Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality

Author Instructions

All manuscripts should be submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Crop and Pasture Science welcomes the submission of articles presenting original and significant research that are within the journal´s scope.


Publishing Policies
Crop and Pasture Science insists on high standards of ethical behaviour throughout the publication process. Our journal editors work within the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Further information on our policies can be found at http://www.publish.csiro.au/cp/PublishingPolicies.

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Peer review
Crop and Pasture Science is a peer-reviewed journal that uses a single-blind peer-review. The Co-Editors-in-Chief are responsible to maintain high-quality peer-review of papers submitted to the journal and work together with the Associate Editors to ensure a thorough and fair peer-review and the highest scientific publishing standards. All submissions undergo preliminary assessment by an Editor-in-Chief, who may reject a paper before peer review when it is outside the journal’s scope or is of insufficient quality. Associate Editors select reviewers and after at least two review reports are received, they make the decision whether to accept/reject or send a manuscript for revision. The final decision is made by the Associate Editor.

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Authorship
The conditions around authorship for Crop and Pasture Science should follow the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), for more information see http://www.publish.csiro.au/cp/PublishingPolicies.

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Licence to publish
For details regarding copyright, please see Copyright/Licence to Publish.

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Open access
Authors may choose to publish their paper Open Access on payment of a publication fee. See Open Access for more details.

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Journal editorial policy
We publish refereed research articles, reviews and viewpoint papers that are original contributions on strategic issues relevant to the crop and pasture sciences. The scope encompasses plant, microbial, environmental, and sustainability issues addressed for molecular, organismal, population or systems approaches. The research reported must deal with a testable hypothesis with rigorous experimental design and statistical procedures appropriate for the discipline. The research should present new and significant findings that relate to crop and pasture science.

Submission of a paper is taken to mean that the results have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere. Abstracts and posters from conferences, where the full data set is not presented and the interpretation of results is not developed, would not normally be regarded as prior publications but should be acknowledged in the submitted manuscript. Please contact the Editor if you are unsure.

Review and viewpoint articles are approved for refereeing by the Editor-in-Chief. We publish critical review articles that indicate fruitful areas of further research and are original and innovative. Reviews should not exceed 20 printed pages in length (60 pages A4 double spaced type). If new experimental data are included in the review, sufficient detail about methods should be included so that other investigators can repeat the work.

CSIRO Publishing requires that all authors of a multi-authored paper agree to its submission. This journal will use its best endeavours to ensure that work published is that of the named authors except where acknowledged and, through its reviewing procedures, that any published results and conclusions are consistent with the primary data. It takes no responsibility for fraud or inaccuracy on the part of the contributors. Authors of multi-authored papers may wish to assign relative values to their contributions, or to indicate that two or more authors contributed equally to a paper. This can be done in a note at the end of the address field on the paper.

PDFs of published papers are now provided free of charge to corresponding authors. Reprints are still available for purchase; an order form for reprints will be supplied with the page proofs. There are no page charges. Original illustrations will be returned after publication if this is requested at the time of submission.

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Submission Procedure
To submit your paper, please use our online journal management system ScholarOne Manuscripts, which can be reached directly through this link or from the link on the journal´s homepage. If a first-time user, register via the ´Register here´ link, or use your existing username and password to log in. Then click on the ´Author Centre´ link and proceed.

A covering letter must accompany the submission and should include the name, address, fax and telephone numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. The letter should also contain a statement justifying why the work should be considered for publication in the journal, and that the manuscript has not been published or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere. Suggestions of possible referees are welcome during submission. Suggested referees should be independent experts in the field. Authors should be aware that approaching suggested reviewers is at the discretion of the Editor. Intentionally falsifying reviewer details will result in rejection of a manuscript.

