Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Elevated salinity inhibits nitrogen removal by changing the microbial community composition in constructed wetlands during the cold season

Yajun Qiao A B 1 , Penghe Wang A C 1 , Wenjuan Zhang A , Guangfang Sun A , Dehua Zhao A B D , Nasreen Jeelani A B , Xin Leng A B D and Shuqing An A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Institute of Wetland Ecology, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Xianlin Avenue 163, Nanjing, 210046, P.R. China.

B Nanjing University Ecology Research Institute of Changshu, Huanhu Road 1, Changshu, 215500, P.R. China.

C MCC Huatian Engineering and Technology Corporation, Fuchunjiangdong Street 18, Nanjing, 210019, P.R. China.

D Corresponding authors. Email: dhzhao@nju.edu.cn; lengx@nju.edu.cn

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17171
Submitted: 8 June 2017  Accepted: 8 November 2017   Published online: 8 February 2018

Abstract

In the present study we investigated whether subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) can remove nitrogen from saline waste water and whether salinity affects nitrogen removal during the cold season (mean water temperature <10°C). Eight Iris pseudacorus-planted SSF-CWs were fed with normal (salinity 1.3–1.5‰; CWP) or saline (salinity 6.3–6.5‰; CWP+) waste water; similarly, eight unplanted SSF-CWs were fed with normal (CWU) or saline waste water (CWU+). The systems were run continuously at a hydraulic loading rate of 187.5 mm day–1 and a hydraulic retention time of 4 days. Nitrogen removal efficiency, plant parameters and bacterial abundance and community composition were measured. In CWP, 80% of NH4+-N and 52% of total nitrogen (TN) were removed. In contrast, the removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWP+ were reduced by 27 and 37% respectively. In the presence of higher salinity, not only were there decreases in plant biomass (32.1%) and nitrogen uptake (50.1%), but the growth, activity and oxygen release of roots were also reduced (by 37.8, 68.0 and 62.9% respectively). Bacterial community composition also differed under conditions of elevated salinity. Elevated salinity is associated with lower nitrogen removal in SSF-CWs, which we speculate is a result of suppressed wetland macrophyte growth and activity, as well as changes in microbial community composition.

Additional key words: bacterial community, Iris pseudacorus, nitrification–denitrification, nitrogen reduction, saline waste water.


References

Ahn, C., Gillevet, P. M., and Sikaroodi, M. (2007). Molecular characterization of microbial communities in treatment microcosm wetlands as influenced by macrophytes and phosphorus loading. Ecological Indicators 7, 852–863.
Molecular characterization of microbial communities in treatment microcosm wetlands as influenced by macrophytes and phosphorus loading.CrossRef |

Ansola, G., Arroyo, P., and Saenz de Miera, L. E. (2014). Characterisation of the soil bacterial community structure and composition of natural and constructed wetlands. The Science of the Total Environment 473–474, 63–71.
Characterisation of the soil bacterial community structure and composition of natural and constructed wetlands.CrossRef |

Baptista, J. C., Davenport, R. J., Donnelly, T., and Curtis, T. P. (2008). The microbial diversity of laboratory-scale wetlands appears to be randomly assembled. Water Research 42, 3182–3190.
The microbial diversity of laboratory-scale wetlands appears to be randomly assembled.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXntFGnt70%3D&md5=8e8791840d22ff4fd98dba9ac8d5dc79CAS |

Bonfá, M. R., Grossman, M. J., Piubeli, F., Mellado, E., and Durrant, L. R. (2013). Phenol degradation by halophilic bacteria isolated from hypersaline environments. Biodegradation 24, 699–709.
Phenol degradation by halophilic bacteria isolated from hypersaline environments.CrossRef |

Bradley, P. M., and Morris, J. T. (1991). The influence of salinity on the kinetics of NH4+ uptake in Spartina alternittora. Oecologia 85, 375–380.
The influence of salinity on the kinetics of NH4+ uptake in Spartina alternittora.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC1czotVGmsw%3D%3D&md5=00843502499d7685f7266384c075d68cCAS |

Brix, H., and Arias, C. A. (2005). Danish guidelines for small-scale constructed wetland system for onsite treatment of domestic sewage. Environmental Science & Technology 51, 1–9.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpsVWru7s%3D&md5=a32a67e08d2839ee67c586783fd0098fCAS |

