Australian Systematic Botany Australian Systematic Botany Society
Taxonomy, biogeography and evolution of plants
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Dating the emergence of truffle-like fungi in Australia, by using an augmented meta-analysis

Elizabeth M. Sheedy A F , Martin Ryberg B , Teresa Lebel C , Tom W. May C , Neale L. Bougher D and P. Brandon Matheny E
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Botany, National Museum of Nature and Science, 4-1-1 Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005, Japan.

B Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.

C Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Birdwood Avenue, South Yarra, Vic. 3141, Australia.

D Department of Parks and Wildlife, Science and Conservation Division, Western Australian Herbarium, Bentley Delivery Centre, Kensington, WA 6151, Australia.

E Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 332 Hesler, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610, USA.

F Corresponding author. Email: biz.sheedy@gmail.com

Australian Systematic Botany 29(5) 284-302 https://doi.org/10.1071/SB16025
Submitted: 10 June 2016  Accepted: 14 October 2016   Published: 22 December 2016

Abstract

Australia supports a high diversity of sequestrate (truffle-like) macrofungi. This has long been thought to be related to the predominantly or seasonally dry climate. The present study posits that if aridity were a key factor in the evolution of sequestrate fruit-bodies, most sequestrate species would have emerged in Australia only after it began to aridify, which occurred post-separation with Antarctica (c. 32 million years ago). Focusing on the high phylogenetic diversity of sequestrate taxa in the Agaricomycetes in Australia, dates of sequestrate nodes were compiled directly from published phylogenies (four lineages) or created using sequences available on GenBank that were processed in BEAST using a secondary calibration method (nine lineages). Although the morphologically diverse Hysterangiales was found to be the first group to become sequestrate, c. 83 million years ago, overall sequestration in Australia occurred more recently. Models were created and compared and support was found for an increased rate of sequestration in Australia at some point between 34 and 13 million years ago (during the Oligocene and Miocene). Although the rate of sequestration is shown to have increased in Australia after separation from Antarctica, the timing also overlaps with the radiation of potential mycorrhizal plant associates, and the emergence of specialised mycophagous marsupials. Although aridification is evidently not the sole driver of sequestration, it is still likely to have had a major influence on the diversity of sequestrate fungi in Australia. Comparisons with other regions of high sequestrate diversity will be informative.

Additional keywords: aridification, Agaricomycetes, sequestrate, Basidiomycota, Cortinariaceae, Russulaceae.


References

Albee-Scott S (2007) The phylogenetic placement of the Leucogastrales, including Mycolevis siccigleba (Cribbeaceae), in the Albatrellaceae using morphological and molecular data. Mycological Research 111, 653–662.
The phylogenetic placement of the Leucogastrales, including Mycolevis siccigleba (Cribbeaceae), in the Albatrellaceae using morphological and molecular data.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVKrtLbJ&md5=1d36d3323c60434c3ce5b9cb7d6ee7d7CAS | open url image1

Baroni TJ, Matheny PB (2011) A re-evaluation of gasteroid and cyphelloid species of Entolomataceae from eastern North America. Harvard Papers in Botany 16, 293–310.
A re-evaluation of gasteroid and cyphelloid species of Entolomataceae from eastern North America.CrossRef | open url image1

Beaton G, Pegler DN, Young TWK (1984) Gasteroid Basidiomycota of Victoria State, Australia I. Hydnangiaceae. Kew Bulletin 39, 499–508.
Gasteroid Basidiomycota of Victoria State, Australia I. Hydnangiaceae.CrossRef | open url image1

Binder M, Hibbett DS (2006) Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales. Mycologia 98, 971–981.
Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales.CrossRef | open url image1

Bonito G, Smith ME, Nowak M, Healy RA, Guevara G, Cázares E, Kinoshita A, Nouhra ER, Domínguez LS, Tedersoo L, Murat C, Wang Y, Moreno BA, Pfister DH, Nara K, Zambonelli A, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R (2013) Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage. PLoS One 8, e52765
Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXptVaisQ%3D%3D&md5=f648e5cc75f7775d8e66a6d074813bc4CAS | open url image1

Bougher NL, Lebel T (2001) Sequestrate (truffle-like) fungi of Australia and New Zealand. Australian Systematic Botany 14, 439–484.
Sequestrate (truffle-like) fungi of Australia and New Zealand.CrossRef | open url image1