If you encounter any difficulties, or you have any queries, please contact:
Crop and Pasture Science
CSIRO Publishing
Locked Bag 10
Clayton South, Vic. 3169
Australia
Telephone +61 3 9545 8531
Fax +61 3 9545 8578
Email publishing.cp@csiro.au

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Checklist for preparation of manuscripts

  1. Manuscripts should be double-spaced throughout, including references, figure captions, and tables, and include line numbers to assist in the editing process
  2. Main headings (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, Conflicts of Interest, References) are set in bold roman (not italic) type. Minor headings are set in light italic type.
  3. Check that all references mentioned in the text are in the References, and vice versa.
  4. List references in the text in chronological order, separated by semi-colons. List references in the References list in alphabetical order. In the text, do not use a comma between the author´s name and the date.
  5. Give full journal and book titles in the References list.
  6. Use arabic numerals in the text, except at the start of a sentence. Type a space between a numeral and its unit (e.g. 3 mm).
  7. Prepare figures with symbols and letters appropriate for the reduction intended. Use Helvetica or another sans-serif font in figures.
  8. Check that stippling and/or symbols in figures are legible at the size likely to be used in the published article.
  9. Tables should be self-explanatory. Use headings, headnotes and footnotes.
  10. Place tables and figures at the end of the manuscript, each on a separate page. Figure captions should be on a separate page.
  11. Indicate approximate positions of figures and tables on the manuscript.
  12. Check that figures and tables are numbered in the order in which they are discussed in the text.
  13. Suggest a running head for the paper of not more than 50 characters (including spaces).
  14. Include addresses for all authors and an email address for the corresponding author.

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Guidelines for the preparation of manuscripts

Farrer Review Series
The Farrer Review Series has been established to perpetuate the scientific endeavour of William James Farrer (3 April 1845 – 16 April 1906). The Farrer Memorial Trust has agreed to the establishment of the new review series in Crop and Pasture Science.

The Farrer Review is a prestigious, invited review that is authored by a world leader in their research field in crop and pasture sciences. It should give a critical overview of a subject of high current interest, in which there have been important recent developments. Authors are encouraged to take a stance and lead the reader through the field. Overall a review should take us forward and show where a field is heading. The introduction should arouse the reader´s interest, describing the background, significance, and development of the field, and should be comprehensible to a broad audience. The main part of the review should be a comprehensive but critical analysis of recent (last three to five years) developments, current problems, and future directions. The review should conclude with a synthesis of ideas and propose future strategic direction in the field.

Information for potential authors

  • The Co-Editors-in-Chief make the final decision on the suitability of a topic for a Farrer Review.
  • Timelines of 3-4 months (submission to online publication) but conditional on the author revising the manuscript promptly.
  • Free online access after publication.
  • The Farrer Reviews will be grouped as a series on the website.
  • Reviews will be about 8-10 journal pages (~8000-9000 words in length).

Enquiries about potential topics and/or authors should be sent to:
Co-Editors-in-Chief
Dr Sergio G. Atienza
Crop and Pasture Science
Departamento de Mejora Genética
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Apdo. 4084, E-14080 Córdoba
Spain
Telephone +34 9 5749 9260
Email sgatienza@ias.csic.es

Winthrop Professor Zed Rengel, FCAAS
Crop and Pasture Science
School of Earth and Environment
University of Western Australia
35 Stirling Highway, M087
Crawley WA 6009
Australia
Telephone +61 8 6488 2557
Email zed.rengel@uwa.edu.au

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Critical Reviews
Critical Reviews interpret the literature in an original and innovative way as well as indicating fruitful areas of further research. The reviews may be current reviews which focus on exciting new developments in a relevant field, or take a more historical perspective. Historical reviews must in all cases point to new research directions which will advance the science of agriculture.

All critical reviews should summarize a body of knowledge and, from it, formulate ideas and recommendations that would be useful to agricultural research in Australia and overseas. If new experimental data are included in the review, sufficient detail about methods should be provided so that other investigators can repeat the work. Summary diagrams should be used where possible to reduce the amount of description required to introduce a topic.

Authors should remember the wide readership of the Journal when preparing their article, and are advised to discuss the review with a member of the Editorial Board or a ´commissioning´ Associate Editor before submission.

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Editorials
Editorials are usually commissioned. Editorials are opinion pieces which reflect on papers previously or currently published in Crop and Pasture Science, or on issues of general interest to the crop and pasture sciences community. They should be written in a crisp, lively style. They should have a maximum of 800 words, and not more than 5 references.

