International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
REVIEW (Open Access)

A review of challenges to determining and demonstrating efficiency of large fire management

Matthew P. Thompson A D , Francisco Rodríguez y Silva B , David E. Calkin C and Michael S. Hand C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA.

B Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Fire Laboratory, University of Córdoba, Edificio Leonardo da Vinci, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Córdoba, Spain.

C US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 800 East Beckwith Avenue, Missoula, MT 59801, USA.

D Corresponding author. Email: mpthompson02@fs.fed.us

International Journal of Wildland Fire 26(7) 562-573 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF16137
Submitted: 27 July 2016  Accepted: 15 March 2017   Published: 20 April 2017

Abstract

Characterising the impacts of wildland fire and fire suppression is critical information for fire management decision-making. Here, we focus on decisions related to the rare larger and longer-duration fire events, where the scope and scale of decision-making can be far broader than initial response efforts, and where determining and demonstrating efficiency of strategies and actions can be particularly troublesome. We organise our review around key decision factors such as context, complexity, alternatives, consequences and uncertainty, and for illustration contrast fire management in Andalusia, Spain, and Montana, USA. Two of the largest knowledge gaps relate to quantifying fire impacts to ecosystem services, and modelling relationships between fire management activities and avoided damages. The relative magnitude of these and other concerns varies with the complexity of the socioecological context in which fire management decisions are made. To conclude our review, we examine topics for future research, including expanded use of the economics toolkit to better characterise the productivity and effectiveness of suppression actions, integration of ecosystem modelling with economic principles, and stronger adoption of risk and decision analysis within fire management decision-making.

Additional keywords: decision analysis, economics, risk, uncertainty.


References

Abatzoglou JT, Williams AP (2016) Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113, 11770–11775.
Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xhs1elur3K&md5=31fba046ed9ce3f66e307429597a31b7CAS |

Ager AA, Vaillant NM, McMahan A (2013) Restoration of fire in managed forests: a model to prioritize landscapes and analyze trade-offs. Ecosphere 4, art29
Restoration of fire in managed forests: a model to prioritize landscapes and analyze trade-offs.CrossRef |

Ager AA, Day MA, Vogler K (2016) Production possibility frontiers and socioecological trade-offs for restoration of fire adapted forests. Journal of Environmental Management 176, 157–168.
Production possibility frontiers and socioecological trade-offs for restoration of fire adapted forests.CrossRef |

Alcasena F, Salis M, Ager A, Arca B, Molina D, Spano D (2015) Assessing landscape-scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area. Environmental Management 55, 1200–1216.
Assessing landscape-scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.CrossRef |

Bellavance F, Dionne G, Lebeau M (2009) The value of a statistical life: a meta-analysis with a mixed effects regression model. Journal of Health Economics 28, 444–464.
The value of a statistical life: a meta-analysis with a mixed effects regression model.CrossRef |

Belval EJ, Wei Y, Bevers M (2015) A mixed integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45, 384–393.
A mixed integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions.CrossRef |

Belval EJ, Wei Y, Bevers M (2016) A stochastic mixed-integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions with uncertain weather. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46, 234–248.
A stochastic mixed-integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions with uncertain weather.CrossRef |

Bowman D, Johnston FAY (2014) Bushfires, human health economics, and pyrogeography. Geographical Research 52, 340–343.
Bushfires, human health economics, and pyrogeography.CrossRef |

Broyles G (2011) Fireline production rates. USDA Forest Service, National Technology and Development Program, Fire Management Report. Available at https://www.fs.fed.us/eng/pubs/pdf/11511805.pdf [Verified 30 March 2017]

Calkin DE, Gebert KM, Jones JG, Neilson RP (2005) Forest Service large fire area burned and suppression expenditure trends, 1970–2002. Journal of Forestry 103, 179–183.

Calkin DE, Thompson MP, Finney MA, Hyde KD (2011) A real-time risk assessment tool supporting wildland fire decision-making. Journal of Forestry 109, 274–280.