Bougher NL, Tommerup IC, Malajczuk N (1993) Broad variation in developmental and mature basidiome morphology of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hydnangium sublamellatum sp. nov. bridges morhologically based generic concepts of Hydnangium, Podohydnangium and Laccaria. Mycological Research 97, 613–619.
Broad variation in developmental and mature basidiome morphology of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hydnangium sublamellatum sp. nov. bridges morhologically based generic concepts of Hydnangium, Podohydnangium and Laccaria.CrossRef | open url image1

Braaten CC, Matheny PB, Viess DL, Wood MG, Williams JH, Bougher NL (2014) Two new species of Inocybe from Australia and North America that include novel secotioid forms. Botany 92, 9–22.
Two new species of Inocybe from Australia and North America that include novel secotioid forms.CrossRef | open url image1

Bruns TD, Fogel R, White TJ, Palmer JD (1989) Accelerated evolution of a false-truffle from a mushroom ancestor. Letters to Nature 339, 140–142.
Accelerated evolution of a false-truffle from a mushroom ancestor.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXkt1Wjs7w%3D&md5=4d087c0315c2686c7ef4b38b4eb0a9bdCAS | open url image1

Byrne M, Yeates DK, Joseph L, Kearney M, Bowler J, Williams MAJ, Cooper S, Donnellan SC, Keogh JS, Leys R, Melville J, Murphy DJ, Porch N, Wyrwoll KH (2008) Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota. Molecular Ecology 17, 4398–4417.
Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1cjhvFGruw%3D%3D&md5=2b12a4d7a8eca8300a43b294a15af11dCAS | open url image1

Castellano MA, Bougher NL (1994) Consideration of the taxonomy and biodiversity of Australian ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 159, 37–46.
Consideration of the taxonomy and biodiversity of Australian ectomycorrhizal fungi.CrossRef | open url image1

Castellano MA, Trappe JM, Vernes K (2011) Australian species of Elaphomyces (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota). Australian Systematic Botany 24, 32–57.
Australian species of Elaphomyces (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota).CrossRef | open url image1

Claridge AW, Cork SJ (1994) Nutritional value of hypogeal fungal sporocarps for the long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus), a forest-dwelling mycophagous marsupial. Australian Journal of Zoology 42, 701–710.
Nutritional value of hypogeal fungal sporocarps for the long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus), a forest-dwelling mycophagous marsupial.CrossRef | open url image1

Claridge AW, May TW (1994) Mycophagy among Australian mammals. Australian Journal of Ecology 19, 251–275.
Mycophagy among Australian mammals.CrossRef | open url image1

Claridge AW, Trappe JM, Mills DJ, Claridge DL (2009) Diversity and habitat relationships of hypogeous fungi. III. Factors influencing the occurrence of fire-adapted species. Mycological Research 113, 792–801.
Diversity and habitat relationships of hypogeous fungi. III. Factors influencing the occurrence of fire-adapted species.CrossRef | open url image1

Crisp MD, Cook LG (2013) How was the Australian flora assembled over the last 65 million years? A molecular phylogenetic perspective. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 44, 303–324.
How was the Australian flora assembled over the last 65 million years? A molecular phylogenetic perspective.CrossRef | open url image1

Crisp M, Cook L, Steane D (2004) Radiation of the Australian flora: what can comparisons of molecular phylogenies across multiple taxa tell us about the evolution of diversity in present-day communities? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London – B. Biological Sciences 359, 1551–1571.
Radiation of the Australian flora: what can comparisons of molecular phylogenies across multiple taxa tell us about the evolution of diversity in present-day communities?CrossRef | open url image1

Crisp MD, Hardy NB, Cook LG (2014) Clock model makes a large difference to age estimates of long-stemmed clades with no internal calibration: a test using Australian grasstrees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14, 263
Clock model makes a large difference to age estimates of long-stemmed clades with no internal calibration: a test using Australian grasstrees.CrossRef | open url image1

Danks M, Lebel T, Vernes K (2010) ‘Cort short on a mountaintop’: eight new species of sequestrate Cortinarius from sub-alpine Australia and affinities to sections within the genus. Persoonia 24, 106–126.
‘Cort short on a mountaintop’: eight new species of sequestrate Cortinarius from sub-alpine Australia and affinities to sections within the genus.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cjgs1aluw%3D%3D&md5=2408fb6cb4284971bd775bd62050c194CAS | open url image1

