Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Multispecies presence and connectivity around a designed artificial reef

Krystle Keller A C , James A. Smith A , Michael B. Lowry B , Matthew D. Taylor A B and Iain M. Suthers A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

B Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Taylors Beach Road, Taylors Beach, NSW 2316, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: krystlekeller7@gmail.com

Marine and Freshwater Research 68(8) 1489-1500 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF16127
Submitted: 8 April 2016  Accepted: 18 January 2017   Published: 24 March 2017

Abstract

A goal of designed artificial reefs (ARs) is to enhance fish abundance, species diversity and fishing opportunities by providing food and refuge for fish. Quantifying the contribution of ARs to coastal ecosystems and fisheries productivity requires an understanding of fish presence at the structure and connectivity with surrounding habitats. In the present study, the movements and presence of 10 eastern fiddler rays (Trygonorrhina fasciata), 17 Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) and 18 bluespotted flathead (Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus) were monitored using acoustic telemetry around a designed AR in 38-m depth near Sydney, Australia. Fiddler rays exhibited an average short-term presence of 43% at the AR, and 26% over the ~20-month monitoring period, which was significantly higher than the other two species. Fish tagged at the AR showed high affinity to the site at which they were tagged compared with fish tagged on natural reef. All three species moved frequently between the AR and the other reefs in the area, indicating that the AR may increase the connectivity between adjacent habitats and aid the dispersion of benthic species. The moderate presence at the AR suggests that these species may contribute to some biomass production at this AR by incorporating this reef in their natural range.

Additional keywords: behaviour, benthic predator, management, purpose-built reef, site fidelity.


References

Airoldi, L., Abbiati, M., Beck, M. W., Hawkins, S. J., Jonsson, P. R., Martin, D., Moschella, P. S., Sundelöf, A., Thompson, R. C., and Åberg, P. (2005). An ecological perspective on the deployment and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defence structures. Coastal Engineering 52, 1073–1087.
An ecological perspective on the deployment and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defence structures.CrossRef |

Barnes, L., Leclerc, M., Gray, C., and Williamson, J. (2011). Dietary niche differentiation of five sympatric species of Platycephalidae. Environmental Biology of Fishes 90, 429–441.
Dietary niche differentiation of five sympatric species of Platycephalidae.CrossRef |

Bass, N. C., Mourier, J., Knott, N. A., Day, J., Brown, C., and Guttridge, T. (2016). Long-term migration patterns and bisexual philopatry in a benthic shark species. Marine and Freshwater Research 68, 1414–1421.
Long-term migration patterns and bisexual philopatry in a benthic shark species.CrossRef |

Becker, A., Taylor, M. D., and Lowry, M. B. (2016). Monitoring of reef associated and pelagic fish communities on Australia’s first purpose built offshore artificial reef. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74, 277–285.

Bohnsack, J. A. (1989). Are high densities of fishes at artificial reefs the result of habitat limitation or behavioral preference? Bulletin of Marine Science 44, 631–645.

Bohnsack, J. A., and Sutherland, D. L. (1985). Artificial reef research: a review with recommendations for future priorities. Bulletin of Marine Science 37, 11–39.

BOM (2015). Climate data online: rainfall. (Bureau of Meteorology.) Available at http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/data/index.shtml?bookmark=136 [Verified 1 June 2016].

Branden, K. L., Pollard, D. A., and Reimers, H. A. (1994). A review of recent artificial reef developments in Australia. Bulletin of Marine Science 55, 982–994.

Campbell, H. A., Watts, M. E., Dwyer, R. G., and Franklin, C. E. (2012). V-Track: software for analysing and visualising animal movement from acoustic telemetry detections. Marine and Freshwater Research 63, 815–820.
V-Track: software for analysing and visualising animal movement from acoustic telemetry detections.CrossRef |

Carr, M. H., and Hixon, M. A. (1997). Artificial reefs: the importance of comparisons with natural reefs. Fisheries 22, 28–33.
Artificial reefs: the importance of comparisons with natural reefs.CrossRef |

Cenci, E., Pizzolon, M., Chimento, N., and Mazzoldi, C. (2011). The influence of a new artificial structure on fish assemblages of adjacent hard substrata. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 91, 133–149.
The influence of a new artificial structure on fish assemblages of adjacent hard substrata.CrossRef |