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Viewpoint papers
A viewpoint paper reports ideas that are new or a significant improvement on current opinion & theories. It is normally shorter than a review paper and focuses on ´emerging ideas´ or a ´legitimate´ point of view. Viewpoints should not be used as a refuge from the trouble of precise thought.

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Comment papers
A brief comment or critique on a paper recently published in Crop and Pasture Science. No abstract required. Authors of the original paper will be invited to submit a response.

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General presentation
The work should be presented in concise and clear English. The Introduction should not exceed what is necessary to indicate the reason for the work and its essential background. Sufficient experimental detail should be given to enable the work to be repeated. The Discussion should explain the significance of the results. An internal institutional review of content and English prior to submission is strongly recommended.

Supplementary material of a detailed nature which may be useful to other workers but which is not essential to the printed paper, may be lodged as an Accessory Publication with the Production Editor, provided that it is submitted with the manuscript for inspection by the referees. Such material will be made available on request and a note to this effect should be included in the paper.

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Manuscripts
Manuscripts must be double-spaced throughout and include line numbers to assist in the editing process. Make the left-hand margin at least 3 cm wide, with lines numbered in the left-hand margin. Place tables, figures, and captions to figures after the text, and number all pages of the manuscript consecutively. Refer to each figure and table in the text.

Summary Text for the Table of Contents. This is a three-sentence paragraph of 50 to 80 words written for interested non-experts, such as journalists, teachers, government workers, etc. The text should be free from scientific jargon, and written at the level of an article in a science magazine. Your first sentence should engage the reader, convincing them that this is an important area. The second sentence should introduce the problem addressed in the paper, and state your main discovery. The final sentence should describe how the results fit into the bigger picture (i.e. implications or impact of the discovery).

We advise authors to read recent issues of the journal to note details of headings, tables, illustrations, style, and layout. Observance of these and the following details will shorten the time between submission and publication. Poorly prepared and unnecessarily lengthy manuscripts have less chance of being accepted.

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Title
This should be concise and appropriately informative and should contain all keywords necessary to facilitate retrieval by modern searching techniques. An abridged title suitable for use as a running head at the top of the printed page and not exceeding 50 letter spaces should also be supplied.

If the paper is one of a numbered series, a reference to the previous part should be given as a footnote on the first page. If a part not yet published needs to be consulted for a proper understanding of the paper, a copy of that manuscript should be supplied to assist the referees.

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Authors
List full first name, initial and surnames for all authors, and a current institutional mailing address for each. The corresponding author should be indicated, and their email address given.

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Abstract
The Abstract (preferably less than 200 words) should state concisely the scope of the work and give the principal findings. It should be complete enough for direct use by abstracting services. Acronyms and references should be avoided in the Abstract.

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Additional keywords
Up to 6 keywords not used in the title or abstract may be listed beneath the abstract to assist searching techniques.

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Footnotes
Footnotes within the text should be used only when essential. They should be placed within horizontal rules immediately under the lines to which they refer.

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Conflicts of Interest
A ´Conflicts of Interest´ section should be included at the end of the manuscript. It should identify any financial or non-financial (political, personal, professional) interests/relationships that may be interpreted to have influenced the manuscript. If there is no conflict of interest, please include the statement "The authors declare no conflicts of interest".

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References
No editorial responsibility can be taken for the accuracy of the references; authors are requested to check these with special care. References are cited chronologically in the text by author and date and are not numbered. All references in the text must be listed at the end of the paper, arranged alphabetically; all entries in this list must correspond to references in the text. In the text the names of two coauthors are linked by ´and´; for three or more the first author´s name is followed by ´et al.´.

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Reference titles must be included for all references, and titles of books and journals must be given in full. Papers that have not been accepted for publication may not be included in the list of references and must be cited either as ´unpublished data´ or as ´pers. comm.´; the use of such citations is discouraged.

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Citation of references (examples)

  • Journal article
    Woelkerling WJ, Irvine LM, Harvey AS (1993) Growth-forms in non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Australian Systematic Botany 6, 277-293.