Calkin DE, Venn T, Wibbenmeyer M, Thompson MP (2013) Estimating US federal wildland fire managers’ preferences toward competing strategic suppression objectives. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 212–222.
Estimating US federal wildland fire managers’ preferences toward competing strategic suppression objectives.CrossRef |

Calkin DE, Stonesifer CS, Thompson MP, McHugh CW (2014a) Large airtanker use and outcomes in suppressing wildland fires in the United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23, 259–271.
Large airtanker use and outcomes in suppressing wildland fires in the United States.CrossRef |

Calkin DE, Cohen JD, Finney MA, Thompson MP (2014b) How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland–urban interface. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, 746–751.
How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland–urban interface.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXotFCgug%3D%3D&md5=56740c5da6008f4603800941c53a4666CAS |

Calkin DE, Thompson MP, Finney MA (2015) Negative consequences of positive feedbacks in US wildfire management. Forest Ecosystems 2, 9
Negative consequences of positive feedbacks in US wildfire management.CrossRef |

Campbell MJ, Dennison PE, Butler BW (2016) Safe separation distance score: a new metric for evaluating wildland firefighter safety zones using lidar. International Journal of Geographical Information Science
Safe separation distance score: a new metric for evaluating wildland firefighter safety zones using lidar.CrossRef |

Castillo ME, Rodríguez y Silva F (2015a) Quantitative analysis of forest fire extinction efficiency. Forest Systems 24, 032
Quantitative analysis of forest fire extinction efficiency.CrossRef |

Castillo ME, Rodríguez y Silva F (2015b) Determining response times for the deployment of terrestrial resources for fighting forest fires. A case study: Mediterranean – Chile. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria: Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias de la Agricultura 42, 97–107.
Determining response times for the deployment of terrestrial resources for fighting forest fires. A case study: Mediterranean – Chile.CrossRef |

Castillo ME, Molina JR, Rodríguez y Silva F, García-Chevesich P, Garfias R (2017) A system to evaluate fire impacts from simulated fire behavior in mediterranean areas of central Chile. The Science of the Total Environment 579, 1410–1418.
A system to evaluate fire impacts from simulated fire behavior in mediterranean areas of central Chile.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XitVSrtbvK&md5=918e0720f4d50cbad009ea303d3b9504CAS |

Chuvieco E, Aguado I, Jurdao S, Pettinari M, Yebra M, Salas J, Hantson S, De La Riva J, Ibarra P, Rodrigues M (2014) Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23, 606–619.
Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment.CrossRef |

Clayton H, Mylek MR, Schirmer J, Cary GJ, Dovers SR (2014) Exploring the use of economic evaluation in Australian wildland fire management decision-making. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23, 555–566.
Exploring the use of economic evaluation in Australian wildland fire management decision-making.CrossRef |

Cochrane M, Moran C, Wimberly M, Baer A, Finney M, Beckendorf K, Eidenshink J, Zhu Z (2012) Estimation of wildfire size and risk changes due to fuels treatments. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21, 357–367.
Estimation of wildfire size and risk changes due to fuels treatments.CrossRef |

Donovan GH, Brown TC (2005) An alternative incentive structure for wild-fire management on national forest land. Forest Science 51, 387–395.

Donovan GH, Rideout DB (2003) A reformulation of the cost plus net value change (C+NVC) model of wildfire economics. Forest Science 49, 318–323.

Donovan GH, Prestemon JP, Gebert K (2011) The effect of newspaper coverage and political pressure on wildfire suppression costs. Society & Natural Resources 24, 785–798.
The effect of newspaper coverage and political pressure on wildfire suppression costs.CrossRef |

Duff TJ, Tolhurst KG (2015) Operational wildfire suppression modelling: a review evaluating development, state of the art and future directions. International Journal of Wildland Fire 24, 735–748.
Operational wildfire suppression modelling: a review evaluating development, state of the art and future directions.CrossRef |

Englin J, Boxall PC, Chakraborty K, Watson DO (1996) Valuing the impacts of forest fires on backcountry forest recreation. Forest Science 42, 450–455.