Champion, C., Suthers, I. M., and Smith, J. A. (2015). Zooplanktivory is a key process for fish production on a coastal artificial reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 541, 1–14.
Zooplanktivory is a key process for fish production on a coastal artificial reef.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhtFalsLzI&md5=e6e9f64d812adc2333e4517c50f9bf60CAS |

Chin, A., Heupel, M. R., Simpfendorfer, C. A., and Tobin, A. J. (2013). Ontogenetic movements of juvenile blacktip reef sharks: evidence of dispersal and connectivity between coastal habitats and coral reefs. Aquatic Conservation 23, 468–474.
Ontogenetic movements of juvenile blacktip reef sharks: evidence of dispersal and connectivity between coastal habitats and coral reefs.CrossRef |

Coleman, N., and Mobley, M. (1984). Diets of commercially exploited fish from Bass Strait and adjacent Victorian Waters, south-eastern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 35, 549–560.
Diets of commercially exploited fish from Bass Strait and adjacent Victorian Waters, south-eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Dwyer, R. G., Watts, M. E., Campbell, H. A., and Franklin, C. E. (2015). VTrack: a collection of tools for the analysis of remote acoustic telemetry data. R package version 1.11. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gamm4 [Verified 1 April 2015].

Egli, D. P., and Babcock, R. C. (2004). Ultrasonic tracking reveals multiple behavioural modes of snapper (Pagrus auratus) in a temperate no-take marine reserve. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61, 1137–1143.
Ultrasonic tracking reveals multiple behavioural modes of snapper (Pagrus auratus) in a temperate no-take marine reserve.CrossRef |

Espinoza, M., Farrugia, T. J., and Lowe, C. G. (2011). Habitat use, movements and site fidelity of the gray smooth-hound shark (Mustelus californicus Gill 1863) in a newly restored southern California estuary. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 401, 63–74.
Habitat use, movements and site fidelity of the gray smooth-hound shark (Mustelus californicus Gill 1863) in a newly restored southern California estuary.CrossRef |

Espinoza, M., Heupel, M. R., Tobin, A. J., and Simpfendorfer, C. A. (2015a). Movement patterns of silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) on coral reefs. Coral Reefs 34, 807–821.
Movement patterns of silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) on coral reefs.CrossRef |

Espinoza, M., Lédée, E. J. I., Simpfendorfer, C. A., Tobin, A. J., and Heupel, M. R. (2015b). Contrasting movements and connectivity of reef-associated sharks using acoustic telemetry: implications for management. Ecological Applications 25, 2101–2118.
Contrasting movements and connectivity of reef-associated sharks using acoustic telemetry: implications for management.CrossRef |

Fetterplace, L. C., Davis, A. R., Neilson, J. M., Taylor, M. D., and Knott, N. A. (2016). Active acoustic tracking suggests that soft sediment fishes can show site attachment: a preliminary assessment of the movement patterns of the blue-spotted flathead (Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus). Animal Biotelemetry 4, 15.
Active acoustic tracking suggests that soft sediment fishes can show site attachment: a preliminary assessment of the movement patterns of the blue-spotted flathead (Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus).CrossRef |

Folpp, H., Lowry, M., Gregson, M., and Suthers, I. M. (2013). Fish assemblages on estuarine artificial reefs: natural rocky-reef mimics or discrete assemblages? PLoS One 8, e63505.
Fish assemblages on estuarine artificial reefs: natural rocky-reef mimics or discrete assemblages?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXpvVKhtL4%3D&md5=6e6bbca93c3ffe70a1e01a1a73e4e7ebCAS |

Gjelland, K. Ø., and Hedger, R. D. (2013). Environmental influence on transmitter detection probability in biotelemetry: developing a general model of acoustic transmission. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4, 665–674.
Environmental influence on transmitter detection probability in biotelemetry: developing a general model of acoustic transmission.CrossRef |

Heupel, M. R., Reiss, K. L., Yeiser, B. G., and Simpfendorfer, C. A. (2008). Effects of biofouling on performance of moored data logging acoustic receivers. Limnology and Oceanography, Methods 6, 327–335.
Effects of biofouling on performance of moored data logging acoustic receivers.CrossRef |

Hussey, N. E., Kessel, S. T., Aarestrup, K., Cooke, S. J., Cowley, P. D., Fisk, A. T., Harcourt, R. G., Holland, K. N., Iverson, S. J., Kocik, J. F., Mills Flemming, J. E., and Whoriskey, F. G. (2015). Aquatic animal telemetry: a panoramic window into the underwater world. Science 348, 1255642.
Aquatic animal telemetry: a panoramic window into the underwater world.CrossRef |

Hutchins, B., and Swainston, R. (1986). ‘Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete Field Guide for Anglers and Divers.’ (Swainston Publishing: Perth, WA, Australia.)