  • Chapter in a book
    Andrew CS (1978) Mineral characterisation of tropical forage legumes. In ´Mineral nutrition of legumes in tropical and subtropical soils´. (Eds CS Andrew, EJ Kamprath) pp. 93-111. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

  • Whole book
    Simmonds DH (1989) ´Wheat and wheat quality in Australia.´ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

  • Report/Bulletin
    Chippendale GM, Wolf L (1981) The natural distribution of Eucalyptus in Australia. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Special Publication No. 6, Canberra.

  • Web pages
    Referencing from web pages is acceptable and should give the author´s names, year of publication and title as for a report, followed by the URL, and access date.

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Use of referencing software
If using ´EndNote*´ software, you can obtain the style file for this journal at http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp.

*You will find the style file under the ´Agriculture´ category, listed as Crop and Pasture Science (continuing Australian Journal of Agricultural Research).

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Units
Authors are requested to use the International System of Units (Système International d´Unités) for exact measurements of physical quantities and where appropriate elsewhere. For complex groupings of units use the form such as kg/ha.year. A list of SI units is available from the Editor-in-Chief on request.

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Concentration of ionic species
When a known ionic charge concentration is referred to, units of moles of charge per m3 (molc/m3) or moles of charge per L (molc/L) should be used. Inclusion of (+) or (-) is not needed; it should be apparent from the context in which the usits are used.

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Exchangeable ions and ion exchange capacity
The units of moles of charge per kg (molc/kg) or centimoles of charge per kg (cmolc/kg) should be used. The latter has the advantage of being numerically identical to the non-SI, but still widely recognised, milliequivalents per 100 g. Inclusion of (+) or (-) is not needed; it should be apparent from the context in which the usits are used.

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Electrical conductivity
The recommended unit is dS/m, but mS/cm is acceptable.

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Enzyme nomenclature
The names of enzymes should conform to the Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the IUB on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes as published in `Enzyme nomenclature 1984´ (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1984). If there is good reason to use a name other than the recommended name, at the first mention of the alternative name in the text it should be identified by the recommended name and EC number. The Editor-in-Chief should be advised of the reasons for using the alternative name.

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Mathematical formulae
These should be carefully typed with symbols in correct alignment and adequately spaced. Judicious use should be made of the solidus to avoid 2-line mathematical expressions wherever possible and especially in the running text. Each long formula should be displayed on a separate line with at least 2 lines of space above and below. Equations must be in editable electronic format, i.e. not inserted as ´pictures´.

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Chemical nomenclature
The nomenclature of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, vitamins, etc. should follow the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Other biologically active compounds, such as metabolic inhibitors, plant growth regulators, buffers, etc., should be referred to once by their correct chemical name (which is in accordance with IUPAC rules of Chemical Nomenclature) and then by their most widely accepted common name. For pesticides, the latest issue of ´Pesticides.synonyms and chemical names´ (Australian Government Publishing Service) should be followed. Where there is no common name, trade names or letter abbreviations of the chemical may be used.

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Microbiological nomenclature
The names of bacteria should conform to those used in ´Approved list of bacterial names´ (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 1980). Fungal nomenclature should conform to the International Code for Botanical Nomenclature. The names used for viruses should be those approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and published in the fourth report of the ICTV ´Classification and nomenclature of viruses´, Intervirology, 1982, 17 (1-3), 1-199. Synonyms may be added in parentheses when the name is first mentioned. Approved generic (or group) and family names should also be used.

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Crop variety pedigrees
The Purdy system (Crop Science, 1968, 8, 405-406) should be followed.

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Statistical evaluation of results
The design and conduct of experiments must be sufficiently explained that readers can judge for themselves the validity of the results. Details of treatments such as genotype, soil properties, and levels of factors must be matched by adequate description of the field and controlled environment conditions, including the number of sites and years over which the validity of the conclusions is established. Authors should describe how measurements were made and indicate how treatments were assigned to units or blocks, and the number of replicates. When common experimental designs such as randomized block or split-plot designs are used a reference is not necessary, but it is appropriate to cite a reference for little-used methods or designs, in which case the use of these methods should be justified.

