Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

The application of sediment capping agents on phosphorus speciation and mobility in a sub-tropical dunal lake

Darren Akhurst A , Graham B. Jones A B and David M. McConchie A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Centre for Coastal Management, School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: gjones@scu.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research 55(7) 715-725 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF03181
Submitted: 3 November 2003  Accepted: 27 July 2004   Published: 1 October 2004

Abstract

Experimental sediment cores from Lake Ainsworth, Australia, were exposed to an induced 46-day, anoxic/oxic cycle in the laboratory, mimicking the seasonal thermal stratification cycle commonly observed in the lake’s waters every summer. Under oxic conditions the supply of phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) to the overlying water was slow, however, induced anoxia led to an enhanced release of P and Fe from the sediments to the water column. An inverse relationship between total P, Fe and redox potential suggests that Lake Ainsworth sediments are redox sensitive. Phosphorus speciation analysis of Lake Ainsworth sediments revealed the presence of a large pool of organic P, reactive Fe-bound P, and CaCO3-bound P, the latter fraction decreasing during anoxic conditions. Two sediment-capping agents, a lanthanum modified bentonite clay and Bauxsol (a waste product from the aluminium smelting industry) were assessed for their ability to reduce the levels of P released from Lake Ainsworth sediments during the 46-day, anoxic/oxic cycle. The bentonite clay was highly effective at reducing plant available P in anoxic/oxic conditions, but levels of dissolved Fe were enhanced with its use. Although the use of Bauxsol to remove plant available P is not recommended in anoxic waters, its use in suspension in oxic waters warrants further study.

Extra keywords: anoxia, dunal lake, eutrophication, northern New South Wales, phosphorus release, redox, remediation agents, sediments.


Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Graham Plumb of Ballina Shire Council, staff of the Environmental Analysis Laboratory (EAL) of Southern Cross University, staff of the New South Wales Sport and Recreation Centre (Lake Ainsworth), and Dr Bradley Eyre, and Dr Angus Ferguson of Southern Cross University for advice, and loan of essential sampling equipment.


References

Akhurst, D. J. (2003). ‘Phosphate Removal from Aquaeous Solutions Using Neutralized Bauxite Refinery Residues (BauxsolTM).’ Honours Thesis. (Southern Cross University: Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.) 82 pp.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (1992). ‘Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters.’ (Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council: Canberra, Australia.)

Böers, P. , Van Raaphorst, W. , and Van der Molen, D. T. (1998). Phosphorus retention in sediments. Water Science and Technology 37, 31–39.
CrossRef |

Boström, B. , Persson, G. , and Broberg, B. (1988). Bioavailability of different phosphorus forms in freshwater systems. Hydrobiologia 170, 133–155.


Burley, K. L. , Prepas, E. E. , and Chamber, P. A. (2001). Phosphorus release from sediments in hardwater eutrophic lakes: the effects of redox-sensitive and insensitive chemical treatments. Freshwater Biology 46, 1061.


Caraco, N. F. , Cole, J. J. , and Likens, G. E. (1993). Sulfate control of phosphorus availability in lakes: a test and re-evaluation of Hasler and Einseles Model. Hydrobiologia 253, 275–280.


Chiswell, R. K. , Jones, G. B. , and Brodie, J. (1997). Investigations of the speciation of phosphorus in coastal and estuarine waters of the Great Barrier Reef, using iron strips and colorimetry. Marine and Freshwater Research 48, 287–293.


Clescerl, L. S., Greenberg, A. E., and  Eaton, A. D. (1998). ‘Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.’ 20th edn. (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation: Washington DC, USA.)

Cullen, P. (1986). Managing nutrients in aquatic systems: the eutrophication problem. In ‘Limnology in Australia’. (Eds. P. DeDeckker and W. D. Williams)  pp. 539–554. (CSIRO and Dr. W. Junk: Melbourne, Australia.)

Davies-McConchie, F. , McConchie, D. , Clark, M. , Ryffel, T. , Caldicott, W. , and Pope, S. (2002). BauxsolTM technology provides a new approach to the treatment and management of sulphidic mine tailings, waste rock and acid mine drainage. New Zealand Mining 31, 7–15.


Douglas, G. B., Adeney, J. A. and  Robb, M. (1998). ‘A Novel Technique for Reducing Bioavailable Phosphorus in Water and Sediments.’ CSIRO Internal Report. (CSIRO Land and Water: Perth, Western Australia, Australia.)

Froelich, P. N. (1988). Kinetic control of dissolved phosphate in natural rivers and estuaries: A primer on the P buffer mechanism. Limnology and Oceanography 33, 649–668.


Hammock, D. , and Chiswell, B. (1993). The estimation of bioavailable phosphorus in sediments. Water 20, 9–14.


Harremoes, P. (1998). The challenge of managing water and material balances in relation to eutrophication. Water Science and Technology 37, 9–17.
CrossRef |

Harris, G. (1995). Eutrophication – are Australian waters different from overseas? Water 22, 9–12.


Jensen, H. S. , Mortensen, P. B. , Anderson, F. O. , Rasmussen, E. , and Jensen, A. (1995). Phosphorus cycling in a coastal marine sediment, Aargus Bay, Denmark. Limnology and Oceanography 40, 908–917.