Calheiros, C. S., Quiterio, P. V., Silva, G., Crispim, L. F., Brix, H., Moura, S. C., and Castro, P. M. (2012). Use of constructed wetland systems with Arundo and Sarcocornia for polishing high salinity tannery wastewater. Journal of Environmental Management 95, 66–71.
Use of constructed wetland systems with Arundo and Sarcocornia for polishing high salinity tannery wastewater.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhsFKjsLzE&md5=28c40572105664816e31d172f0aa839aCAS |

Chen, Y., Wen, Y., Zhou, Q., and Vymazal, J. (2014). Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. Bioresource Technology 157, 341–345.
Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXjtVGku74%3D&md5=75945672c80956d443f3e9eeedfc11ecCAS |

Chen, Y., Wen, Y., Tang, Z., Huang, J., Zhou, Q., and Vymazal, J. (2015). Effects of plant biomass on bacterial community structure in constructed wetlands used for tertiary wastewater treatment. Ecological Engineering 84, 38–45.
Effects of plant biomass on bacterial community structure in constructed wetlands used for tertiary wastewater treatment.CrossRef |

Cui, L., Ouyang, Y., Gu, W., Yang, W., and Xu, Q. (2013). Evaluation of nutrient removal efficiency and microbial enzyme activity in a baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland system. Bioresource Technology 146, 656–662.
Evaluation of nutrient removal efficiency and microbial enzyme activity in a baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhsVejtLbE&md5=8ccc052b35c213eeb0cfdcee1a647f2bCAS |

Di, H. J., Cameron, K. C., Shen, J. P., Winefield, C. S., O’Callaghan, M., Bowatte, S., and He, J. Z. (2010). Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea grow under contrasting soil nitrogen conditions. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 72, 386–394.
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea grow under contrasting soil nitrogen conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmslKmu78%3D&md5=afa0b49bb4d734ffb4491a770113af9dCAS |

Edgar, R. C. (2010). Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics 26, 2460–2461.
Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXht1WhtbzM&md5=e585e4c738d7a931932272190efbbf7cCAS |

Faulwetter, J. L., Gagnon, V., Sundberg, C., Chazarenc, F., Burr, M. D., Brisson, J., Camper, A. K., and Stein, O. R. (2009). Microbial processes influencing performance of treatment wetlands: a review. Ecological Engineering 35, 987–1004.
Microbial processes influencing performance of treatment wetlands: a review.CrossRef |

Faulwetter, J. L., Burr, M. D., Parker, A. E., Stein, O. R., and Camper, A. K. (2013). Influence of season and plant species on the abundance and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland microcosms. Microbial Ecology 65, 111–127.
Influence of season and plant species on the abundance and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland microcosms.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXosl2htQ%3D%3D&md5=1aa87beb620acbc6f5df126ebbc75a3dCAS |

Gao, F., Yang, Z.-H., Li, C., and Jin, W.-H. (2015). Saline domestic sewage treatment in constructed wetlands: study of plant selection and treatment characteristics. Desalination and Water Treatment 53, 593–602.
Saline domestic sewage treatment in constructed wetlands: study of plant selection and treatment characteristics.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhslWisL3M&md5=6bf43276b48bd179a64916c2a9e19bebCAS |

Glenn, T. C. (2011). Field guide to next-generation DNA sequencers. Molecular Ecology Resources 11, 759–769.
Field guide to next-generation DNA sequencers.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1eqsLzK&md5=51ad28d800f660ab6e5508e48011bf90CAS |

Heylen, K., Vanparys, B., Wittebolle, L., Verstraete, W., Boon, N., and De Vos, P. (2006). Cultivation of denitrifying bacteria: optimization of isolation conditions and diversity study. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 2637–2643.
Cultivation of denitrifying bacteria: optimization of isolation conditions and diversity study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XktFagu70%3D&md5=39dcc31094b2f23d22bf7311e94a5882CAS |

Huang, L., Gao, X., Liu, M., Du, G., Guo, J., and Ntakirutimana, T. (2012). Correlation among soil microorganisms, soil enzyme activities, and removal rates of pollutants in three constructed wetlands purifying micro-polluted river water. Ecological Engineering 46, 98–106.
Correlation among soil microorganisms, soil enzyme activities, and removal rates of pollutants in three constructed wetlands purifying micro-polluted river water.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XmvVaksL0%3D&md5=9159503d56558370e232b9b05d014b13CAS |

Huang, J., Cai, W., Zhong, Q., and Wang, S. (2013). Influence of temperature on micro-environment, plant eco-physiology and nitrogen removal effect in subsurface flow constructed wetland. Ecological Engineering 60, 242–248.
Influence of temperature on micro-environment, plant eco-physiology and nitrogen removal effect in subsurface flow constructed wetland.CrossRef |

ISO (2016) ISO 5667-4:2016: water quality. Sampling. Part 4: guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made. (International Organization for Standardization: Geneva, Switzerland.)

