Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 2 2017

CP16380Sensitivity of sensor-based nitrogen rates to selection of within-field calibration strips in winter wheat

Stanisław M. Samborski, Dariusz Gozdowski, Olga S. Walsh, Peter Kyveryga and Michał Stłpieł
pp. 101-114

Vegetative indices registered by active optical sensors (AOSs) are transformed into variable nitrogen (N) rate applications. Because of large spatial variation of crop N status, it is difficult to identify sample strips within fields that are most suitable for AOS calibration. This study showed that the sample-strip selection significantly affected sensor-based N prescriptions. The whole-field NDVI values collected during pesticide applications may help to select the most representative sample strips for AOS calibration.

CP16072Yield, growth, canopy traits and photosynthesis in high-yielding, synthetic hexaploid-derived wheats cultivars compared with non-synthetic wheats

Yonglu Tang, Xiaoli Wu, Chaosu Li, Wuyun Yang, Mingbo Huang, Xiaoling Ma and Shizhao Li
pp. 115-125

Three SHW-derived, high-yielding cultivars and three typical, non-synthetic cultivars widely used in wheat production were chosen for a 5-year study, and post-anthesis canopy structure, rates of canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), attenuation during grain filling, dry matter partitioning and other physiological parameters were studied. A semi-compact plant morphology, with high SPAD and high CAP readings and greater HI, was the physiological basis of high yield in SHW-derived cultivars. Yield components were closely related to measured physiological parameters, e.g. grain yield correlated positively with SPAD values and negatively with the proportion of spike rachis at maturation.

This study demonstrates existence of genetic resistance to Sunn pest feeding at the vegetative stage in elite wheat varieties. Using a GWAS approach, the research identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on chromosomes 2D, 4B and 5B that were associated with resistance. The GWAS result was confirmed in two independent, doubled haploid wheat populations, derived from crosses involving wheat landraces from Afghanistan.

Resistance of 217 wild barley accessions against powdery mildew was evaluated in seedling stage with 30 or 36 isolates of the pathogen. Among the set there were found 154 resistance phenotypes reflecting different specific resistance genes or gene combinations. In breeding barley cultivars the effective resistances found in 26 accessions can be combined with the widely used resistance gene mlo.

Relationships between yield, radiation interception (PARint) and use efficiency (RUE) have been studied in many crops; however, research in chickpea is limited. We characterise the relationship between yield, biomass, PARint and RUE at different phenological stages in environments varying for water stress. Yield was related to seasonal PARint, PARint after flowering and RUE for all stages in irrigated crops, whereas in dry crops, yield was associated only with seasonal RUE; this has implications for growth analysis and modelling.

CP16246Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) and PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

Krishnanand P. Kulkarni, Sovetgul Asekova, Dong-Ho Lee, Kristin Bilyeu, Jong Tae Song and Jeong-Dong Lee
pp. 148-155

Soybean is major source of edible oil and plant protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. In the present study, we identified several genomic loci controlling the seed weight, which is a key contributing factor of both seed yield and the quality of soy food products. The findings of the study will provide important insights for genetic improvement of yield potential of elite soybean cultivars.

CP16353Identification of candidate genes for resistance to Soybean mosaic virus strain SC3 by using fine mapping and transcriptome analyses

Cui Li, Karthikeyan Adhimoolam, Yuan Yuan, Jinlong Yin, Rui Ren, Yongqing Yang and Haijian Zhi
pp. 156-166

Near-isogenic lines (NILs) from a cross between Qihuang-1 (R) and Nannong 1138-2 (S) and molecular markers (SSR and indel) were used in identifiing recombination events. Analysis of plants carrying key recombination events placed the resistance gene to a 180-kb region of the ‘Williams 82’ genome sequence with 17 annotated genes. Transcriptome and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that SMV resistance in Qihuang-1 was probably attributable to the four candidate genes.

CP16252Association analysis of molecular markers with traits under drought stress in safflower

Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mahdi Majidi, Ahmad Arzani and Ghasem Mohammadi-Nejad
pp. 167-175

Association analysis could identify stable associations between important traits and 341 polymorphic AFLP markers in 100 safflower genotypes under drought and normal condition. Detected markers would be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs for safflower improvement in arid and semiarid area.

Effect of simulated drought and post-drought recovery on shoot dry matter of several perennial ryegrass cultivars and one tall fescue cultivar with and without their commercial endophyte was evaluated in a rainout-shelter field experiment. Endophyte infection did not enhance shoot dry matter of the cultivars tested. In some novel cultivar–endophyte associations there was a yield disadvantage compared with E– plants when protected from insect pressure.

Cold stratification can increase seed germination of Leymus chinensis under light/dark, different temperature regimes and low water potential conditions. Light had an inhibitory effect on germination percentage under both non-saline and salt stress conditions; darkness is beneficial for germination of this species. Both salt and drought stresses decreased the germination percentage of Leymus chinensis, but the reductions under drought stress were much greater.

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