The experimental design dictates the proper method of statistical analysis and the basis of assessing the precision of treatment means. The precision achieved should be reported by a standard error of the treatment mean or a coefficient of variation. Wherever possible the assumptions implicit in the analysis should be checked. Treatment comparisons such as the least significant difference (l.s.d.) may be made when the variance ratio (F value) is significant, but authors must be aware of the limitations to the use of multiple comparisons. Where treatments have logical structure, as in factorial designs, orthogonal contrasts among treatments should be made. Brief analysis of variance (ANOVA) tables with mean squares and degrees of freedom may be published where, in designs with logical treatment structure, as in factorial designs for instance, they are an efficient way to summarize the relative importance of the various effects. Ultimately, the statistical analyses should highlight the biological principles embodied in the results.

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Tables
All tables should be constructed using the Table option in word or Excel, and each value should have its own cell. Tables must be numbered with arabic numerals and each must be accompanied by a heading. A headnote containing material relevant to the whole table should start on a new line as it will be set in a different font. Tables should be arranged with regard to the dimensions of the printed page (16.5 by 22 cm) and the number of columns kept to a minimum.

Excessive subdivision of column headings is undesirable and long headings should be avoided by the use of explanatory notes which should be incorporated into the headnote. The first letter only of headings to rows and vertical columns should be capitalized. The symbol for the unit of measurement should be placed in parentheses beneath the column heading. Prefixes for units should be chosen to avoid an excessive number of digits in the body of the table or a scaling factor should be added to the heading. Horizontal rules should be inserted only above and below column headings and at the foot of the table. Vertical rules should not be used. Each table must be referred to in the text. Only in exceptional circumstances will the presentation of essentially the same data in both tabular and graphical form be permitted; where adequate, the graphical form should be used. Short tables can frequently be incorporated into the text as a sentence or as a brief untitled tabulation. Footnotes in tables should be reserved for specific items in columns.

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lllustrations

Line diagrams and photographs must be prepared electronically using either a draw or a chart/graph program such as Illustrator, Excel, Sigmaplot, Harvard Graphics, or Cricket Graph and files should be saved in one of the following formats: encapsulated postscript (.eps) (preferred), Illustrator, Excel (provided the Excel files have been saved with the chart encapsulated), or as pictures in a Word file.

 

Line drawings
Lettering should be in sans-serif type (Helvetica preferred) with the first letter of the first word and any proper names capitalized. The x-height of inscriptions after reduction should be 1.2-1.3 mm (capitals 2 mm). Thus for the preferred reductions of graphs to 30, 40, or 50% of original linear dimensions, the initial x-height of lettering should be 4, 3, or 2.5 mm, respectively. Symbols and grid marks should be the same respective sizes, and curves and axes should then be either 0.8, 0.7, or 0.6 mm thick, respectively. Proportionately smaller sizes of type, symbols, grid marks, and curve thicknesses should be used for lesser reductions (the thickness of all lines on line diagrams must be no less than 1 pt). The following symbols should be used: .

Grid marks should point inwards; legends to axes should state the quantity being measured and be followed by the appropriate SI units in parentheses.

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Photographs
Photographs must be of the highest quality with a full range of tones and of good contrast. Photographs must be trimmed squarely to exclude features not relevant to the paper and be separated from neighbouring photographs by uniform spaces that will be 2 mm wide after reduction. Lettering should be in a sans-serif type and contrast with its background; thus, white lettering should be used on darker backgrounds. The size of lettering should be such that the final height after reduction is 1.5-2 mm. A scale bar must be inserted on each photomicrograph and electron micrograph. Important features to which attention has been drawn in the text should be indicated.

Suitable electronic formats for photographs are TIFF and EPS files at a required resolution of 300 dpi. Electronic files of colour figures or photographs should be saved in CMYK colour rather than in RGB colour as this is required for our printing purposes. Authors should note that colour may change when converted to CMYK from RGB colour. The journal does not cover the cost of colour printing. Please speak to the Production Editor if you wish to publish photographs in colour.

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