained by a long lifecycle. We present an in vitro-assisted single-seed descent system (IVASSD) to enable the turnover of up to 6.1 generations per year. To demonstrate the applicability of the system within a plant-breeding program, we have validated the IVASSD technique on a segregating breeding population, resulting in the turnover of three generations in less than one year.
CP17052Performance of lucerne genotypes for biomass production and nitrogen content differs in monoculture and in mixture with grasses and is partly predicted from traits recorded on isolated plants
On a set of 46 lucerne genotypes, a positive correlation between the performance of genotypes in monoculture and in mixture was obtained. However, significant changes in genotype ranking indicated that the species of its neighbours could modify the relative performance of a genotype. Traits measured on the same genotypes grown in isolated plants explained competition intensity depending on the neighbour species.
CP16460Identification of new resistance sources to powdery mildew, and the genetic characterisation of resistance in three common bean genotypes
Powdery mildew is a devastating disease of many legume species, including common bean. In this work, we assessed the responses of 108 dry and snap bean accessions to PM, and characterized the genetic control of the resistance in three bean genotypes. This work provides new PM-resistance sources and markers linked to resistance genes, which will be very useful in common bean breeding programs focused on protecting bean crops against this disease.
CP17002Changes in yield and agronomic traits of soybean cultivars released in China in the last 60 years
Planting density decreased significantly in the Yellow-Huai-Hai summer and South soybean regions but did not significantly change in the North spring soybean region. The increased soybean yields were mainly due to increased 100-seed weight and seed number per plant. Seed protein content has not significantly changed in 60 years, but oil content has increased in all three regions.
CP16395Enhancing composition and persistence of mixed pasture swards in southern New South Wales through alternative spatial configurations and improved legume performance
The study examined whether the productivity and persistence of mixed pastures were improved if species were spatially separated rather than being sown together in each drill row. Results of the present study were highly site-specific, or season-dependent, but subterranean clover regeneration was consistently improved where it was spatially separated from lucerne. There were fewer consistent benefits of alternative spatial configurations on swards containing phalaris with subterranean clover or with lucerne.
CP16411Changes in allele frequencies of avirulence genes in the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, over two decades in Australia
Avirulence allele frequencies change in response to selection pressure from sowing of cultivars with the corresponding major gene resistance. Analysis of 2091 isolates collected over the past 20 years shows how allele frequencies have changed in Australia in response to cultivar use and which major resistance genes are at risk of being overcome in the field.
Cold-season dormancy and prostrate habit may challenge the selection of grazing-tolerant lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for mild-winter environments. The genetic variation and genetically based trade-offs for key traits (grazing tolerance, dormancy, plant morphology) and their implications for selection were assessed in different genetic backgrounds. The selection for grazing-tolerant germplasm can rely on large genetic variation, but it requires extensive genotype evaluation to produce material with acceptable dormancy and growth habit.
Six grazing-management treatments were applied for 3 years to a tall fescue–white clover pasture in northern Victoria.A grazing regime based up the 3-leaf stage resulted in 30% higher dry matter removal, higher tall fescue content and greater plant persistence compared to the most frequently grazed treatments.The practicality of this approach to grazing tall fescue needs to be tested at the whole-farm level.
CP16404Changes in farming practices impact on spore release patterns of the blackleg pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans
Changes in farming practices such as inter-row sowing, has impacts on stubble retention such that some stubble remains standing at the start of the following season. Spore release patterns for the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, are delayed as well as reduced in standing stubble compared to laying down stubble. These changes in spore release patterns has the potential to impact of disease epidemiology.
CP16445Host–pathogen interactions in relation to management of light leaf spot disease (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on Brassica species
Light leaf spot (caused by Pyrenopeziza brassicae) is an increasingly damaging disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and vegetable brassicas. This paper reviews the disease epidemiology, pathogen population structure and host range, and disease management strategies. Use of new genomic information to improve understanding of the molecular interactions between B. napus and P. brassicae and of the pathogen population structure is discussed.