Danks M, Lebel T, Vernes K, Andrew N (2013) Truffle-like fungi sporocarps in a eucalypt-dominated landscape: patterns in diversity and community structure. Fungal Diversity 58, 143–157.
Truffle-like fungi sporocarps in a eucalypt-dominated landscape: patterns in diversity and community structure.CrossRef | open url image1

Dettmann ME, Molnar RE, Douglas JG, Burger D, Fielding CR, Clifford HT, Francis J, Jell P, Rich T, Wade M, Rich PV, Pledge N, Kemp A, Rozefelds A (1992) Australian Cretaceous terrestrial faunas and floras: biostratigraphic and biogeographic implications. Cretaceous Research 13, 207–262.
Australian Cretaceous terrestrial faunas and floras: biostratigraphic and biogeographic implications.CrossRef | open url image1

Donoghue MJ, Smith SA (2004) Patterns in the assembly of temperate forests around the northern hemisphere. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 359, 1633–1644.
Patterns in the assembly of temperate forests around the northern hemisphere.CrossRef | open url image1

Drummond A, Rambaut A (2007) BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7, 214
BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees.CrossRef | open url image1

Fogel R, States J (2001) Materials for a hypogeous mycoflora of the Great Basin and adjacent cordilleras of the western United States. III: Saprogaster gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Phallales). Mycotaxon 80, 315–320.

Fogel R, States J (2002) Materials for a hypogeous mycoflora of the Great Basin and adjacent cordilleras of the western United States. VIII: Pachyphloeus lateritius sp. nov. and Cazia quericola sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Pezizales). Mycotaxon 81, 83–89.

Fujioka T, Chappell J (2010) History of Australian aridity: chronology in the evolution of arid landscapes. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 346, 121–139.
History of Australian aridity: chronology in the evolution of arid landscapes.CrossRef | open url image1

Garnica S, Weiss M, Oertel B, Ammirati J, Oberwinkler F (2009) Phylogenetic relationships in Cortinarius, section Calochroi, inferred from nuclear DNA sequences. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9, 1
Phylogenetic relationships in Cortinarius, section Calochroi, inferred from nuclear DNA sequences.CrossRef | open url image1

Griffiths RP, Baham JE, Caldwell BA (1994) Soil solution chemistry of ectomycorrhizal mats in forest soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 26, 331–337.
Soil solution chemistry of ectomycorrhizal mats in forest soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXis12jtrw%3D&md5=c5b90f9c7004a94014a6593f8e500760CAS | open url image1

Haard R, Kramer C (1970) Periodicity of spore discharge in the Hymenomycetes. Mycologia 62, 1145–1169.
Periodicity of spore discharge in the Hymenomycetes.CrossRef | open url image1

Halling RE, Nuhn M, Osmundson T, Fechner N, Trappe JM, Soytong K, Arora D, Hibbett DS, Binder M (2012) Affinities of the Boletus chromapes group to Royoungia and the description of two new genera, Harrya and Australopilus. Australian Systematic Botany 25, 418–431.
Affinities of the Boletus chromapes group to Royoungia and the description of two new genera, Harrya and Australopilus.CrossRef | open url image1

Henkel TW, Smith ME, Aime MC (2010) Guyanagaster, a new wood-decaying sequestrate fungal genus related to Armillaria (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota). American Journal of Botany 97, 1474–1484.
Guyanagaster, a new wood-decaying sequestrate fungal genus related to Armillaria (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota).CrossRef | open url image1

Hibbett DS (2007) After the gold rush, or before the flood? Evolutionary morphology of mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) in the early 21st century. Mycological Research 111, 1001–1018.
After the gold rush, or before the flood? Evolutionary morphology of mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) in the early 21st century.CrossRef | open url image1

Hibbett DS, Tsuneda A, Murakami S (1994) The secotioid form of Lentinus tigrinus: genetics and development of a fungal morphological innovation. American Journal of Botany 81, 466–478.
The secotioid form of Lentinus tigrinus: genetics and development of a fungal morphological innovation.CrossRef | open url image1

Hibbett DS, Bauer R, Binder M, Giachini AJ, Hosaka K, Justo A, Larsson E, Larsson KH, Lawrey JD, Miettinen O, Nagy LG, Nilsson RH, Weiss M, Thorn RG (2014) Agaricomycetes. In ‘The Mycota vol. 7A: Systematics and Evolution’, 2nd edn. (Eds DJ McLaughlin, JW Spatafora) pp. 373–429. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany)

