Distribution and reproductive biology of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo), in Western Australian waters
R. B. McAuley A B D , C. A. Simpfendorfer C , G. A. Hyndes B and R. C. J. Lenanton A
A WA Fisheries and Marine Research Laboratories, Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia, PO Box 20, North Beach, WA 6920, Australia.
B Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.
C Center for Shark Research, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA.
D Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Marine and Freshwater Research 58(1) 116-126 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF05234
Submitted: 25 November 2005 Accepted: 26 July 2006 Published: 30 January 2007
In total, 7497 sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo, 1827), were collected between May 2000 and June 2003 from commercial fishers and during fishery-independent research cruises in coastal Western Australian waters. Maximum observed lengths were 165 and 166 cm fork length (FL) for males and females respectively. The lengths at which 50% of sharks were mature were 126.9 and 135.9 cm FL for males and females respectively. Juvenile sharks tended to occur in temperate waters, whereas mature-sized sharks predominantly occurred in tropical waters. Unlike other regions, juveniles were found in offshore continental shelf waters rather than in shallow waters of estuaries and marine embayments. Results indicated a biennial reproductive periodicity. Mating occurred during summer and autumn, and parturition took place after a 12-month gestation. Pups were born at 40 to 45 cm FL throughout most of the species’ Western Australian range. The majority of neonates were caught at temperate latitudes. Litter sizes varied between 4 and 10, with a mean of 6.5. There was a weak but statistically significant increase in litter size with maternal length. Mean embryonic sex ratio of females to males differed significantly from a one-to-one ratio.
Additional keyword: logistic regression analysis.
Bass A. J., D’Aubrey J. D., and Kistnasamy N. (1973). Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. I. The genus Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae). Investigational Report. 33. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban.
Bigelow H. B.Schroeder W. C.1948Sharks.Sears Foundation for Marine Research153576
Bonfil R. (1994). Overview of world elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 341. FAO, Rome.
Branstetter S. (1990). Early life-history implications of selected carcharhinoid and lamnoid sharks of the northwest Atlantic. In ‘Elasmobranchs as Living Resources: Advances in the Biology, Ecology, Systematics and the Status of the Fisheries’. NOAA Technical Report, National Marine Fisheries Service No. 90. (Eds H. L. Pratt, S. H. Gruber and T. Taniuchi.) pp. 17–28. (US Department of Commerce: Seattle, WA.)
Brewster-Geisz K. K.Miller T. J.2000Management of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus: implications of a stage-based model.Fishery Bulletin98236249
Caputi N.Fletcher W. J.Pearce A.Chubb C. F.1996Effect of the Leeuwin Current on the recruitment of fish and invertebrates along the Western Australian Coast.Marine and Freshwater Research47147155doi:10.1071/MF9960147
Carlson J. K.1999Occurrence of neonate and juvenile sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.Fishery Bulletin97387391
Casey J. G.Natanson L. J.1992Revised estimates of age and growth of the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) from the Western North Atlantic.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences4914741477
Casey J. G.Pratt H. L.JrStillwell C. E.1985Age and growth of the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) from the western North Atlantic.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences42963975
Castro J. I. (1983). ‘The Sharks of North American Waters.’ (Texas A&M University Press: College Station, TX.)
Castro J. I.1993The shark nursery of Bulls Bay, South Carolina, with a review of the shark nurseries of the southeastern coast of the United States.Environmental Biology of Fishes383748doi:10.1007/BF00842902
Castro J. I., Woodley C. M., and Brudek R. L. (1999). A preliminary evaluation of the status of shark species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 380. FAO, Rome.
Cliff G.Dudley S. F. J.1991Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 1. The zambezi shark, Carcharhinus leucas (Nardo).South African Journal of Marine Science10253270
Cliff G.Dudley S. F. J.Davis B.1988Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 1. The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo).South African Journal of Marine Science7255265
Compagno L. J. V. (1984). FAO species catalogue. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks known to date. Vol. 2. Part 2. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. FAO, Rome.
Cresswell G. R.Peterson J. L.1993The Leeuwin Current south of Western Australia.Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research44285303
Hoff T. B. (1990). Conservation and management of the western North Atlantic shark resource based on the life history strategy limitations of sandbar sharks. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
Joung S. J.Chen C. T.1995Reproduction in the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in the Waters off Northeastern Taiwan.Copeia3659665doi:10.2307/1446762
Last P. R., and Stevens J. D. (1994). ‘Sharks and Rays of Australia.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)
Loneragan N. R.Potter I. C.Lenanton R. C. J.Caputi N.1986Spatial and seasonal differences in the fish fauna in the shallows of a large Australian estuary.Marine Biology92575586doi:10.1007/BF00392517
Mattos S. M. G.Broadhurst M. K.Hazin F. H. V.Jonnes D. M.2001Reproductive biology of the Caribbean sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon porosus, from northern Brazil.Marine and Freshwater Research52745752doi:10.1071/MF00113
McAuley R., and Simpfendorfer C. (2003). Catch composition of the Western Australian Temperate Demersal Gillnet and Demersal Longline Fisheries, 1994–1999. Fisheries Research Report No. 146. Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia, Perth.
