Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 64 Number 9 2013

CP13041Effects of Rht dwarfing alleles on wheat seed vigour after controlled deterioration

Manuela Nagel, Anne-Kathrin Behrens and Andreas Börner
pp. 857-864

High yields of modern wheat cultivars are associated with shorter plants carrying dwarfing genes that are assumed to reduce seed vigour. Seeds of six modern cultivars carrying four different dwarfing genes and two gene combinations were stressed by high moisture content (18%) and temperature (42°C). Seed vigour loss was cultivar dependent and, mostly, gene combinations caused reduced root and shoot lengths and increased time to 50% germination which, finally, could affect profit of seed industry.

CP13246Fast identification of wheat 1BL.1RS translocation by reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC)

Jianwen Zhou, Caixia Han, Hui Cao, Shoumin Zhen, Zitong Yu, Xiaohui Li, Wujun Ma and Yueming Yan
pp. 865-873

Fast RP-UPLC method for gliadin separation was established. A few specific minor peaks eluted at 12–13 min on the RP-UPLC patterns can readily differentiate the 1BL.1RS translocation. The results from 76 wheat cultivars tested indicated that RP-UPLC is capable of fast identification for the 1BL.1RS translocation with higher reliability and lower costs.

Triticale is a high yielding cereal grain with the potential to increase global food production; however, it has a reputation for producing poor quality food products. This research identified cultivars with high milling yield, bright flour, hard grain and the ability to bake cookies equivalent to soft wheat. Such cultivars may boost grower incomes and farm productivity, particularly in marginal environments.

One great potential for crops to improve P-use efficiency is the manipulation of one group of soil beneficial microorganisms – arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This study was to investigate whether AM fungi contribute to P-use efficiency of modern maize cultivar. Inoculation increased root P uptake efficiency, and the promotion of plant growth and P uptake by AM fungi varied with P levels. It is thus important to develop precision strategies to optimise the potential function of AM fungi in agricultural soils.

CP13286Mechanism of resistance in Australian sugarcane parent clones to smut and the effect of hot water treatment

Shamsul A. Bhuiyan, Barry J. Croft, Emily C. Deomano, Rebecca S. James and Joanne K. Stringer
pp. 892-900

A sugarcane plant may have one of two types of defence mechanisms to smut, internal and external defence mechanism. This research identified defence mechanism of 21 Australian parent clones. This will help sugarcane breeders to select parents from two types of defence mechanisms to make crossing in order to develop new long lasting smut resistant varieties  in Australia.

The introduction of long season canola types could provide considerable increases in grain yield in the higher rainfall regions of southern Australia. Using the CAT modelling framework this paper presents the expected canola yields of three cultivars across areas of south-eastern Australia. The results demonstrated a potential benefit to the grains industry of $18.4 million by simply converting to a longer season canola variety.

Lupin anthracnose in the mid-1990s wiped out the white lupin industry in Western Australia (WA) and development of anthracnose resistant and early flowering varieties became main priority in the breeding program. The combination of these traits became a complex process; however, it was overcome by using a different source of early-flowering trait. This breakthrough will significantly improve the adaptation and profitability of white lupin production in WA and this model can also be used in other crop species.

Controlling summer weeds increased yield of winter crops in a region with winter-dominant rainfall. Increased yield was due to both more water and N being available to subsequent crops. The presence or absence of crop residues had no effect on soil water, N or crop yield. The co-limitation of yield by water and N in the Mallee environment means that yield increases due to summer weed control are very reliable.

Methane from enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock contributes substantially to greenhouse gas emissions. This research compared in vitro rumen fermentation profiles, including methane production, of pasture species in southern Australia and identified biserrula as the stand-out lowest methane-producing species producing 90% less methane (4 mL CH4 g–1 dry matter incubated) than the highest methane-producing species. The results show that the choice of fodder species may offer a way to reduce the impact on the environment from enteric fermentation.

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