Ho SYW (2007) Calibrating molecular estimates of substitution rates and divergence times in birds. Journal of Avian Biology 38, 409–414.
Calibrating molecular estimates of substitution rates and divergence times in birds.CrossRef | open url image1

Hosaka K, Bates ST, Beever RE, Castellano MA, Colgan W, Domínguez LS, Nouhra ER, Geml J, Giachini AJ, Kenney SR, Simpson NB, Spatafora JW, Trappe JM (2006) Molecular phylogenetics of the gomphoid-phalloid fungi with an establishment of the new subclass Phallomycetidae and two new orders. Mycologia 98, 949–959.
Molecular phylogenetics of the gomphoid-phalloid fungi with an establishment of the new subclass Phallomycetidae and two new orders.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXltlOgu70%3D&md5=b8f3f15cda40bfc3fa5b1bb32dc0b9f2CAS | open url image1 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17486971

Hosaka K, Castellano MA, Spatafora JW (2008) Biogeography of Hysterangiales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota). Mycological Research 112, 448–462.
Biogeography of Hysterangiales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmvVeqsb4%3D&md5=32d134ce9b7c167dc9d2ec72effe6592CAS | open url image1

Huston MA (2012) Precipitation, soils, NPP, and biodiversity: resurrection of Albrecht’s curve. Ecological Monographs 82, 277–296.
Precipitation, soils, NPP, and biodiversity: resurrection of Albrecht’s curve.CrossRef | open url image1

Jumpponen A, Claridge AW, Trappe JM, Lebel T, Claridge DL (2004) Ecological relationships among hypogeous fungi and trees: inferences from association analysis integrated with habitat modeling. Mycologia 96, 510–525.
Ecological relationships among hypogeous fungi and trees: inferences from association analysis integrated with habitat modeling.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M%2FktVKnsA%3D%3D&md5=b742970f10954627228d8fce67061d1fCAS | open url image1

Justo A, Morgenstern I, Hallen-Adams HE, Hibbett DS (2010) Convergent evolution of sequestrate forms in Amanita under Mediterranean climate conditions. Mycologia 102, 675–688.
Convergent evolution of sequestrate forms in Amanita under Mediterranean climate conditions.CrossRef | open url image1

Katoh K, Toh H (2008) Recent developments in the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. Briefings in Bioinformatics 9, 286–298.
Recent developments in the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXpt1artrs%3D&md5=4ae8346d6a347a8ee0542d09bcad47bfCAS | open url image1

Kendrick B (1992) ‘The Fifth Kingdom.’ (Focus Information Group, Inc.: Newburyport, MA, USA)

Ladiges PY, Udovicic F, Nelson G (2003) Australian biogeographical connections and the phylogeny of large genera in the plant family Myrtaceae. Journal of Biogeography 30, 989–998.
Australian biogeographical connections and the phylogeny of large genera in the plant family Myrtaceae.CrossRef | open url image1

Lawver LA, Gahagan LM (2003) Evolution of cenozoic seaways in the circum-antarctic region. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198, 11–37.
Evolution of cenozoic seaways in the circum-antarctic region.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T (2013) Two new species of sequestrate Agaricus (section Minores) from Australia. Mycological Progress 12, 699–707.
Two new species of sequestrate Agaricus (section Minores) from Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Castellano MA (1999) Australasian truffle-like fungi. IX. History and current trends in the study of the taxonomy of sequestrate macrofungi from Australia and New Zealand. Australian Systematic Botany 12, 803–817.
Australasian truffle-like fungi. IX. History and current trends in the study of the taxonomy of sequestrate macrofungi from Australia and New Zealand.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Castellano MA (2002) Type studies of sequestrate Russulales II. Australian and New Zealand species related to Russula. Mycologia 94, 327–354.
Type studies of sequestrate Russulales II. Australian and New Zealand species related to Russula.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Catcheside PS (2009) The truffle genus Cribbea (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) in Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 22, 39–55.
The truffle genus Cribbea (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Syme A (2012) Sequestrate species of Agaricus and Macrolepiota from Australia: new species and combinations and their position in a calibrated phylogeny. Mycologia 104, 496–520.
Sequestrate species of Agaricus and Macrolepiota from Australia: new species and combinations and their position in a calibrated phylogeny.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Tonkin JE (2007) Australasian species of Macowanites are sequestrate species of Russula (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota). Australian Systematic Botany 20, 355–381.
Australasian species of Macowanites are sequestrate species of Russula (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota).CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Vellinga EC (2013) Description and affinities of a sequestrate Lepiota (Agaricaceae) from Australia. Mycological Progress 12, 525–532.
Description and affinities of a sequestrate Lepiota (Agaricaceae) from Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Orihara T, Maekawa N (2012) The sequestrate genus Rosbeeva T.Lebel & Orihara gen. nov. (Boletaceae) from Australasia and Japan: new species and new combinations. Fungal Diversity 52, 49–71.
The sequestrate genus Rosbeeva T.Lebel & Orihara gen. nov. (Boletaceae) from Australasia and Japan: new species and new combinations.CrossRef | open url image1

