Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science is a highly cited and prestigious journal publishing original research on advances in plant sciences, sustainable farming systems, and food quality. Read more about the journalMore

Editors-in-Chief: Sergio Atienza and Zed Rengel

Current Issue

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 67 Number 9 2016

CP16052Vegetative nitrogen stress decreases lodging risk and increases yield of irrigated spring wheat in the subtropics

A. S. Peake, K. L. Bell, P. S. Carberry, N. Poole and S. R. Raine
pp. 907-920

Canopy management techniques used to reduce lodging in temperate regions may reduce yield potential of irrigated wheat in the subtropics. This field study in south-east Queensland found that ‘in-crop’ N application in combination with soil residual N at sowing of 50–100 kg ha–1 obtained the highest yields with the least lodging, in combination with plant populations of 70–90 plants m2. We conclude that canopy management can reduce lodging and increase yield in the subtropics but requires different implementation to that used in temperate regions of Australia.

CP16153Trends in grain production and yield gaps in the high-rainfall zone of southern Australia

Michael Robertson, John Kirkegaard, Allan Peake, Zoe Creelman, Lindsay Bell, Julianne Lilley, Jon Midwood, Heping Zhang, Sue Kleven, Chris Duff, Roger Lawes and Penny Riffkin
pp. 921-937

In the last decade, there has been a growing recognition of the potential to increase crop production in the high rainfall zone of southern Australia. Using a mix of methods we measured current crop yields being achieved on farm and compared this will what is potentially possible under optimal management. We found substantial scope for yield improvement and outline the priorities for future research, development and extension that will assist in overcoming yield constraints.

Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) from ten accessions of four Aegilops species (Sitopsis section) were evaluated, and 20 novel genes were obtained, of which nine were LMW-m and 11 were LMW-s genes. Only two were pseudogenes, corresponding to one LMW-m and one LMW-s gene. The analysis of reactive epitopes for coeliac disease revealed that these LMW-s and some LMW-m lacked toxicity.

The projected increase in mean temperatures due to climate change is expected to have detrimental impacts on berry quality but inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could help grapevines to cope with abiotic stresses. Different fruit-bearing cuttings clones were inoculated with AMF and subjected to two temperature regimes. In some clones the association of grapevines with AMF may play an important role in the context of climate change to maintain or improve fruit quality by enhancing antioxidant properties.

Amphicarpy is a useful trait for promoting persistence in pasture species. This study describes how the expression of amphicarpy varies between morphotypes in the tropical Australian native legume, Vigna lanceolata. Analysis of the trait in hybrids between morphotypes indicates that it should be feasible to breed an annual amphicarpic ideotype potentially suited as a cover or ley crop and an amphicarpic perennial ideotype potentially suited for pasture or forage purposes.

CP15375Effects of ethephon on anatomical changes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stems associated with lodging

Mariano A. Mangieri, Anita I. Mantese, Alejandro Alvarez Schürmann and Claudio A. Chimenti
pp. 988-999

Stem lodging causes significant losses in crops of cereals and oilseeds. We identifies that the thickness of primary and secondary structures, diameter of the stem lodging zone, sclerenchyma packages area and secondary xylem tissue area, causes stem lodging in sunflower during the ontogeny cycle and in crops with high density. The study provides the first results for sunflower crops, of the basis of intraspecific differences in the susceptibility to stem lodging.

Buckwheat is generally grown in cool temperate regions. With the view to extending the cultivation of buckwheat to Mediterranean environments, the responses of two varieties to three sowing times in rainfed and irrigated conditions were investigated. Results indicated that in Mediterranean environments, buckwheat could be profitably introduced as a minor summer crop, sown in early spring for grain production and in late spring for forage production.

Current Issue

The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue

Published online 14 September 2016

CP16167Survey of Barley yellow dwarf virus incidence in winter cereal crops, and assessment of wheat and barley resistance to the virus

Eva Beoni, Jana Chrpová, Jana Jarošová and Jiban Kumar Kundu

Barley yellow dwarf virus is one of the most ubiquitous pathogens in cereal crops that cause significant yield losses. The most effective and sustainable protection against the virus to date is the use of resistant/tolerant cultivars. The results describe in this article include the incidence of BYDV in winter cereal crops in the Czech Republic and a comprehensive analysis of resistance in numerous wheat and barley cultivars (breeding lines) to this disease.