Jesus, J. M., Danko, A. S., Fiuza, A., and Borges, M. T. (2015). Phytoremediation of salt-affected soils: a review of processes, applicability, and the impact of climate change. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 22, 6511–6525.
Phytoremediation of salt-affected soils: a review of processes, applicability, and the impact of climate change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXjtVynsr0%3D&md5=7e7e76b7825d4a9a628ffa36bd3ae45dCAS |

Johns, C., Ramsey, M., Bell, D., and Vaughton, G. (2014). Does increased salinity reduce functional depth tolerance of four non-halophytic wetland macrophyte species? Aquatic Botany 116, 13–18.
Does increased salinity reduce functional depth tolerance of four non-halophytic wetland macrophyte species?CrossRef |

Karajić, M., Lapanje, A., Razinger, J., Zrimec, A., and Vrhovsek, D. (2010). The effect of the application of halotolerant microorganisms on the efficiency of a pilot-scale constructed wetland for saline wastewater treatment. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society 75, 129–142.
The effect of the application of halotolerant microorganisms on the efficiency of a pilot-scale constructed wetland for saline wastewater treatment.CrossRef |

Klomjek, P., and Nitisoravut, S. (2005). Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions. Chemosphere 58, 585–593.
Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtFGiurfP&md5=ffaec74df1bdc3120f0f2729ac3d4a84CAS |

Kludze, H. K., DeLaune, R. D., and Petric, W. H. (1994). A colorimetric method for assaying dissolved oxygen loss from container-grown rice roots. Agronomy Journal 86, 483–487.
A colorimetric method for assaying dissolved oxygen loss from container-grown rice roots.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXmt1GmsL0%3D&md5=e4e1158bf534fe1ded8bace63fc7c097CAS |

Knief, C., Ramette, A., Frances, L., Alonso-Blanco, C., and Vorholt, J. A. (2010). Site and plant species are important determinants of the Methylobacterium community composition in the plant phyllosphere. The ISME Journal 4, 719–728.
Site and plant species are important determinants of the Methylobacterium community composition in the plant phyllosphere.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmtFCnsrs%3D&md5=037ac7d378b72db980d9a81b9297047bCAS |

Korboulewsky, N., Wang, R., and Baldy, V. (2012). Purification processes involved in sludge treatment by a vertical flow wetland system: focus on the role of the substrate and plants on N and P removal. Bioresource Technology 105, 9–14.
Purification processes involved in sludge treatment by a vertical flow wetland system: focus on the role of the substrate and plants on N and P removal.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XivVKmsw%3D%3D&md5=e11310e1ef515d1922d9ef697616b40cCAS |

Li, H. S., Sun, Q., Zhao, S. J., and Zhang, W. H. (Eds) (2000). ‘Principles and Techniques of Plant Physiological Biochemical Experiment.’ (Higher Education Press: Beijing, P.R. China.) [In Chinese].

Lin, T., Wen, Y., Jiang, L., Li, J., Yang, S., and Zhou, Q. (2008). Study of atrazine degradation in subsurface flow constructed wetland under different salinity. Chemosphere 72, 122–128.
Study of atrazine degradation in subsurface flow constructed wetland under different salinity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXlvVCgsrs%3D&md5=4891865fc54963a449d2dc15669aa09aCAS |

Liu, L., Li, Y., Li, S., Hu, N., He, Y., Pong, R., Lin, D., Lu, L., and Law, M. (2012). Comparison of next-generation sequencing systems. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology 2012, 251364.
Comparison of next-generation sequencing systems.CrossRef |

Liu, S., Ying, G. G., Liu, Y. S., Peng, F. Q., and He, L. Y. (2013). Degradation of norgestrel by bacteria from activated sludge: comparison to progesterone. Environmental Science & Technology 47, 10266–10276.
Degradation of norgestrel by bacteria from activated sludge: comparison to progesterone.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXht1Oqs7%2FE&md5=aa19da7ead21dc09ca7ff05340ae5be4CAS |