CP16383Use of sensor-determined behaviours to develop algorithms for pasture intake by individual grazing cattle
Practical and reliable measurement of individual pasture intake will improve precision in livestock and pasture management, provide input data for prediction and simulation models, and allow animals to be ranked on grazing efficiency for genetic improvement. We used sensors to determine pasture intake of individual grazing cattle. Grazing behaviour classified using data from collar-mounted sensors, and benchmark pasture-intake data, allowed establishment of initial pasture-intake algorithms for use with sensors.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Row spacing is more important than seeding rate for increasing Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) control and grain yield in soybean (Glycine max)
Alternate furrow irrigation impacted yield and water use efficiency of maize under deficit irrigation
Biosolids differently affect seed yield, nodule growth, nodule specific activity, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation of field bean
Modelling the comparative growth, water use and productivity of the perennial legumes, tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa var albomarginata) and lucerne (Medicago sativa) in dryland mixed farming systems
Physiological and biochemical responses to water deficit in hybrids of Lotus uliginosus x L. corniculatus
Growth responses of a diploid and a tetraploid perennial ryegrass to soil moisture deficit, defoliation and a root-feeding invertebrate
Analysis of seed production and its association with forage yield and agronomic traits in orchardgrass under different moisture environments
Comparative leaf water relations and anatomical responses of three vetch species (Vicia narbonensis L., V. sativa L. and V. villosa Roth.) to cope with water stress
Detection, prevalence and severity of upper canopy infection on mature Brassica napus plants caused by Leptosphaeria maculans in Australia
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Seed Oil Content of Soybean including Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Different Regions of Northeast China
Embryological background of low seed set in distylous common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) with biased morph ratios, and biostimulant-induced improvement of it
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In-field methods for rapid detection of frost damage in Australian dryland wheat during the reproductive and grain-filling phaseCrop and Pasture Science 68 (6)Eileen M. Perry, James G. Nuttall, Ashley J. Wallace, Glenn J. Fitzgerald
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Abiotic stress tolerance of kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus) and some related grasses and potential of kikuyu for agricultural and urban environmentsCrop and Pasture Science 68 (3)Duncan Fraser, Peter Sharp, Nabil Ahmad, Brett Morris, Richard Trethowan
Effects of straw management, inorganic fertiliser, and manure amendment on soil microbial properties, nutrient availability, and root growth in a drip-irrigated cotton fieldCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)X. Z. Pu, G. J. Zhang, P. P. Zhang, Y. J. Liu, W. F. Zhang
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Expression and heritability of late flowering and other quantitative traits in cultivated×Australian wild mungbean hybridsCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Thuan D. Nguyen, Hang T. T. Vu, L. M. Bielig, R. J. Lawn
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Organisms with potential to assist in the control of Helicoverpa armigera in Australian cotton production systemsCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Oliver G. G. Knox, Chris M. T. Anderson, Jenna L. Ross, Colin C. R. Tann, Vadakattu V. S. R. Gupta
Heritability of target bioactive compounds and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity in purple- and red-fleshed tetraploid potatoesCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)R. Tierno, J. I. Ruiz de Galarreta
Crop area increases drive earlier and dry sowing in Western Australia: implications for farming systemsCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Andrew Fletcher, Roger Lawes, Cameron Weeks
Assessment of phenotypic diversity in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] germplasm of Indian origin and identification of trait-specific germplasmCrop and Pasture Science 67 (12)Jyoti Kumari, Manas K. Bag, S. Pandey, S. K. Jha, S. S. Chauhan, Girish K. Jha, N. K. Gautam, M. Dutta
Proteomic prospects for tolerance of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) to drought stress during the flowering stageCrop and Pasture Science 68 (5)Mehdi Ghaffari, Mahmoud Toorchi, Mostafa Valizadeh, Mohammadreza Shakiba
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Effects of pasture base and species mix complexity on persistence and weed ingress in summer-dry dairy pasturesCrop and Pasture Science 68 (6)K. N. Tozer, E. M. K. Minnee, R. M. Greenfield, C. A. Cameron
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