Lebel T, Castellano MA, Beever RE (2015) Cryptic diversity in the sequestrate genus Stephanospora (Stephanosporaceae: Agaricales) in Australasia. Fungal Biology 119, 201–228.
Cryptic diversity in the sequestrate genus Stephanospora (Stephanosporaceae: Agaricales) in Australasia.CrossRef | open url image1

Lehmkuhl JF, Gould LE, Cázares E, Hosford DR (2004) Truffle abundance and mycophagy by northern flying squirrels in eastern Washington forests. Forest Ecology and Management 200, 49–65.
Truffle abundance and mycophagy by northern flying squirrels in eastern Washington forests.CrossRef | open url image1

Luoma DL, Trappe JM, Claridge AW, Jacobs KM, Cazares E (2003) Relationships among fungi and small mammals in forested ecosystems. Mammal community dynamics: management and conservation. In ‘Coniferous Forests of Western North America’. (Eds CJ Zabel, RG Anthony) pp. 343–373. (Cambridge University Press: New York)

Martin H (2006) Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 66, 533–563.
Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Matheny PB, Aime MC, Bougher NL, Buyck B, Desjardin DE, Horak E, Kropp BR, Lodge DJ, Soytong K, Trappe JM, Hibbett DS (2009) Out of the Palaeotropics? Historical biogeography and diversification of the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal mushroom family Inocybaceae. Journal of Biogeography 36, 577–592.
Out of the Palaeotropics? Historical biogeography and diversification of the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal mushroom family Inocybaceae.CrossRef | open url image1

Meredith RW, Westerman M, Springer MS (2009) A phylogeny of Diprotodontia (Marsupialia) based on sequences for five nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51, 554–571.
A phylogeny of Diprotodontia (Marsupialia) based on sequences for five nuclear genes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlslajs7Y%3D&md5=d711a6f8023bbcfa1dc391b094f24cbdCAS | open url image1

Mooers AØ, Vamosi SM, Schluter D (1999) Using phylogenies to test macroevolutionary hypotheses of trait evolution in cranes (Gruinae). American Naturalist 154, 249–259.
Using phylogenies to test macroevolutionary hypotheses of trait evolution in cranes (Gruinae).CrossRef | open url image1

Nagy LG, Walther G, Házi J, Vágvölgyi C, Papp T (2011) Understanding the evolutionary processes of fungal fruiting bodies: correlated evolution and divergence times in the Psathyrellaceae. Systematic Biology 60, 303–317.
Understanding the evolutionary processes of fungal fruiting bodies: correlated evolution and divergence times in the Psathyrellaceae.CrossRef | open url image1

Nguyen VP, Needham AD, Friend JA (2005) A quantitative dietary study of the ‘Critically Endangered’ Gilbert’s potoroo Potorous gilbertii. Australian Mammalogy 27, 1–6.
A quantitative dietary study of the ‘Critically Endangered’ Gilbert’s potoroo Potorous gilbertii.CrossRef | open url image1

Nylander JAA, Wilgenbusch JC, Warren DL, Swofford DL (2008) AWTY (are we there yet?): a system for graphical exploration of MCMC convergence in Bayesian phylogenetics. Bioinformatics 24, 581–583.
AWTY (are we there yet?): a system for graphical exploration of MCMC convergence in Bayesian phylogenetics.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXitVKis7g%3D&md5=2e1e924417b8789e0cdc926f04ffd0faCAS | open url image1

Orihara T, Lebel TE, Ge Z-W, Smith ME, Maekawa N (2016) Evolutionary history of the sequestrate genus Rossbeevera (Boletaceae) reveals a new genus Turmalinea and highlights the utility of the ITS minisatellite-like insertions for molecular identification. Persoonia 37, 173–198.