Englin J, Loomis J, González-Cabán A (2001) The dynamic path of recreational values following a forest fire: a comparative analysis of states in the Intermountain West. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31, 1837–1844.
The dynamic path of recreational values following a forest fire: a comparative analysis of states in the Intermountain West.CrossRef |

Fernandes PM, Pacheco AP, Almeida R, Claro J (2016) The role of fire-suppression force in limiting the spread of extremely large forest fires in Portugal. European Journal of Forest Research 135, 253–262.
The role of fire-suppression force in limiting the spread of extremely large forest fires in Portugal.CrossRef |

Finney M, Grenfell IC, McHugh CW (2009) Modeling containment of large wildfires using generalized linear mixed-model analysis. Forest Science 55, 249–255.

Finney MA (2005) The challenge of quantitative risk analysis for wildland fire. Forest Ecology and Management 211, 97–108.
The challenge of quantitative risk analysis for wildland fire.CrossRef |

Finney MA, Grenfell IC, McHugh CW, Seli RC, Tretheway D, Stratton RD, Brittain S (2011a) A method for ensemble wildland fire simulation. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 16, 153–167.
A method for ensemble wildland fire simulation.CrossRef |

Finney MA, McHugh CW, Grenfell IC, Riley KL, Short KC (2011b) A simulation of probabilistic wildfire risk components for the continental United States. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 25, 973–1000.
A simulation of probabilistic wildfire risk components for the continental United States.CrossRef |

Fried JS, Fried BD (1996) Simulating wildfire containment with realistic tactics. Forest Science 42, 267–281.

Fried JS, Gilles JK, Spero J (2006) Analysing initial attack on wildland fires using stochastic simulation. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15, 137–146.
Analysing initial attack on wildland fires using stochastic simulation.CrossRef |

Fried JS, Potts LD, Loreno SM, Christensen GA, Barbour RJ (2016) Inventory-based landscape-scale simulation of management effectiveness and economic feasibility with BioSum. Journal of Forestry
Inventory-based landscape-scale simulation of management effectiveness and economic feasibility with BioSum.CrossRef |

Gebert KM, Black AE (2012) Effect of suppression strategies on federal wildland fire expenditures. Journal of Forestry 110, 65–73.
Effect of suppression strategies on federal wildland fire expenditures.CrossRef |

Gebert KM, Calkin DE, Yoder J (2007) Estimating suppression expenditures for individual large wildland fires. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 22, 188–196.

Giménez A, Pastor E, Zárate L, Planas E, Arnaldos J (2004) Long-term forest fire retardants: a review of quality, effectiveness, application and environmental considerations. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13, 1–15.
Long-term forest fire retardants: a review of quality, effectiveness, application and environmental considerations.CrossRef |

González-Cabán A (Ed.) (2013) Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on fire economics, planning, and policy: climate change and wildfires. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-245. (Albany, CA)

Gregory R, Long G (2009) Using structured decision-making to help implement a precautionary approach to endangered species management. Risk Analysis 29, 518–532.
Using structured decision-making to help implement a precautionary approach to endangered species management.CrossRef |

Gregory RS, Keeney RL (2002) Making smarter environmental management decisions. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38, 1601–1612.
Making smarter environmental management decisions.CrossRef |

Hammond JS, Keeney RL, Raiffa H (1999) ‘Smart choices.’ (Harvard Business School Press: Boston, MA)

Hand MS, Gebert KM, Liang J, Calkin DE, Thompson MP, Zhou M (2014) ‘Economics of wildfire management: the development and application of suppression expenditure models’, Springer Briefs In Fire. (Springer: New York)

Hand MS, Wibbenmeyer MJ, Calkin DE, Thompson MP (2015) Risk preferences, probability weighting, and strategy trade-offs in wildfire management. Risk Analysis 35, 1876–1891.
Risk preferences, probability weighting, and strategy trade-offs in wildfire management.CrossRef |

Hand MS, Thompson MP, Calkin DE (2016) Examining heterogeneity and wildfire management expenditures using spatially and temporally descriptive data. Journal of Forest Economics 22, 80–102.
Examining heterogeneity and wildfire management expenditures using spatially and temporally descriptive data.CrossRef |

Hand MS, Katuwal H, Calkin DE, Thompson MP (2017) The influence of incident management teams on the deployment of wildfire suppression resources. International Journal of Wildland Fire 26,
The influence of incident management teams on the deployment of wildfire suppression resources.CrossRef |

