Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 65 Number 3 2014

High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) mainly determine dough elasticity and play important role in bread-making quality. In this study, the authentic HMW-GS 1Bx14 and 1By15 from German bread wheat cultivars Hanno and Imbros were identified and characterised, and their structural features as well as potential effects on gluten quality were studied. Our results provide new information for further understanding the molecular structure, phylogenetic evolution and functional properties of gluten encoded genes for wheat quality improvement.

Management of P. thornei is central to wheat production in many regions, but it is restricted by the intolerance and susceptibility of wheat cultivars, the broad host range of the nematode, and the resilience and accumulation of nematode populations throughout the soil profile. We demonstrated that growing two partially resistant crops in sequence (e.g. canaryseed, followed by millets, panicum, sorghum, sunflower or most maize cultivars) caused populations of P. thornei at 0–90 cm soil depth to decrease and counteracted a 62% yield loss of the next wheat crop in sequence, compared with a sequence with two susceptible crops (e.g. wheat followed by mungbean, black gram or soybean). Reducing the impact of P. thornei will require development of resistant cultivars of wheat and legume crops together with the provision of nematode diagnostics services and extension of information on the host status of cultivars of crops.

CP13390Variability of seed quality traits in a collection of Spanish landraces of confectionery sunflower

Leonardo Velasco, Álvaro Fernández-Cuesta and José M. Fernández-Martínez
pp. 242-249

Confectionery sunflower has been cultivated in Spain since its introduction from America by Spanish explorers, mainly at a small scale in vegetable gardens, and this has produced a vast genetic diversity of the crop. In this research, we studied variability of seed quality traits in a collection of Spanish accessions of confectionery sunflower. The collection contained large variability for all traits evaluated, particularly for squalene, tocopherols, and delta-7-stigmastenol contents. Some of the accessions identified in this research are valuable genetic resources for sunflower breeding programs focusing on seed and oil quality.

CP13283Nitrogen fixation and symbiosis-induced accumulation of mineral nutrients by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)

Alphonsus K. Belane, Flora Pule-Meulenberg, Thabo I. Makhubedu and Felix D. Dakora
pp. 250-258

Field-grown cowpea varieties sampled from three different sites were found to differ in N2 fixation and mineral accumulation in shoots. High N2-fixing symbioses generally accumulated more nutrient elements than poorer symbioses. The performance of a nodulation assay revealed a direct relationship between strain symbiotic efficacy and mineral uptake/accumulation in cowpea shoots.

Environmental and genetic factors affect soybean protein compositions, which in turn impact on the quality of soy foods. We examined 16 soybean types, lacking certain protein subunits and grown at two locations, and showed that both protein subunits composition and environment can significantly affect tofu quality. It is therefore possible to breed for desired levels of certain protein subunits that potentially play an important role in determining tofu quality in a cultivar development program.

Soybean variety Bunya, lacking the protein subunit 11SA4, was developed in Australia and it is currently widely planted due to its superior quality. Both the Bunya parentage and 11SA4 were found to influence tofu properties, and the group lacking 11SA4 consistently produced better tofu over a range of protein contents. The absence of 11SA4 could improve tofu texture to a level only achievable with much higher protein content, which usually is negatively correlated with soybean yield.

Physiological response of two lucerne genotypes on combined stresses of high temperature and drought was examined in this study. Three physiological parameters could reflect the ability of a lucerne to tolerate heat stress under different soil water conditions, and could be used as indicators for evaluating lucerne tolerance to heat stress under different soil-water conditions.

Experiments were established in the Burdekin Delta Irrigation Area in NE Australia to explore the interactions between rotation history, achieved through breaks to the traditional sugarcane monoculture, and response to applied N fertiliser. Application of N fertiliser had significant impacts on both tiller addition and retention of tillers to produce stalks that contributed to final cane yield. However fertiliser N had limited or no capacity to provide the quantum of yield response due to soil health benefits associated with breaking the sugarcane monoculture.

CP13160Multivariate analysis of the temporal variability of sugarcane ripening in south-eastern Brazil

Nilceu P. Cardozo, Paulo C. Sentelhas, Alan R. Panosso and Antonio S. Ferraudo
pp. 300-310

Sugarcane represents one of the most important crops for tropical countries, having its production highly influenced by the genotype-environment interactions. So, the understanding of the genotype (cultivar) response to the weather conditions, in terms of sugar production, is very important for a better crop planning. By grouping the cultivars according to their quality characteristics allow the growers to select the best cultivars to be harvested in the beginning, middle and end of the season, in order to bring the best returns of sugar production.

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