Paradis E, Claude J, Strimmer K (2004) APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language. Bioinformatics 20, 289–290.
APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXms1eitg%3D%3D&md5=6916b7d175804198fb11c011fc70ac01CAS | open url image1

Peintner U, Bougher NL, Castellano MA, Moncalvo JM, Moser MM, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R (2001) Multiple origins of sequestrate fungi related to Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae). American Journal of Botany 88, 2168–2179.
Multiple origins of sequestrate fungi related to Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3Mngt1agtg%3D%3D&md5=9ee55ba2751b188cf925eee8ec08c6b5CAS | open url image1

Peintner U, Moncalvo J, Vilgalys R (2004) Toward a better understanding of the infrageneric relationships in Cortinarius (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Mycologia 96, 1042–1058.
Toward a better understanding of the infrageneric relationships in Cortinarius (Agaricales, Basidiomycota).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXpvVyrtb0%3D&md5=ae3acf66ca59d5d9ab2834b01baa6b00CAS | open url image1

Petersen RH, Hughes KW (2010) ‘The Xerula/Oudemansiella complex (Agaricales)’, Nova Hedwegia, Beiheft supplemental series 137. (J. Cramer: Stuttgart, Germany)

Pyron RA, Burbrink FT (2013) Phylogenetic estimates of speciation and extinction rates for testing ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28, 729–736.
Phylogenetic estimates of speciation and extinction rates for testing ecological and evolutionary hypotheses.CrossRef | open url image1

Renner SS (2005) Relaxed molecular clocks for dating historical plant dispersal events. Trends in Plant Science 10, 550–558.
Relaxed molecular clocks for dating historical plant dispersal events.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFOmtL3M&md5=15882251222a1fd4a0195d4e2d71b674CAS | open url image1

Ryberg M, Matheny PB (2011) Dealing with incomplete taxon sampling and diversification of a large clade of mushroom-forming fungi. Evolution 65, 1862–1878.
Dealing with incomplete taxon sampling and diversification of a large clade of mushroom-forming fungi.CrossRef | open url image1

Ryberg M, Matheny PB (2012) Asynchronous origins of ectomycorrhizal clades of Agaricales. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 279, 2003–2011.
Asynchronous origins of ectomycorrhizal clades of Agaricales.CrossRef | open url image1

Sheedy EM, Van de Wouw AP, Howlett BJ, May TW (2013) Multigene sequence data reveal morphologically cryptic phylogenetic species within the genus Laccaria in southern Australia. Mycologia 105, 547–563.
Multigene sequence data reveal morphologically cryptic phylogenetic species within the genus Laccaria in southern Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXpt1Cht7k%3D&md5=08df042e6049b645651f30ec8edbb121CAS | open url image1

Singer R (1951) Thaxterogaster: a new link between Gasteromycetes and Agaricales. Mycologia 43, 215–224.
Thaxterogaster: a new link between Gasteromycetes and Agaricales.CrossRef | open url image1

Singer R, Smith AH (1959) Studies on secotiaceous fungi VI. Setchelliogaster Pouzar. Madroño 15, 73–78.

Skrede I, Engh IB, Binder M, Carlsen T, Kauserud H, Bendiksby M (2011) Evolutionary history of Serpulaceae (Basidiomycota): molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and evidence for a single transition of nutritional mode. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11, 230
Evolutionary history of Serpulaceae (Basidiomycota): molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and evidence for a single transition of nutritional mode.CrossRef | open url image1

Smith ME, Schmull M (2011) Tropical truffles: English translation and critical review of F. von Höhnel’s truffles from Java. Mycological Progress 10, 249–260.
Tropical truffles: English translation and critical review of F. von Höhnel’s truffles from Java.CrossRef | open url image1

Stamatakis A (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22, 2688–2690.
RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFKlsbfI&md5=2c4e6894fe988f809d27c552e1656574CAS | open url image1

Sytsma KJ, Litt A, Zjhra ML, Pires JC, Nepokroeff M, Conti E, Walker J, Wilson PG, Journal I, Walker J, Wilson PG (2004) Clades, clocks, and continents: historical and biogeographical analysis of Myrtaceae, Vochysiaceae, and relatives in the southern hemisphere. International Journal of Plant Sciences 165, S85–S105.
Clades, clocks, and continents: historical and biogeographical analysis of Myrtaceae, Vochysiaceae, and relatives in the southern hemisphere.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptFOhurk%3D&md5=7672d458cfb04b2ab1be2b0360e95de8CAS | open url image1