Headley R (1916) Fire suppression, District 5. (USDA Forest Service) Available at https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/40193 [Verified 16 March 2017]

Hesseln H, Loomis JB, González-Cabán A, Alexander S (2003) Wildfire effects on hiking and biking demand in New Mexico: a travel cost study. Journal of Environmental Management 69, 359–368.
Wildfire effects on hiking and biking demand in New Mexico: a travel cost study.CrossRef |

Hesseln H, Loomis JB, Gonzalez-Caban A (2004) The effects of fire on recreation demand in Montana. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 19, 47–53.

Hirsch KG, Podur JJ, Janser RF, McAlpine RS, Martell DL (2004) Productivity of Ontario initial-attack fire crews: results of an expert-judgement elicitation study. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34, 705–715.
Productivity of Ontario initial-attack fire crews: results of an expert-judgement elicitation study.CrossRef |

Holmes TP, Calkin DE (2013) Econometric analysis of fire suppression production functions for large wildland fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 246–255.
Econometric analysis of fire suppression production functions for large wildland fires.CrossRef |

Houtman RM, Montgomery CA, Gagnon AR, Calkin DE, Dietterich TG, McGregor S, Crowley M (2013) Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 871–882.
Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs.CrossRef |

Hyde K, Dickinson MB, Bohrer G, Calkin D, Evers L, Gilbertson-Day J, Nicolet T, Ryan K, Tague C (2013) Research and development supporting risk-based wildfire effects prediction for fuels and fire management: status and needs. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 37–50.
Research and development supporting risk-based wildfire effects prediction for fuels and fire management: status and needs.CrossRef |

Johnston F, Henderson S, Chen Y, Randerson J, Marlier M, DeFries R, Kinney P, Bowman D, Brauer M (2012) Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires. Environmental Health Perspectives 120, 695–701.
Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires.CrossRef |

Jolly WM, Cochrane MA, Freeborn PH, Holden ZA, Brown TJ, Williamson GJ, Bowman DM (2015) Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013. Nature Communications 6, 7537
Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhtlCjsb7P&md5=ff750f2ac949f4ba0574f77ed1c93945CAS |

Jones BA, Thacher JA, Chermak JM, Berrens RP (2016) Wildfire smoke health costs: a methods case study for a south-western US ‘mega-fire’. Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy 5, 181–199.
Wildfire smoke health costs: a methods case study for a south-western US ‘mega-fire’.CrossRef |

Kalabokidis K, Ager A, Finney M, Athanasis N, Palaiologou P, Vasilakos C (2016) AEGIS: a wildfire prevention and management information system. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 16, 643–661.
AEGIS: a wildfire prevention and management information system.CrossRef |

Katuwal H, Calkin DE, Hand MS (2016) Production and efficiency of large wildland fire suppression effort: a stochastic frontier analysis. Journal of Environmental Management 166, 227–236.
Production and efficiency of large wildland fire suppression effort: a stochastic frontier analysis.CrossRef |

Keane RE, Agee JK, Fule P, Keeley JE, Key C, Kitchen SG, Miller R, Schulte LA (2008) Ecological effects of large fires on US landscapes: benefit or catastrophe? International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 696–712.
Ecological effects of large fires on US landscapes: benefit or catastrophe?CrossRef |

Kochi I, Donovan GH, Champ PA, Loomis JB (2010) The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 803–817.
The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: a review.CrossRef |

Kochi I, Champ PA, Loomis JB, Donovan GH (2012) Valuing mortality impacts of smoke exposure from major southern California wildfires. Journal of Forest Economics 18, 61–75.
Valuing mortality impacts of smoke exposure from major southern California wildfires.CrossRef |

Liang J, Calkin DE, Gebert KM, Venn TJ, Silverstein RP (2008) Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 650–659.
Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures.CrossRef |

Loomis J, Gonzalez-Caban A, Englin J (2001) Testing for differential effects of forest fires on hiking and mountain biking demand and benefits. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 26, 508–522.