Keller, K., Steffe, A. S., Lowry, M., Murphy, J. J., and Suthers, I. M. (2016). Monitoring boat-based recreational fishing effort at a nearshore artificial reef with a shore-based camera. Fisheries Research 181, 84–92.
Monitoring boat-based recreational fishing effort at a nearshore artificial reef with a shore-based camera.CrossRef |

Keller, K., Steffe, A. S., Lowry, M., Murphy, J. J., Smith, J., and Suthers, I. M. (2017). Estimating the recreational harvest of fish from a nearshore artificial reef using a pragmatic approach. Fisheries Research 187, 158–167.
Estimating the recreational harvest of fish from a nearshore artificial reef using a pragmatic approach.CrossRef |

Koeck, B., Alós, J., Caro, A., Neveu, R., Crec’hriou, R., Saragoni, G., and Lenfant, P. (2013). Contrasting fish behavior in artificial seascapes with implications for resources conservation. PLoS One 8, e69303.
Contrasting fish behavior in artificial seascapes with implications for resources conservation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXht1yqtbzP&md5=325366671b5668ebb2fb6ce1335e7a66CAS |

Last, P. R., and Stevens, J. D. (1994). ‘Sharks and Rays of Australia.’ (CSIRO Division of Fisheries: Hobart, Tas., Australia.)

Layman, C. A., Allgeier, J. E., and Montaña, C. G. (2016). Mechanistic evidence of enhanced production on artificial reefs: a case study in a Bahamian seagrass ecosystem. Ecological Engineering 95, 574–579.
Mechanistic evidence of enhanced production on artificial reefs: a case study in a Bahamian seagrass ecosystem.CrossRef |

Lédée, E. J., Heupel, M. R., Tobin, A. J., and Simpfendorfer, C. A. (2015). Movements and space use of giant trevally in coral reef habitats and the importance of environmental drivers. Animal Biotelemetry 3, 6.
Movements and space use of giant trevally in coral reef habitats and the importance of environmental drivers.CrossRef |

Lee, K. A., Huveneers, C., Macdonald, T., and Harcourt, R. G. (2015). Size isn’t everything: movements, home range, and habitat preferences of eastern blue gropers (Achoerodus viridis) demonstrate the efficacy of a small marine reserve. Aquatic Conservation 25, 174–186.
Size isn’t everything: movements, home range, and habitat preferences of eastern blue gropers (Achoerodus viridis) demonstrate the efficacy of a small marine reserve.CrossRef |

Leitão, F., Santos, M. N., and Monteiro, C. C. (2007). Contribution of artificial reefs to the diet of the white sea bream (Diplodus sargus). ICES Journal of Marine Science 64, 473–478.
Contribution of artificial reefs to the diet of the white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).CrossRef |

Lowry, M., and Folpp, H. (2014). Sydney offshore artificial reef. Annual environmental monitoring report 2012–13, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Lowry, M. B., Glasby, T. M., Boys, C. A., Folpp, H., Suthers, I., and Gregson, M. (2014). Response of fish communities to the deployment of estuarine artificial reefs for fisheries enhancement. Fisheries Management and Ecology 21, 42–56.
Response of fish communities to the deployment of estuarine artificial reefs for fisheries enhancement.CrossRef |

McLaughlin, R. H., and O’Gower, A. K. (1971). Life history and underwater studies of a heterodont shark. Ecological Monographs 41, 271–289.
Life history and underwater studies of a heterodont shark.CrossRef |

Moore, C. H., Harvey, E. S., and Van Niel, K. P. (2009). Spatial prediction of demersal fish distributions: enhancing our understanding of species–environment relationships. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66, 2068–2075.
Spatial prediction of demersal fish distributions: enhancing our understanding of species–environment relationships.CrossRef |