Published online 26 September 2016

CP15250Economic and environmental implications of wheat-crop sequences on organic dairy-farm simulations

D. C. Abreu, A. K. Hoshide, E. B. Mallory, E. H. Roche, A. S. Oliveira, R. J. Kersbergen, R. P. Lana and M. A. Fonseca

The aim of this study was to determine the sustainability of eight 3-year crop sequences compared with a perennial forage baseline in long-term (25-year), well-managed, medium-sized organic dairy farm simulations. Growing winter wheat provides long-term environmental and economic benefits, although for spring wheat, much of this benefit is lost. Use of maize silage in place of grass, winter or spring wheat, or soybean was less profitable. Most cropping system scenarios were less economically favourable than producing and feeding exclusively grass silage; however, inclusion of soybean increased economic benefits.

Field experiments were conducted under two different (arid and semi-arid and cool) climatic conditions to indicate how wheat light properties may be affected by different plant and environmental parameters including wheat genotypes, planting dates and N chemical fertilisation. The results indicated that the right wheat genotype, planted at the right planting date using the proper rate of N chemical fertilisation resulted in the highest plant response to light, and hence the highest wheat grain yield.

Published online 20 September 2016

CP16141Selection indices to identify maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids adapted under drought-stress and drought-free conditions in a tropical climate

Bhupender Kumar, Satish Kumar Guleria, Subhash M. Khanorkar, Rajender Babu Dubey, Jashvantlal Patel, Vinod Kumar, Chiter Mal Parihar, Shankar Lal Jat, Vishal Singh, K. R. Yatish, Abhijit Das, Javaji Chandra Sekhar, Pradeep Bhati, Harpreet Kaur, Madhvi Kumar, Aditya Kumar Singh, Eldho Varghese and Om Prakash Yadav

Moisture deficit is a major challenge to the future maize production. As the development of drought tolerant genotypes is an important aim in maize breeding, therefore the selection indices based hybrids suitable for drought prone area were identified. Cultivation of identified drought-tolerant hybrids would be useful to enhance maize productivity in drought-stress environments.

Published online 20 September 2016

CP16162Response of different fodder legume species to Colletotrichum trifolii

Irene Jacob, Stephan Hartmann and Christine Struck

Fodder legumes are of major importance for crop rotations as well as for fodder production in agriculture, but fungal diseases such as southern anthracnose can cause severe losses and reduce productivity of grassland and arable feed crop production. A test for resistance against southern anthracnose was performed in the greenhouse with different fodder legumes, and species with high resistance were identified. Thus, species which remain productive when the disease occurs can ensure forage yield and nutrient supply.

Published online 20 September 2016

CP16168Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to soil phosphorus patches depends on context

Guangzhou Wang, Xia Li, Peter Christie, Junling Zhang and Xiaolin Li

We conducted two greenhouse experiments to explore the response of AMF to heterogeneous P by creating P-enriched patches of different P supply levels or P forms. Our results indicated that AMF improved the plant growth but the response of AMF to P-enriched patches was complex and both the form and amount of P supplied should be considered. This may provide a mechanism by which AMF can maintain diversity in intensive agricultural ecosystems.

Published online 02 September 2016

CP16073High-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in facultative winter wheat

Beyhan Akin, Xian Ming Chen, Alex Morgunov, Nusret Zencirci, Anmin Wan and Meinan Wang

Some of 100 winter and facultative wheat entries from the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program were resistant against PST-17, 44%; PST-37, 32%; PST-43, 45%; PST-45, 49%; PST-116, 18%; PST-100, 17%; and PST-127, 8%. Molecular markers were positive for genes Yr9, Yr17, and Yr18 and negative for Yr5, Yr10, and Yr15. Sixteen entries were shown to have high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance and resistance–moderately resistance.

Soybean genotypes that release more carbon compounds into the rhizosphere are capable of mining fixed soil P, and hence are more efficient in P acquisition. This paper evaluates the use of isotope (14C) labelling to identify genotypes with improved P-acquisition efficiency. Genotypes with high root exudation index (REI) performed equally well at sufficient and low soil P availability, and therefore, REI may be used to screen efficient genotypes from a large set of diverse germplasm.

Published online 19 September 2016

CP16027Interactions between water and nitrogen in Australian cropping systems: physiological, agronomic, economic, breeding and modelling perspectives

V. O. Sadras, P. T. Hayman, D. Rodriguez, M. Monjardino, M. Bielich, M. Unkovich, B. Mudge and E. Wang

This paper reviews the interactions between water and nitrogen from physiological, agronomic, economic, breeding and modelling perspectives. Our primary focus is wheat, the main crop in Australia; forage crops, sorghum and legumes, are considered where relevant aspects of water–nitrogen interactions have been advanced. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research on water-nitrogen interactions.

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