Lu, H., Chandran, K., and Stensel, D. (2014). Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. Water Research 64, 237–254.
Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXht1Cgu7nM&md5=286ad9359098be27803925fae4bd2949CAS |

Meng, P., Pei, H., Hu, W., Shao, Y., and Li, Z. (2014). How to increase microbial degradation in constructed wetlands: influencing factors and improvement measures. Bioresource Technology 157, 316–326.
How to increase microbial degradation in constructed wetlands: influencing factors and improvement measures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXivVelsbo%3D&md5=3baa98008414e269be3ff4e322061021CAS |

Mopper, S., Wiens, K. C., and Goranova, G. A. (2016). Competition, salinity, and clonal growth in native and introduced irises. American Journal of Botany 103, 1575–1581.
Competition, salinity, and clonal growth in native and introduced irises.CrossRef |

Nitisoravut, S., and Klomjek, P. (2005). Inhibition kinetics of salt-affected wetland for municipal wastewater treatment. Water Research 39, 4413–4419.
Inhibition kinetics of salt-affected wetland for municipal wastewater treatment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFGhsLfO&md5=52be0af9a1e5a2a0b12d26735d62a43eCAS |

Pathikonda, S., Meerow, A., Zhenxiang, H., and Mopper, S. (2010). Salinity tolerance and genetic variability in freshwater and brackish Iris hexagona colonies. American Journal of Botany 97, 1438–1443.
Salinity tolerance and genetic variability in freshwater and brackish Iris hexagona colonies.CrossRef |

Philippot, L., and Hallin, S. (2005). Finding the missing link between diversity and activity using denitrifying bacteria as a model functional community. Current Opinion in Microbiology 8, 234–239.
Finding the missing link between diversity and activity using denitrifying bacteria as a model functional community.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXltVaqtLc%3D&md5=0d1a0e91b1ad40bbffaf38e2b6db033cCAS |

Philippot, L., Hallin, S., and Schloter, M. (2007). Ecology of denitrifying prokaryotes in agricultural soil. Advances in Agronomy 96, 249–305.
Ecology of denitrifying prokaryotes in agricultural soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXktlyisLs%3D&md5=4212079cf79bc6b5da47ffcf22180bdaCAS |

Rice, E., Baird, R., Eaton, A., and Clesceri, L. (2012) ‘Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water.’ (American Public Health Association: Washington DC, USA.)

Rinke, C., Schwientek, P., Sczyrba, A., Ivanova, N. N., Anderson, I. J., Cheng, J.-F., Darling, A., Malfatti, S., Swan, B. K., Gies, E. A., Dodsworth, J. A., Hedlund, B. P., Tsiamis, G., Sievert, S. M., Liu, W.-T., Eisen, J. A., Hallam, S. J., Kyrpides, N. C., Stepanauskas, R., Rubin, E. M., Hugenholtz, P., and Woyke, T. (2013). Insights into the phylogeny and coding potential of microbial dark matter. Nature 499, 431–437.
Insights into the phylogeny and coding potential of microbial dark matter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtFShurnE&md5=e9b454cc051da841f49252ecafbefbeeCAS |

Ruiz-Rueda, O., Hallin, S., and Baneras, L. (2009). Structure and function of denitrifying and nitrifying bacterial communities in relation to the plant species in a constructed wetland. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 67, 308–319.
Structure and function of denitrifying and nitrifying bacterial communities in relation to the plant species in a constructed wetland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXptFGltA%3D%3D&md5=51808199e551ca1572549a3db05fc809CAS |

Salvato, M., Borin, M., Doni, S., Macci, C., Ceccanti, B., Marinari, S., and Masciandaro, G. (2012). Wetland plants, micro-organisms and enzymatic activities interrelations in treating N polluted water. Ecological Engineering 47, 36–43.
Wetland plants, micro-organisms and enzymatic activities interrelations in treating N polluted water.CrossRef |

Saunders, A. M., Larsen, P., and Nielsen, P. H. (2013). Comparison of nutrient-removing microbial communities in activated sludge from full-scale MBRs and conventional plants. Water Science and Technology 68, 366–371.
Comparison of nutrient-removing microbial communities in activated sludge from full-scale MBRs and conventional plants.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3sfhsVynuw%3D%3D&md5=dec99a410bef0be113717bb5408d62eaCAS |