O’Gower, A. (1995). Speculations on a spatial memory for the Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) (Meyer) (Heterodontidae). Marine and Freshwater Research 46, 861–871.
Speculations on a spatial memory for the Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) (Meyer) (Heterodontidae).CrossRef |

Osenberg, C. W., St. Mary, C. M., Wilson, J. A., and Lindberg, W. J. (2002). A quantitative framework to evaluate the attraction–production controversy. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59, S214–S221.
A quantitative framework to evaluate the attraction–production controversy.CrossRef |

Parsley, M. J., Popoff, N. D., Wright, C. D., and van der Leeuw, B. K. (2008). Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137, 1007–1017.
Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River.CrossRef |

Payne, N. L., Gillanders, B. M., Webber, D. M., and Semmens, J. M. (2010). Interpreting diel activity patterns from acoustic telemetry: the need for controls. Marine Ecology Progress Series 419, 295–301.
Interpreting diel activity patterns from acoustic telemetry: the need for controls.CrossRef |

Pickering, H., and Whitmarsh, D. (1997). Artificial reefs and fisheries exploitation: a review of the ‘attraction versus production’ debate, the influence of design and its significance for policy. Fisheries Research 31, 39–59.
Artificial reefs and fisheries exploitation: a review of the ‘attraction versus production’ debate, the influence of design and its significance for policy.CrossRef |

Powers, S. P., Grabowski, J. H., Peterson, C. H., and Lindberg, W. J. (2003). Estimating enhancement of fish production by offshore artificial reefs: uncertainty exhibited by divergent scenarios. Marine Ecology Progress Series 264, 265–277.
Estimating enhancement of fish production by offshore artificial reefs: uncertainty exhibited by divergent scenarios.CrossRef |

Powter, D. M., and Gladstone, W. (2008a). Habitat preferences of Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in the coastal waters of eastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 129, 151–165.

Powter, D. M., and Gladstone, W. (2008b). The reproductive biology and ecology of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni in the coastal waters of eastern Australia. Journal of Fish Biology 72, 2615–2633.
The reproductive biology and ecology of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni in the coastal waters of eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Powter, D. M., and Gladstone, W. (2009). Habitat-mediated use of space by juvenile and mating adult Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in eastern Australia. Pacific Science 63, 1–14.
Habitat-mediated use of space by juvenile and mating adult Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Powter, D. M., Gladstone, W., and Platell, M. (2010). The influence of sex and maturity on the diet, mouth morphology and dentition of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 74–85.
The influence of sex and maturity on the diet, mouth morphology and dentition of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni.CrossRef |

Reubens, J. T., Pasotti, F., Degraer, S., and Vincx, M. (2013). Residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at an offshore wind farm using acoustic telemetry. Marine Environmental Research 90, 128–135.
Residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at an offshore wind farm using acoustic telemetry.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXht1GjsL3P&md5=71a2028fc59d2d5e2bbdf5c0a4225333CAS |

Ross, P. M., Thrush, S. F., Montgomery, J. C., Walker, J. W., and Parsons, D. M. (2007). Habitat complexity and predation risk determine juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) and goatfish (Upeneichthys lineatus) behaviour and distribution. Marine and Freshwater Research 58, 1144–1151.
Habitat complexity and predation risk determine juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) and goatfish (Upeneichthys lineatus) behaviour and distribution.CrossRef |

Rowling, K., Hegarty, A., and Ives, M. (Eds) (2010). Bluespotted flathead. In ‘Status of Fisheries Resources in New South Wales 2008/09’. pp 47–49, Industry and Investment NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Santos, M. N., and Monteiro, C. C. (1998). Comparison of the catch and fishing yield from an artificial reef system and neighbouring areas off Faro (Algarve, south Portugal). Fisheries Research 39, 55–65.
Comparison of the catch and fishing yield from an artificial reef system and neighbouring areas off Faro (Algarve, south Portugal).CrossRef |

Schlaff, A., Heupel, M., and Simpfendorfer, C. (2014). Influence of environmental factors on shark and ray movement, behaviour and habitat use: a review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 24, 1089–1103.
Influence of environmental factors on shark and ray movement, behaviour and habitat use: a review.CrossRef |