Mallinis G, Mitsopoulos I, Beltran E, Goldammer J (2016) Assessing wildfire risk in cultural heritage properties using high-spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite imagery and spatially explicit fire simulations: the case of Holy Mount Athos, Greece. Forests 7, 46
Assessing wildfire risk in cultural heritage properties using high-spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite imagery and spatially explicit fire simulations: the case of Holy Mount Athos, Greece.CrossRef |

Marcot BG, Thompson MP, Runge MC, Thompson FR, McNulty S, Cleaves D, Tomosy M, Fisher LA, Bliss A (2012) Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests. Forest Ecology and Management 285, 123–132.
Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests.CrossRef |

Martell D (2011) The development and implementation of forest and wildland fire management decision-support systems: reflections on past practices and emerging needs and challenges. Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences 3, 18

Martell DL (2015) A review of recent forest and wildland fire management decision-support systems research. Current Forestry Reports 1, 128–137.
A review of recent forest and wildland fire management decision-support systems research.CrossRef |

Mavsar R, González Cabán A, Varela E (2013) The state of development of fire management decision-support systems in America and Europe. Forest Policy and Economics 29, 45–55.
The state of development of fire management decision-support systems in America and Europe.CrossRef |

Mees R, Strauss D, Chase R (1993) Modeling wildland fire containment with uncertain flame length and fireline width. International Journal of Wildland Fire 3, 179–185.
Modeling wildland fire containment with uncertain flame length and fireline width.CrossRef |

Mendes I (2010) A theoretical economic model for choosing efficient wildfire suppression strategies. Forest Policy and Economics 12, 323–329.
A theoretical economic model for choosing efficient wildfire suppression strategies.CrossRef |

Milne M, Clayton H, Dovers S, Cary GJ (2014) Evaluating benefits and costs of wildland fires: critical review and future applications. Environmental Hazards 13, 114–132.
Evaluating benefits and costs of wildland fires: critical review and future applications.CrossRef |

Minas JP, Hearne JW, Handmer JW (2012) A review of operations research methods applicable to wildfire management. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21, 189–196.
A review of operations research methods applicable to wildfire management.CrossRef |

Mitsopoulos I, Mallinis G, Arianoutsou M (2015) Wildfire risk assessment in a typical Mediterranean wildland–urban interface of Greece. Environmental Management 55, 900–915.
Wildfire risk assessment in a typical Mediterranean wildland–urban interface of Greece.CrossRef |

Molina J, Rodríguez y Silva F, Herrera M, Zamora R (2009) A simulation tool for socio-economic planning on forest fire suppression management. In ‘Forest fires: detection, suppression and prevention’. (Eds E Gomez, K Alvarez) pp. 33–88. (Nova Science Publishers: New York)

Molina JR, Rodríguez y Silva F, Herrera MÁ (2016) Integrating economic landscape valuation into Mediterranean territorial planning. Environmental Science & Policy 56, 120–128.
Integrating economic landscape valuation into Mediterranean territorial planning.CrossRef |

Moritz MA, Batllori E, Bradstock RA, Gill AM, Handmer J, Hessburg PF, Leonard J, McCaffrey S, Odion DC, Schoennagel T (2014) Learning to coexist with wildfire. Nature 515, 58–66.
Learning to coexist with wildfire.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXitFanu77P&md5=ce36b298954e3e2e3ed54dc193decb5cCAS |

Noonan-Wright EK, Opperman TS, Finney MA, Zimmerman GT, Seli RC, Elenz LM, Calkin DE, Fiedler JR (2011) Developing the US Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS). Journal of Combustion 2011, 168473
Developing the US Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS).CrossRef |

North M, Stephens S, Collins B, Agee J, Aplet G, Franklin J, Fulé P (2015) Reform forest fire management. Science 349, 1280–1281.
Reform forest fire management.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhs1SrsLzI&md5=2a69f2653e78155a20016c454d8ce483CAS |

Ntaimo L, Arrubla JAG, Stripling C, Young J, Spencer T (2012) A stochastic programming standard response model for wildfire initial attack planning. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42, 987–1001.
A stochastic programming standard response model for wildfire initial attack planning.CrossRef |