Schloss, P. D., Westcott, S. L., Ryabin, T., Hall, J. R., Hartmann, M., Hollister, E. B., Lesniewski, R. A., Oakley, B. B., Parks, D. H., Robinson, C. J., Sahl, J. W., Stres, B., Thallinger, G. G., Van Horn, D. J., and Weber, C. F. (2009). Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75, 7537–7541.
Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXis1yltw%3D%3D&md5=1cfae628564974241393efc55f4dc2b8CAS |

Sharma, K. P., Singh, P. K., Kumar, S., Sharma, S., and Kumar, R. (2011). Tolerance of some hardy plant species to biomethanated spent wash of distilleries. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 10, 97–112.

Song, K., Lee, S. H., and Kang, H. (2011). Denitrification rates and community structure of denitrifying bacteria in newly constructed wetland. European Journal of Soil Biology 47, 24–29.
Denitrification rates and community structure of denitrifying bacteria in newly constructed wetland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXms1eq&md5=587e8a329f8fc655f1cdf68a82aa4c80CAS |

Tietz, A., Hornek, R., Langergraber, G., Kreuzinger, N., and Haberl, R. (2007). Diversity of ammonia oxidising bacteria in a vertical flow constructed wetland. Water Science and Technology 56, 241–249.
Diversity of ammonia oxidising bacteria in a vertical flow constructed wetland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVKksrfL&md5=4acd8b424f2898a56adcbadc149a9735CAS |

Toet, S., Bouwman, M., Cevaal, A., and Verhoeven, J. T. A. (2005). Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent. Journal of Environmental Science and Health – A 40, 1133–1156.
Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXks12ms7w%3D&md5=fa5ab33df6776beb0300acf3c0e71fd9CAS |

Truu, M., Juhanson, J., and Truu, J. (2009). Microbial biomass, activity and community composition in constructed wetlands. The Science of the Total Environment 407, 3958–3971.
Microbial biomass, activity and community composition in constructed wetlands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXls1Oku7k%3D&md5=e752fa2f75653bdcaf189d80f2d3cac4CAS |

Vacca, G., Wand, H., Nikolausz, M., Kuschk, P., and Kastner, M. (2005). Effect of plants and filter materials on bacteria removal in pilot-scale constructed wetlands. Water Research 39, 1361–1373.
Effect of plants and filter materials on bacteria removal in pilot-scale constructed wetlands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXjvVClurk%3D&md5=00c7156dee7969bf8c9fb06b5210427aCAS |

Van Zandt, P. A., Tobler, M. A., Mouton, E., Hasenstein, K. H., and Mopper, S. (2003). Positive and negative consequences of salinity stress for the growth and reproduction of the clonal plant, Iris hexagona. Journal of Ecology 91, 837–846.
Positive and negative consequences of salinity stress for the growth and reproduction of the clonal plant, Iris hexagona.CrossRef |

Vymazal, J. (2011). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience. Environmental Science & Technology 45, 61–69.
Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtVKrt77N&md5=507482f7da0fe492ab1f2cb96261e67eCAS |

Vymazal, J. (2014). Constructed wetlands for treatment of industrial wastewaters: a review. Ecological Engineering 73, 724–751.
Constructed wetlands for treatment of industrial wastewaters: a review.CrossRef |

Wang, Q., Garrity, G. M., Tiedje, J. M., and Cole, J. R. (2007). Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73, 5261–5267.
Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXpsleqtrc%3D&md5=09eb6c5db57a46b898c8cbbdb02878e2CAS |

Wang, Q., Xie, H., Zhang, J., Liang, S., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Liu, C., Zhao, C., and Li, H. (2015). Effect of plant harvesting on the performance of constructed wetlands during winter: radial oxygen loss and microbial characteristics. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 22, 7476–7484.
Effect of plant harvesting on the performance of constructed wetlands during winter: radial oxygen loss and microbial characteristics.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXitFKmtrfF&md5=2cdd32a12b1888bae2c1557a283f5687CAS |

Wang, P., Zhang, H., Zuo, J., Zhao, D., Zou, X., Zhu, Z., Jeelani, N., Leng, X., and An, S. (2016a). A hardy plant facilitates nitrogen removal via microbial communities in subsurface flow constructed wetlands in winter. Scientific Reports 6, 33600.
A hardy plant facilitates nitrogen removal via microbial communities in subsurface flow constructed wetlands in winter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhsFGrsb3F&md5=5f693acf4bc7d09220cbd4875ef3fdceCAS |