Tedersoo L, May TW, Smith ME (2010) Ectomycorrhizal lifestyle in fungi: global diversity, distribution, and evolution of phylogenetic lineages. Mycorrhiza 20, 217–263.
Ectomycorrhizal lifestyle in fungi: global diversity, distribution, and evolution of phylogenetic lineages.CrossRef | open url image1

Thiers HD (1984) The secotioid syndrome. Mycologia 76, 1–8.
The secotioid syndrome.CrossRef | open url image1

Thornhill AH, Popple LW, Carter RJ, Ho SYW, Crisp MD (2012) Are pollen fossils useful for calibrating relaxed molecular clock dating of phylogenies? A comparative study using Myrtaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63, 15–27.
Are pollen fossils useful for calibrating relaxed molecular clock dating of phylogenies? A comparative study using Myrtaceae.CrossRef | open url image1

Trappe JM, Claridge AW (2005) Hypogeous fungi: evolution of reproductive and dispersal strategies through interactions with anmals and mycorrhizal plants. In ‘The Fungal Community. Its Organisation and Role in the Ecosystem’. (Eds J Dighton, JF White, P Oudemans) pp. 599–611. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA)

Trappe JM, Claridge AW, Jumpponen A (2005) Fire, hypogeous fungi and mycophagous marsupials. Mycological Research 109, 516–518.
Fire, hypogeous fungi and mycophagous marsupials.CrossRef | open url image1

Trappe JM, Nicholls AO, Claridge AW, Cork SJ (2006) Prescribed burning in a Eucalyptus woodland suppresses fruiting of hypogeous fungi, an important food source for mammals. Mycological Research 110, 1333–1339.
Prescribed burning in a Eucalyptus woodland suppresses fruiting of hypogeous fungi, an important food source for mammals.CrossRef | open url image1

Trappe JM, Molina R, Luoma DL, Cázares E, Pilz D, Smith JE, Michael A, Miller SL, Trappe MJ (2009) Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-772. US Department of Agriculture: Portland, OR, USA.

Trappe JM, Kovács GM, Claridge AW (2010) Comparative taxonomy of desert truffles of the Australian outback and the African Kalahari. Mycological Progress 9, 131–143.
Comparative taxonomy of desert truffles of the Australian outback and the African Kalahari.CrossRef | open url image1

Vanderpoorten A, Goffinet B (2006) Mapping uncertainty and phylogenetic uncertainty in ancestral character state reconstruction: an example in the moss genus Brachytheciastrum. Systematic Biology 55, 957–971.
Mapping uncertainty and phylogenetic uncertainty in ancestral character state reconstruction: an example in the moss genus Brachytheciastrum.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2s7ks1WgtA%3D%3D&md5=b49fdbbfc7922c0dfcaa04d95898d64eCAS | open url image1

Vernes K (2010) Mycophagy in a community of macropodoid species. In ‘Macropods: the biology of Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-Kangaroos’. (Eds G Coulson, M Eldridge) pp. 155–169. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, Vic., Australia)

Vernes K, Johnson CN, Castellano MA (2004) Fire-related changes in biomass of hypogeous sporocarps at foraging points used by a tropical mycophagous marsupial. Mycological Research 108, 1438–1446.
Fire-related changes in biomass of hypogeous sporocarps at foraging points used by a tropical mycophagous marsupial.CrossRef | open url image1

Watling R (1971) Polymorphism in Psilocybe merdaria. New Phytologist 70, 307–326.
Polymorphism in Psilocybe merdaria.CrossRef | open url image1

Watling R, Martín MP (2003) A sequestrate Psilocybe from Scotland. Botanical Journal of Scotland 55, 245–257.
A sequestrate Psilocybe from Scotland.CrossRef | open url image1

Wilson AW, Binder M, Hibbett DS (2011) Effects of gasteroid fruiting body morphology on diversification rates in three independent clades of fungi estimated using binary state speciation and extinction analysis. Evolution 65, 1305–1322.
Effects of gasteroid fruiting body morphology on diversification rates in three independent clades of fungi estimated using binary state speciation and extinction analysis.CrossRef | open url image1



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (525 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)