Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 66 Number 7 2015

CP14158Yield gain due to fungicide application in varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) resistant and susceptible to leaf rust

Alex Morgounov, Beyhan Akin, Lütfi Demir, Mesut Keser, Alma Kokhmetova, Sergey Martynov, Şinasi Orhan, Fatih Özdemir, Ïzzet Özseven, Zagipa Sapakhova and Minura Yessimbekova
pp. 649-659

Winter wheat germplasm with variable degrees of resistance to leaf rust was subjected to fungicide protection. The yield loss of genotypes susceptible to leaf rust varied from 30% to 60% depending on the environment and severity of infection. Genotypes completely or moderately resistant to leaf rust also responded positively to fungicide protection, with 10–30% yield increases. The magnitude of yield gain by resistant germplasm justifies its capture in breeding programs to develop varieties resistant to diseases and with greater benefits from the fungicide protection.

CP14236QTL mapping for plant height and yield components in common wheat under water-limited and full irrigation environments

Xingmao Li, Xianchun Xia, Yonggui Xiao, Zhonghu He, Desen Wang, Richard Trethowan, Huajun Wang and Xinmin Chen
pp. 660-670

QTLs for plant height and yield components were analysed by inclusive composite interval mapping. Three QTLs for plant height and seven to ten QTLs for 1000-kernel weight, number of kernels per spike, number of spikes per m2, and grain yield were detected. A new plant height gene was discovered on 6A, and the relationships of QTLs among plant height and yield components were showed in this study.

In-season expression of four nitrate and two ammonium transporter genes in roots of N-efficient and N-inefficient wheat genotypes was studied. The expression of all the genes showed significant temporal dynamics, and generally matched the pattern of in-season N uptake of wheat plants. Several genes showed greater expression in the N-efficient genotype than in the N-inefficient wheat genotype.

CP14326Combined application of silica and nitrogen alleviates the damage of flooding stress in rice

B. Lal, Priyanka Gautam, S. Mohanty, R. Raja, R. Tripathi, M. Shahid, B. B. Panda, M. J. Baig, Liza Rath, P. Bhattacharyya and A. K. Nayak
pp. 679-688

The advances in physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to stresses, but nutrient management options is still lacking. This study is conducted to investigate the combined effect of silica (Si), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) with Sub1 and non-Sub1 cultivars under clear and turbid water submergence. Application of Si reduced elongation, lodging and leaf senescence, with more prominent effects when applied with basal P. Combined effect of N, P and Si resulted in higher photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, higher leaf area and weight ultimately contributing to greater plant survival both under clear and turbid water.

This study examined the effect of soil Al levels and mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant response, including root colonisation, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi propagules and glomalin production. The relative growth rate of roots, P uptake efficiency and mycorrhizal parameters such as root colonisation, spores, hyphae and GRSP showed ‘Aurora’ barley cultivar to be more Al-tolerant than ‘Sebastián’. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the Al-tolerance capacity and P-uptake efficiency of H. vulgare growing in soils with high Al levels.

AM fungi help crop to acquire more nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, but over application of chemical fertilizers reduce biodiversity and the function of the fungi. We found an optimal nitrogen fertilizer management can maintain higher AM fungal biodiversity without losing of the yield of maize comparing to conventional management. Such funding suggests the integrate soil-crop system management approach can balance the environmental cost and nitrogen input in high-yielding agro-ecosystem by maintaining AM fungal community.

CP14182Water use, transpiration efficiency and yield in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) across water regimes

Oumarou Halilou, Falalou Hamidou, Boulama Katzelma Taya, Saadou Mahamane and Vincent Vadez
pp. 715-728

Water use, harvest index, transpiration efficiency and yield were assessed in 20 genotypes of cowpea and peanut in a lysimetric system across season varying for in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and fully irrigated or terminal drought conditions. TE, HI, and water use were more stable across season in cowpea than in peanut, in which the indices decreased dramatically under high VPD. We hypothesize that cowpea has means to control water losses much tighter than peanut, giving it an edge in dryer environment.

CP14104Influence of plant growth stage on resistance to anthracnose in Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis)

Cesar E. Falconi, Richard G. F. Visser and Sjaak van Heusden
pp. 729-734

Anthracnose of lupin was not equally expressed at all developmental stages. Anthracnose was greater at early seedling stage, decreasing significantly in early vegetative phase and increasing again when the flower stage began. We recommend screen first at the 6–7-leaf stage and again when flowering starts so that the overall reaction can be determined. Evaluation of disease resistance at only one stage could result in the loss of progeny that, at other stages, could possess favourable resistant genes.

The study is the first report that demonstrates the inhibitory effect of medicinal plant extracts on Embellisia astragali. Medicinal plant-derived products have a high potential to control yellow dwarf and root-rot disease in standing milkvetch. Medicinal plant extracts are promising as alternative or complementary control means because of their antifungal activity, low phytotoxicity, selectivity, and biodegradability.

CP14012Combined stress of low temperature and flooding affects physiological activities and insecticidal protein content in transgenic Bt cotton

Guisheng Zhou, Yonghui Wang, Fuyan Zhai, Shiyuan Lu, A. E. Nimir, Linlin Yu, Hui Pan and Dongmei Lv
pp. 740-746

Low temperature and flooding decreased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and intercellular CO2 concentration by 37%, 71%, 52%, and 60%, respectively. The contents of soluble protein, insecticidal protein, boll number and boll weight were also decreased by 65%, 53%, 3.2%, and 28.1% respectively. Malondialehyde (MDA) content was increased by up to 114% due to low temperature and flooding stresses.

CP14247Influence of biochar application on nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

Raffaella Petruccelli, Alessandra Bonetti, Maria Laura Traversi, Cecilia Faraloni, Massimo Valagussa and Alessandro Pozzi
pp. 747-755

The impact of biochar on quality and nutritional parameters of tomato was studied. No negative effects of biochar on tomato fruit or on tomato quality could be seen. Future studies should address to understand the mechanisms of action of biochar on deposition of secondary metabolites.

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