Kournanova, B. , Drame, M. , and Popangelova, B. (1997). Phosphate removal from aqueous solution using red mud wasted in Bauxite Bayer’s Process. Resources Conservation and Recycling 19, 11–20.
CrossRef |

Lee, G. F., Sonzogni, W. C. and  Spear, R. D. (1977). Significance of oxic versus anoxic conditions in Lake Mendota sediment phosphorus release. In ‘Interactions Between Sediments and Freshwater’. (Ed H. L. Golterman)  pp. 294–306. (Dr. W. Junk: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.)

McConchie, D., Clark, M. W., Hanahan, C., and  Fawkes, R. (1999). The use of seawater neutralised bauxite refinery residues (red mud) in environmental remediation programs. In ‘Proceedings of the Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment, and Clean Technology, San Sebastian, Spain’. (Eds. I. Gaballah, J. Hager and R. Solozabal)  pp. 391–400. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society: Warrendale, PA, USA.)

McConchie, D., Clark, M., Hanahan, C., and  Davies-McConchie, F. (2000). The use of seawater-neutralised bauxite refinery residues in the management of acid sulphate soils, sulphidic mine tailings and acid mine drainage. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd Queensland Environment Conference, May 2000’. (Eds. K. Gaul)  pp. 201–288. (Environmental Engineering Society: Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.)

McConchie, D., Clark, M. W., and  Davies-McConchie, F. (2002). New strategies for the management of bauxite refinery residues (red mud). In ‘Proceedings of the 6th International Alumina Quality Workshop, Brisbane, AQW Inc.’.  pp. 327–332. (Alumina Quality Workshop: Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.)

Morel, F. M. M. (1983). ‘Principles of Aquatic Chemistry.’ (Wiley & Sons: Toronto, Canada.)

Mortimer, C. H. (1941). The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes. I & II. Journal of Ecology 28, 280–329.


Mortimer, C. H. (1942). The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes. III & IV. Journal of Ecology 29, 147–201.


Mortimer, C. H. (1971). Chemical exchanges between sediments and water in the Great Lakes – speculations on probable regulatory mechanisms. Limnology and Oceanography 16, 387–404.


Murray, T. E. (1995). The correlation between iron sulphide precipitation and hypolimnetic phosphorus accumulation during one summer in a soft water lake. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52, 1190–1194.


Muslim, I. , and Jones, G. B. (2003). The seasonal variation of dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll a and suspended sediments at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57, 445–455.


NICNAS (2001). ‘Full Public Report – Lanthanum Modified Clay, File No: NA/899.’ (National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme: Camperdown, Australia.)

Oliver, R. L. , Hart, B. T. , Douglas, G. B. , and Beckett, R. (1993). Phosphorus speciation in the Murray and Darling Rivers. Water 8, 24–29.


Outridge, P. M. , Arthington, A. H. , and Miller, G. J. (1989). Limnology of naturally acidic, oligotrophic dune lakes in subtropical Australia, including chlorophyll–phosphorus relationships. Hydrobiologia 179, 39–51.


Prepas, E. E. , and Burke, J. M. (1997). Effects of hypolimnetic oxygenation on water quality in Amisk Lake, Alberta, a deep eutrophic lake with high internal phosphorus loading rates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54, 2111–2120.
CrossRef |

Prepas, E. E. , and Rigler, F. H. (1982). Improvements in quantifying the phosphorus concentration in lake water. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39, 822–829.


Richardson, K. (1996). Conclusions, research and eutrophication control. In ‘Eutrophication in Coastal Marine Ecosystems – Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol 52’.  pp. 243–267. (American Geophysical Union: Washington DC, USA.)

Ruttenberg, K. C. (1992). Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 37, 1460–1482.


Sinke, A. J. C. , and Cappenberg, T. E. (1988). Influence of bacterial processes on the phosphorus release from sediments in the eutrophic Loordrecht Lakes, the Netherlands. Advances in Limnology, Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 30, 5–13.


Stumm, W., and  Morgan, J. J. (1996). ‘Aquatic Chemistry – Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters.’ 3rd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, USA.)

Thornton, J. A., McComb, A. J., and  Ryding, S. O. (1995). ‘The Role of the Sediments, Eutrophic Shallow Estuaries and Lagoons.’  pp. 205–223. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA.)

Van Wazer, J. R. (1973). The compounds of phosphorus. In ‘Environmental Phosphorus Handbook’. (Eds. E. J. Griffith, A. Beeton, J. M. Spencer and D. T. Mitchell)  pp. 169–177. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Ontario, Canada.)

Vollenweider, R. A. (1968). ‘Scientific Fundamentals of the Eutrophication of Lakes and Flowing Waters, with Particular Reference to Nitrogen and Phosphorus as Factors in Eutrophication.’ Technical report DAS/CSI/68.27. (OCED: Paris, France.)

Webster, I. T. , Ford, W. P. , and Hancock, G. (2001). Phosphate dynamics in Australian lowland rivers. Marine and Freshwater Research 52, 127–137.
CrossRef |

Welch, E. B. , and Cooke, G. D. (1995). Internal phosphorus loading in shallow lakes: importance and control. Lake and Reservoir Management 11, 273–281.


Wetzel, R. G. (1975). ‘Limnology.’ (W. B. Saunders: Philadelphia, PA, USA.)



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (26)