Wang, Q., Xie, H., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Zhang, J., Liu, C., Liang, S., Hu, Z., Yang, Z., and Zhao, C. (2016b). Microbial abundance and community in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms: role of plant presence. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 23, 4036–4045.
Microbial abundance and community in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms: role of plant presence.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXkvVKnu70%3D&md5=e532a197a5c9207ce15c6e85d5dcbc50CAS |

Wittebolle, L., Vervaeren, H., Verstraete, W., and Boon, N. (2008). Quantifying community dynamics of nitrifiers in functionally stable reactors. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, 286–293.
Quantifying community dynamics of nitrifiers in functionally stable reactors.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXnsVGqsw%3D%3D&md5=8514bc2b0980ccbb9e1b70786949e0baCAS |

Wu, C., Ye, Z., Shu, W., Zhu, Y., and Wong, M. (2011). Arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice are affected by root aeration and variation of genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 2889–2898.
Arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice are affected by root aeration and variation of genotypes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXmsVyksLY%3D&md5=ba0990710b2757536e40cf7ff2ccca3bCAS |

Wu, Y., Li, T., and Yang, L. (2012). Mechanisms of removing pollutants from aqueous solutions by microorganisms and their aggregates: a review. Bioresource Technology 107, 10–18.
Mechanisms of removing pollutants from aqueous solutions by microorganisms and their aggregates: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhvVCqsL0%3D&md5=dd448da540c27f002201a664993e950aCAS |

Wu, S., Kuschk, P., Brix, H., Vymazal, J., and Dong, R. (2014). Development of constructed wetlands in performance intensifications for wastewater treatment: a nitrogen and organic matter targeted review. Water Research 57, 40–55.
Development of constructed wetlands in performance intensifications for wastewater treatment: a nitrogen and organic matter targeted review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXotF2htbY%3D&md5=a6c6f333102c8209ed0c3a0566d674dfCAS |

Wu, S., Wallace, S., Brix, H., Kuschk, P., Kirui, W. K., Masi, F., and Dong, R. (2015). Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance. Environmental Pollution 201, 107–120.
Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXktFeiur4%3D&md5=dd8f8b1ca2be34f147433421be54b48dCAS |

Yoshie, S., Makino, H., Hirosawa, H., Shirotani, K., Tsuneda, S., and Hirata, A. (2006). Molecular analysis of halophilic bacterial community for high-rate denitrification of saline industrial wastewater. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 72, 182–189.
Molecular analysis of halophilic bacterial community for high-rate denitrification of saline industrial wastewater.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XotVygtLg%3D&md5=e29d600794c751cd0db8db1ad7ec6218CAS |

Zhao, H., Wang, F., Ji, M., and Yang, J. (2014). Effects of salinity on removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from eutrophic saline water in planted Lythrum salicaria L. microcosm systems. Desalination and Water Treatment 52, 6655–6663.
Effects of salinity on removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from eutrophic saline water in planted Lythrum salicaria L. microcosm systems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXht1Glsr3E&md5=f25d674fc56d70888aca28782e3e9f6dCAS |

Zhao, C., Xie, H., Xu, J., Xu, X., Zhang, J., Hu, Z., Liu, C., Liang, S., Wang, Q., and Wang, J. (2015). Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants. The Science of the Total Environment 505, 633–639.
Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhvVWit7vN&md5=e60f29ab09750e49727f5880944e2532CAS |

Zhi, W., and Ji, G. (2014). Quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen functional genes in a tidal flow constructed wetland under C/N ratio constraints. Water Research 64, 32–41.
Quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen functional genes in a tidal flow constructed wetland under C/N ratio constraints.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXht1Cgs7rJ&md5=7f79cb5d07639e96ac749ea964e647b0CAS |

Zhong, F., Wu, J., Dai, Y., Yang, L., Zhang, Z., Cheng, S., and Zhang, Q. (2015). Bacterial community analysis by PCR-DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with front aeration. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 99, 1499–1512.
Bacterial community analysis by PCR-DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with front aeration.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsFCgs7rI&md5=07cbee9d7c57a1984ec5b2f1f49e7f74CAS |



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (187 KB) Export Citation