O’Connor CD, Thompson MP, Rodríguez y Silva F (2016) Getting ahead of the wildfire problem: quantifying and mapping management challenges and opportunities. Geosciences 6, 35
Getting ahead of the wildfire problem: quantifying and mapping management challenges and opportunities.CrossRef |

Oliveira TM, Barros AM, Ager AA, Fernandes PM (2016) Assessing the effect of a fuel break network to reduce burnt area and wildfire risk transmission. International Journal of Wildland Fire 25, 619–632.
Assessing the effect of a fuel break network to reduce burnt area and wildfire risk transmission.CrossRef |

Omi PN (2015) Theory and practice of wildland fuels management. Current Forestry Reports 1, 100–117.
Theory and practice of wildland fuels management.CrossRef |

Pacheco AP, Claro J, Fernandes PM, de Neufville R, Oliveira TM, Borges JG, Rodrigues JC (2015) Cohesive fire management within an uncertain environment: a review of risk handling and decision–support systems. Forest Ecology and Management 347, 1–17.
Cohesive fire management within an uncertain environment: a review of risk handling and decision–support systems.CrossRef |

Parks SA, Holsinger LM, Miller C, Nelson CR (2015) Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression. Ecological Applications 25, 1478–1492.
Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.CrossRef |

Parks SA, Miller C, Holsinger LM, Baggett S, Bird BJ (2016) Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence. International Journal of Wildland Fire 25, 182–190.
Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence.CrossRef |

Petrovic N, Carlson J (2012) A decision-making framework for wildfire suppression. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21, 927–937.
A decision-making framework for wildfire suppression.CrossRef |

Plucinski M, McCarthy G, Hollis J, Gould J (2012) The effect of aerial suppression on the containment time of Australian wildfires estimated by fire management personnel. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21, 219–229.
The effect of aerial suppression on the containment time of Australian wildfires estimated by fire management personnel.CrossRef |

Plucinski MP, Pastor E (2013) Criteria and methodology for evaluating aerial wildfire suppression. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 1144–1154.
Criteria and methodology for evaluating aerial wildfire suppression.CrossRef |

Rausch M, Boxall PC, Verbyla AP (2010) The development of fire-induced damage functions for forest recreation activity in Alberta, Canada. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 63–74.
The development of fire-induced damage functions for forest recreation activity in Alberta, Canada.CrossRef |

Reisen F, Duran SM, Flannigan M, Elliott C, Rideout K (2015) Wildfire smoke and public health risk. International Journal of Wildland Fire 24, 1029–1044.
Wildfire smoke and public health risk.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhvFKksr%2FM&md5=f30a3c81e70a419d3c23976fdc803c48CAS |

Riley K, Thompson M (2016) An uncertainty analysis of wildfire modeling. In ‘Natural hazard uncertainty assessment: modeling and decision support, geophysical monograph 223’. (Eds K Riley, P Webley, M Thompson) pp. 193–213. (John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ)

Rodríguez y Silva F, González-Cabán A (2010) ‘SINAMI’: a tool for the economic evaluation of forest fire management programs in Mediterranean ecosystems. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 927–936.
‘SINAMI’: a tool for the economic evaluation of forest fire management programs in Mediterranean ecosystems.CrossRef |

Rodríguez y Silva F, González-Cabán A (2016) Contribution of suppression difficulty and lessons learned in forecasting fire suppression operations productivity: a methodological approach. Journal of Forest Economics 25, 149–159.
Contribution of suppression difficulty and lessons learned in forecasting fire suppression operations productivity: a methodological approach.CrossRef |

Rodríguez y Silva F, Molina JR, González-Cabán A, Machuca MÁH (2012) Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires. Journal of Environmental Management 100, 16–21.
Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.CrossRef |

Rodríguez y Silva F, Martínez JRM, González-Cabán A (2014) A methodology for determining operational priorities for prevention and suppression of wildland fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23, 544–554.
A methodology for determining operational priorities for prevention and suppression of wildland fires.CrossRef |

Roesch-McNally GE, Rabotyagov S, Tyndall JC, Ettl G, Tóth SF (2016) Auctioning the forest: a qualitative approach to exploring stakeholder responses to bidding on forest ecosystem services. Small-scale Forestry 15, 321–333.
Auctioning the forest: a qualitative approach to exploring stakeholder responses to bidding on forest ecosystem services.CrossRef |