McAuley R., Lenanton R., Chidlow J., and Allison R. (2005). Biology and stock assessment of the thickskin (sandbar) shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in Western Australia and further refinement of the dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, stock assessment. Final Report to the Fisheries Research & Development Corporation for Project 2000/134. Fisheries Research Report No. 151. Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia, Perth.
Medved R. J.Marshall J. A.1981Feeding behaviour and biology of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Pisces, Carcharhinidae), in Chincoteague Bay, Virginia.Fishery Bulletin79441447
Medved R. J.Marshall J. A.1983Short-term movements of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Pisces, Carcharhinidae).Bulletin of Marine Science338793
Medved R. J.Stillwell C. E.Casey J. J.1985Stomach contents of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in Chincoteague Bay, Virginia.Fishery Bulletin83395402
Merson R. R.Pratt H. L.Jr2001Distribution, movements and growth of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in the nursery grounds of Delaware Bay.Environmental Biology of Fishes611324doi:10.1023/A:1011017109776
Musick J. A.Burgess G.Cailliet G.Camhi M.Fordham S.2000Management of sharks and their relatives (Elasmobranchii).Fisheries253913doi:10.1577/1548-8446(2000)025<0009:MOSATR>2.0.CO;2
Newman S. J., Young G. C., Travers M. J., Pember M. B., Skepper C. L., Williamson P. C., and Potter I. C. (2003). Characterisation of the inshore fish assemblages of the Pilbara and Kimberley coasts. Final Report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation for Project 2000/132. FRDC, Canberra.
Potter I. C.Hyndes G. A.1999Characteristics of the ichthyofaunas of southwestern Australian estuaries, including comparisons with holarctic estuaries and estuaries elsewhere in temperate Australia: a review.Australian Journal of Ecology24395421doi:10.1046/J.1442-9993.1999.00980.X
Simpfendorfer C., Lenanton R., and Unsworth P. (1996). Stock assessment of large coastal and demersal sharks. Final Report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation for Project 93/067. FRDC, Canberra.
Simpfendorfer C. A.McAuley R. B.Chidlow J. C.Unsworth P.2002Validated age and growth of the dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, from Western Australian waters.Marine and Freshwater Research53567573doi:10.1071/MF01131
Sminkey T.Musick J.1995Age and growth of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, before and after population depletion.Copeia4871883doi:10.2307/1447035
Sminkey T.Musick J.1996Demographic analysis of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in the Western North Atlantic.Fishery Bulletin94341347
Smith S. E.Au D. W.Show C.1998Intrinsic rebound potentials of 26 species of Pacific sharks.Marine and Freshwater Research49663678doi:10.1071/MF97135
Snelson F. F.JrMulligan T. J.Williams S. E.1984Food habits, occurrence and population structure of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, in Florida coastal lagoons.Bulletin of Marine Science3417180
Springer S.1960Natural history of the sandbar shark, Eulamia milberti.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fishery Bulletin61138
Stephenson P., and Chidlow J. C. (2003). Bycatch in the Pilbara Fish Trawl Fishery. Final Report to National Heritage Trust. Western Australian Department of Fisheries, Perth.
Stevens J. D. (1999). Management of shark fisheries in northern Australia. In ‘Case Studies of the Management of Elasmobranch Fisheries’. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 378. (Ed. R. Shotton.) pp. 456–479. (FAO: Rome.)
Stevens J. D.McLoughlin K. J.1991Distribution, size and sex composition, reproductive biology and diet of sharks from northern Australia.Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research42151199doi:10.1071/MF9910151
Taniuchi T.1971Reproduction of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus milberti, in the East China Sea.Japanese Journal of Ichthyology189498
Tobin C. (1996). Age and growth of Carcharhinus plumbeus (thickskin shark) in south Western Australian coastal waters. B.Sc. (Hons) Thesis, Curtin University of Technology, Perth.
Travers M. J.Potter I. C.2002Factors influencing the characteristics of fish assemblages in a large subtropical marine embayment.Journal of Fish Biology61doi:10.1111/J.1095-8649.2002.TB00910.X
Wass R. C.1973Size, growth and reproduction of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus milberti, in Hawaii.Pacific Science27305318