Scott, M. E., Smith, J. A., Lowry, M. B., Taylor, M. D., and Suthers, I. M. (2015). The influence of an offshore artificial reef on the abundance of fish in the surrounding pelagic environment. Marine and Freshwater Research 66, 429–437.
The influence of an offshore artificial reef on the abundance of fish in the surrounding pelagic environment.CrossRef |

Shipley, J. B., and Cowan, J. H. (2011). Artificial reef placement: a red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, ecosystem and fuzzy rule-based model. Fisheries Management and Ecology 18, 154–167.
Artificial reef placement: a red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, ecosystem and fuzzy rule-based model.CrossRef |

Smith, J. A., Lowry, M. B., and Suthers, I. M. (2015). Fish attraction to artificial reefs not always harmful: a simulation study. Ecology and Evolution 5, 4590–4602.
Fish attraction to artificial reefs not always harmful: a simulation study.CrossRef |

Smith, J. A., Lowry, M., Champion, C., and Suthers, I. M. (2016). A designed artificial reef is among the most productive marine fish habitats: new metrics to address ‘production versus attraction’. Marine Biology 163, 188.
A designed artificial reef is among the most productive marine fish habitats: new metrics to address ‘production versus attraction’.CrossRef |

Strelcheck, A. J., Cowan, J. H., and Patterson, W. F. (2007). Site fidelity, movement, and growth of red snapper: implications for artificial reef management. American Fisheries Society Symposium 60, 147–162.

Szedlmayer, S. T., and Schroepfer, R. L. (2005). Long-term residence of red snapper on artificial reefs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134, 315–325.
Long-term residence of red snapper on artificial reefs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.CrossRef |

Topping, D. T., and Szedlmayer, S. T. (2011). Site fidelity, residence time and movements of red snapper Lutjanus campechanus estimated with long-term acoustic monitoring. Marine Ecology Progress Series 437, 183–200.
Site fidelity, residence time and movements of red snapper Lutjanus campechanus estimated with long-term acoustic monitoring.CrossRef |

Vianna, G. M. S., Meekan, M. G., Meeuwig, J. J., and Speed, C. W. (2013). Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at aggregation sites. PLoS One 8, e60331.
Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at aggregation sites.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXmsFGns7s%3D&md5=f072dabb065051f16cf7cfcf860d1372CAS |

Villegas-Ríos, D., Alós, J., March, D., Palmer, M., Mucientes, G., and Saborido-Rey, F. (2013). Home range and diel behavior of the ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta, determined by acoustic telemetry. Journal of Sea Research 80, 61–71.
Home range and diel behavior of the ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta, determined by acoustic telemetry.CrossRef |

Walsh, W. J. (1985). Reef fish community dynamics on small artificial reefs: the influence of isolation, habitat structure, and biogeography. Bulletin of Marine Science 36, 357–376.

Warton, D. I., and Hui, F. K. C. (2011). The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology. Ecology 92, 3–10.
The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology.CrossRef |

Wells, R. M. G., McNeil, H., and MacDonard, J. A. (2005). Fish hypnosis: induction of an atonic immobility reflex. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 38, 71–78.
Fish hypnosis: induction of an atonic immobility reflex.CrossRef |

West, L. D., Stark, K. E., Murphy, J. J., Lyle, J. M., and Ochwada-Doyle, F. A. (2015). ‘Survey of Recreational Fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013/14.’ (NSW Department of Primary Industries: Wollongong, NSW, Australia.)

Westmeyer, M. P., Wilson, C. A. III, and Nieland, D. L. (2007). Fidelity of red snapper to petroleum platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico. In ‘Red Snapper Ecology and Fisheries in the US Gulf of Mexico, American Fisheries Society Symposium’, 10–12 February 2006, San Antonio, TX, USA. (Eds W. F. Patterson III, J. H. Cowan Jr, G. R. Fitzhugh, and D. L. Nieland.) Vol. 60, pp. 105–121. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD, USA.)

Wilson, J., Osenberg, C. W., St. Mary, C. M., Watson, C. A., and Lindberg, W. J. (2001). Artificial reefs, the attraction–production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental fishes. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 3, 95–105.
Artificial reefs, the attraction–production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental fishes.CrossRef |

Workman, I., Shah, A., Foster, D., and Hataway, B. (2002). Habitat preferences and site fidelity of juvenile red snapper. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59, S43–S50.
Habitat preferences and site fidelity of juvenile red snapper.CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (220 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)

View Altmetrics