Salis M, Ager AA, Arca B, Finney MA, Bacciu V, Duce P, Spano D (2013) Assessing exposure of human and ecological values to wildfire in Sardinia, Italy. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 549–565.
Assessing exposure of human and ecological values to wildfire in Sardinia, Italy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXpvFakt7k%3D&md5=56877e2504fc93d910712df09ed82afaCAS |

Scott J, Helmbrecht D, Thompson MP, Calkin DE, Marcille K (2012) Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure. Natural Hazards 64, 707–728.
Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure.CrossRef |

Scott JH, Thompson MP, Calkin DE (2013) A wildfire risk assessment framework for land and resource management. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-315. (Fort Collins, CO)

Short K (2014) A spatial database of wildfires in the United States, 1992–2011. Earth System Science Data 6, 1–27.
A spatial database of wildfires in the United States, 1992–2011.CrossRef |

Smith HG, Sheridan GJ, Lane PN, Nyman P, Haydon S (2011) Wildfire effects on water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for water supply. Journal of Hydrology 396, 170–192.
Wildfire effects on water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for water supply.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsF2htbnK&md5=4e46b8ea24e1f7bc75a8dc39d97581d5CAS |

Sparhawk WR (1925) The use of liability rating in planning forest fire protection. Journal of Agricultural Research 30, 693–762.

Stephens S, Agee JK, Fule PZ, North M, Romme W, Swetnam T, Turner MG (2013) Managing forests and fire in changing climates. Science 342, 41–42.
Managing forests and fire in changing climates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhsF2jtrjE&md5=34a9385dca0a2639f3ad0406c53b7764CAS |

Stephens SL, Collins BM, Biber E, Fulé PZ (2016) US federal fire and forest policy: emphasizing resilience in dry forests. Ecosphere 7, e01584
US federal fire and forest policy: emphasizing resilience in dry forests.CrossRef |

Stephenson C, Handmer J, Betts R (2013) Estimating the economic, social and environmental impacts of wildfires in Australia. Environmental Hazards 12, 93–111.
Estimating the economic, social and environmental impacts of wildfires in Australia.CrossRef |

Stonesifer CS, Calkin DE, Thompson MP, Kaiden JD (2014) Developing an aviation exposure index to inform risk-based fire management decisions. Journal of Forestry 112, 581–590.

Stonesifer CS, Calkin D, Thompson MP, Stockmann KD (2016) Fighting fire in the heat of the day: an analysis of operational and environmental conditions of use for large airtankers in United States fire suppression. International Journal of Wildland Fire 25, 520–533.
Fighting fire in the heat of the day: an analysis of operational and environmental conditions of use for large airtankers in United States fire suppression.CrossRef |

Thompson M, Anderson N (2015) Modeling fuel treatment impacts on fire suppression cost savings: a review. California Agriculture 69, 164–170.
Modeling fuel treatment impacts on fire suppression cost savings: a review.CrossRef |

Thompson M, Dunn C, Calkin D (2015c) Wildfires: systemic changes required. Science 350, 920
Wildfires: systemic changes required.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhvFKrtb%2FK&md5=760caba0101e170194fa3e7bfeb0664fCAS |

Thompson MP (2013) Modeling wildfire incident complexity dynamics. PLoS One 8, e63297
Modeling wildfire incident complexity dynamics.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXot1yns78%3D&md5=a8cf1e4ea317c75c6b2757b786154592CAS |

Thompson MP (2014) Social, institutional, and psychological factors affecting wildfire incident decision-making. Society & Natural Resources 27, 636–644.
Social, institutional, and psychological factors affecting wildfire incident decision-making.CrossRef |

Thompson MP, Calkin DE (2011) Uncertainty and risk in wildland fire management: a review. Journal of Environmental Management 92, 1895–1909.
Uncertainty and risk in wildland fire management: a review.CrossRef |

Thompson MP, Scott J, Helmbrecht D, Calkin DE (2013a) Integrated wildfire risk assessment: framework development and application on the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana, USA. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, 329–342.
Integrated wildfire risk assessment: framework development and application on the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana, USA.CrossRef |

