Sexual Health Sexual Health Society
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Sexual Health

Sexual Health

Volume 13 Number 5 2016


In this edition of Sexual Health, Vallely et al. report the results of a cross-sectional prevalence survey of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) among women attending their first antenatal visit in three provinces of Papua New Guinea (PNG). This Editorial examines potential reasons for these high prevalence estimates and discusses strategies for addressing high STIs rates in PNG.


This study assessed the available peer-reviewed literature to ascertain what qualities of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) are considered desirable or undesirable by women. Although there were many characteristics of LARC that women liked, particularly their convenience and longevity, there were also many characteristics that women didn’t like, including their often unpredictable impact on bleeding and other hormonal side effects. This information is crucial in the clinical setting as it provides practitioners with a greater understanding of the qualities women do and do not like about LARC methods. Discussion about these qualities, positive and negative, during consultations about contraception may increase rates of uptake.

SH15227Prevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and other sexually transmissible infections among women attending antenatal clinics in three provinces in Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional survey

Lisa M. Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Claire Ryan, Glennis Rai, Johanna Wapling, Carolyn Tomado, Savarina Huliafi, Gloria Munnull, Patricia Rarau, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Handan Wand, Peter Siba, Glen D. L. Mola, John M. Kaldor and Andrew J. Vallely
pp. 420-427

Through a cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey in three sites we enrolled 765 pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic visit. We identified high rates of sexually transmissible infectionss among this study cohort; 43% had one or more of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection. CT was the most prevalent STI (22.9%), followed by TV (22.4%), and NG (14.2%). Prevalences were highest among primigravid women, women aged <25 years, and among those in Central Province.

SH15240Sexting among singles in the USA: prevalence of sending, receiving, and sharing sexual messages and images

Justin R. Garcia, Amanda N. Gesselman, Shadia A. Siliman, Brea L. Perry, Kathryn Coe and Helen E. Fisher
pp. 428-435

In a national sample of 5805 single adults in the USA, the present study examines sexting attitudes and behaviours, including sending, receiving, and sharing of sexual messages and images, across gender, age, and sexual orientation. Participants’ self-reported views on the impact of sexting on reputation, coupled with the relatively high rates of unauthorised sext sharing we report, suggest a contemporary struggle to reconcile digital eroticism with real-world consequences.

SH16023Indicators of HIV-risk resilience among men who have sex with men: a content analysis of online profiles

Jaclyn M. White Hughto, Anna P. Hidalgo, Angela R. Bazzi, Sari L. Reisner and Matthew J. Mimiaga
pp. 436-443

HIV-risk resilience, or positive adaptation in the face of risk, is increasingly being recognised as an important characteristic among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, resilience in the context of online partner seeking remains underexplored among MSM. This study used content analysis methodology to identify indicators of HIV-risk resilience in the online profiles of MSM using a sexual networking website. Implications for promoting HIV-risk resilience through online interventions for MSM are discussed

SH15026A systematic analysis of the needs of people with HIV in Australia: stakeholder views of the key elements for a healthy life

Sarity Dodson, Roy Batterham, Karalyn McDonald, Julian H. Elliott, Richard H. Osborne and for the HealthMap Project Team
pp. 444-450

The HealthMap project is developing an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV. As part of the formative stages of the intervention design, we sought to understand the needs of people with HIV (PWHIV). Workshops with PWHIV and their providers, and follow-up questionnaires provided insights into what PWHIV perceive they need, to live with and manage their condition, and its impact on their life. PWHIV and HIV providers continue to report unmet needs in the areas of social justice and emerging concerns about access to aged care services.

SH16055Assortative sexual mixing patterns in male–female and male–male partnerships in Melbourne, Australia: implications for HIV and sexually transmissible infection transmission

Eric P. F. Chow, Tim R. H. Read, Matthew G. Law, Marcus Y. Chen, Catriona S. Bradshaw and Christopher K. Fairley
pp. 451-456

This retrospective cross-sectional study examined the sexual mixing patterns for age, number of partners and condom use in 1165 male–female and 610 male–male partnerships attending a sexual health service in Melbourne, Australia. Male–female and male–male partnerships have a high assortativity mixing pattern for age, number of partners and condom use. The sexual mixing pattern is not purely assortative, and hence it may lead to increased HIV and STI transmission in certain risk groups.


The Deadly Liver Mob project (DLM) is an incentive-based, peer-driven health promotion intervention for Aboriginal people, focusing on hepatitis C and, offering education and screening for sexually transmissible infections (STI) and blood-borne viruses (BBV). This study assessed the DLM effect on attendance and STI/BBV screening, describes BBV risk factors and reports infection rates among Aboriginal people attending Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre.

SH15144Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis preferences among men who have sex with men in Vietnam: results from a nationwide cross-sectional survey

Catherine E. Oldenburg, Bao Le, Hoang Thi Huyen, Dinh Duc Thien, Nguyen Hoang Quan, Katie B. Biello, Amy Nunn, Philip A. Chan, Kenneth H. Mayer, Matthew J. Mimiaga and Donn Colby
pp. 465-473

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, but implementation programs will benefit from understanding preferences for PrEP delivery. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with members of online social networking websites for MSM in Vietnam. Approximately one quarter of participants had previously heard of PrEP, and most participants indicated a preference for rectal microbicides as their preferred PrEP modality.


Gonorrhoea disproportionately affects young people and men who have sex with men although characteristics of those infected are poorly described. Enhanced surveillance conducted across two urban health districts in Sydney, Australia identified differing risk factors and testing characteristics between men who have sex with men, heterosexual males and females. This surveillance highlighted the importance of obtaining accurate sexual histories to ensure appropriate testing.


Females who are aged ≤32 years were eligible for the free female human papillomavirus vaccination program. Unvaccinated heterosexual men who had a female partner aged ≤32 were less likely to have penile warts. This suggests men would have received herd protection from their female partners.

SH16049Self-testing for Trichomonas vaginalis at home using a point-of-care test by women who request kits via the Internet

Charlotte A. Gaydos, Mary Jett-Goheen, Mathilda Barnes, Laura Dize and Yu-Hsiang Hsieh
pp. 491-493

We offered a point-of-care test for Trichomonas vaginalis to women via the Internet to determine if it was acceptable to women to perform the test at home. Most of the 102 participants felt that it was easy to collect the specimen, follow the instructions, and read and interpret the results for the trichomonas self-testing assay.

SH16026Adherence to, and acceptability of, Listerine® mouthwash as a potential preventive intervention for pharyngeal gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men in Australia: a longitudinal study

Vincent J. Cornelisse, Christopher K. Fairley, Sandra Walker, Tameka Young, David Lee, Marcus Y. Chen, Catriona S. Bradshaw and Eric P. F. Chow
pp. 494-496

Ten men who have sex with men attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre were recruited in this study to examine the adherence to, and acceptability of, Listerine® mouthwash as a potential preventive intervention for pharyngeal gonorrhoea. This study found high adherence and acceptability of daily mouthwash use.

SH16041Disparities of sexual orientations by sex and urban or rural residence among youth in China

Chao Guo, Lihua Pang, Lei Zhang, Gong Chen, Zhenjie Wang and Xiaoying Zheng
pp. 497-499

This study described the distribution of sexual orientations among Chinese youth. Female youth and rural youth were found with higher odds of non-heterosexual orientation than male youth and urban youth. More efforts should be made to enhance sex education and legal protection for non-heterosexual youth in China.

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