Thompson MP, Marcot BG, Thompson FR, McNulty S, Fisher LA, Runge MC, Cleaves D, Tomosy M (2013b) The science of decision-making: applications for sustainable forest and grassland management in the National Forest System. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-GTR-88. (Washington, DC)

Thompson MP, Haas JR, Finney MA, Calkin DE, Hand MS, Browne MJ, Halek M, Short KC, Grenfell IC (2015a) Development and application of a probabilistic method for wildfire suppression cost modeling. Forest Policy and Economics 50, 249–258.
Development and application of a probabilistic method for wildfire suppression cost modeling.CrossRef |

Thompson MP, Haas JR, Gilbertson-Day JW, Scott JH, Langowski P, Bowne E, Calkin DE (2015b) Development and application of a geospatial wildfire exposure and risk calculation tool. Environmental Modelling & Software 63, 61–72.
Development and application of a geospatial wildfire exposure and risk calculation tool.CrossRef |

Thompson MP, Freeborn P, Rieck JD, Calkin DE, Gilbertson-Day JW, Cochrane MA, Hand MS (2016a) Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: a case study of the Las Conchas Fire. International Journal of Wildland Fire 25, 167–181.
Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: a case study of the Las Conchas Fire.CrossRef |

Thompson MP, MacGregor DG, Calkin DE (2016b) Risk management: core principles and practices, and their relevance to wildland fire. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-350.. (Fort Collins, CO)

Thompson MP, Bowden P, Brough A, Scott JH, Gilbertson-Day J, Taylor A, Anderson J, Haas JR (2016c) Application of wildfire risk assessment results to wildfire response planning in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Forests 7, 64
Application of wildfire risk assessment results to wildfire response planning in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.CrossRef |

Tillery AC, Haas JR, Miller LW, Scott JH, Thompson MP (2014) Potential post-wildfire debris-flow hazards – a pre-wildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico: US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–516110.3133/SIR20145161

Venn TJ, Calkin DE (2011) Accommodating non-market values in evaluation of wildfire management in the United States: challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20, 327–339.
Accommodating non-market values in evaluation of wildfire management in the United States: challenges and opportunities.CrossRef |

Vogler K, Ager A, Day M, Jennings M, Bailey J (2015) Prioritization of forest restoration projects: trade-offs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives. Forests 6, 4403–4420.
Prioritization of forest restoration projects: trade-offs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives.CrossRef |

Warziniack T, Thompson M (2013) Wildfire risk and optimal investments in watershed protection. Western Economics Forum 12, 19–28.

Wibbenmeyer MJ, Hand MS, Calkin DE, Venn TJ, Thompson MP (2013) Risk preferences in strategic wildfire decision making: a choice experiment with US wildfire managers. Risk Analysis 33, 1021–1037.
Risk preferences in strategic wildfire decision making: a choice experiment with US wildfire managers.CrossRef |

Williams BK (2011) Adaptive management of natural resources – framework and issues. Journal of Environmental Management 92, 1346–1353.
Adaptive management of natural resources – framework and issues.CrossRef |

Williams J (2013) Exploring the onset of high-impact mega-fires through a forest land management prism. Forest Ecology and Management 294, 4–10.
Exploring the onset of high-impact mega-fires through a forest land management prism.CrossRef |

Wilson RS, Winter PL, Maguire LA, Ascher T (2011) Managing wildfire events: risk-based decision-making among a group of federal fire managers. Risk Analysis 31, 805–818.
Managing wildfire events: risk-based decision-making among a group of federal fire managers.CrossRef |

Yoder J, Gebert K (2012) An econometric model for ex ante prediction of wildfire suppression costs. Journal of Forest Economics 18, 76–89.
An econometric model for ex ante prediction of wildfire suppression costs.CrossRef |

Yoe C (2011) ‘Primer on risk analysis: decision making under uncertainty.’ (Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, FL)

Zimmerman T (2012) Wildland fire management decision-making. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B 2, 169–178.


Full Text PDF (242 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)

View Altmetrics