Influence of supplementation of tropical plant feed additives on in vitro rumen fermentation and methanogenesisP. N. Chatterjee A C , D. N. Kamra B C , N. Agarwal B and A. K. Patra A
A West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Belgachia, Kolkata-700037, West Bengal, India.
B Rumen Microbiology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, U.P. 243122, India.
Animal Production Science 54(10) 1770-1774 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN14366
Submitted: 25 March 2014 Accepted: 26 June 2014 Published: 19 August 2014
Tropical plants rich in secondary metabolites have the potential to modulate rumen fermentation for more efficient food production with reduced environmental impact. In the present study after extensive screening, three tropical tree leaves (Bahunia variegata, Psidium guajava and Cannabis indica) and three herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Trachyspermum ammi and Cinnamomum tamala) were selected to evaluate their effect on buffalo rumen fermentation. Total gas production, substrate degradability, volatile fatty acid pattern and enzyme activities were not affected by any of the plants tested in this study. However, methane production was lowered (P ≤ 0.05) due to inclusion of P. guajava leaves. Anti-methanogenic/anti-protozoal metabolites present in tropical plants seem to be better extracted by ethanol solvent and accordingly the best performing plant i.e. different levels of P. guajava extract was used for further evaluation. Both the methane inhibition and defaunating action of ethanol extract of P. guajava were found to be dose dependent. In conclusion, leaves of P. guajava appear to be a promising plant feed additive for decreasing methane production without affecting feed degradability in the rumen.
Additional keywords: methane production, plant secondary compounds, protozoa.
ReferencesAgarwal N, Agarwal I, Kamra DN, Chaudhury LC (2000) Diurnal variations in the activities of hydrolytic enzymes in different fractions of rumen contents of Murrah buffaloes. Journal of Applied Animal Research 18, 73–80.
| Diurnal variations in the activities of hydrolytic enzymes in different fractions of rumen contents of Murrah buffaloes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXntlShs78%3D&md5=55032e84ba78f71216c62a1bf94d9c99CAS |
Agarwal N, Kamra DN, Chatterjee PN, Kumar R, Chaudhury LC (2008) In vitro methanogenesis, microbial profile and fermentation of green forages with buffalo rumen liquor as influenced by 2-Bromoethanesulphonic acid. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 21, 818–823.
AOAC (1990) ‘Official method of analysis.’ (Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Washington, DC)
Chatterjee PN (2005) Influence of diet and plant secondary compounds on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern. PhD thesis, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.
Chatterjee PN, Kamra DN, Agarwal N (2006) Effect of roughage source, protein and energy levels on in vitro fermentation and methanogenesis. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 23, 78–82.
Cottyn BG, Boucque CV (1968) Rapid method for the gas-chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 16, 105–107.
| Rapid method for the gas-chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF1cXjs1Glsw%3D%3D&md5=207417779873a2bc4c38ad5149d8e431CAS |
FAO (2006) ‘Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options.’ (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy)
Johnson KA, Johnson DA (1995) Methane emissions from cattle. Journal of Animal Science 73, 2483–2492.
Kamra DN, Sawal RK, Pathak NN, Kewalramani N, Agarwal N (1991) Diurnal variation in ciliate protozoa in the rumen of blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra). Letters in Applied Microbiology 13, 165–167.
| Diurnal variation in ciliate protozoa in the rumen of blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).CrossRef |
Kamra DN, Patra AK, Chatterjee PN, Kumar R, Agarwal N, Chaudhary LC (2008) Effect of plant extracts on methanogenesis and microbial profile of the rumen of buffalo: a brief overview. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 175–178.
| Effect of plant extracts on methanogenesis and microbial profile of the rumen of buffalo: a brief overview.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXovV2n&md5=6f373b0f0884c4c995be0645b215932bCAS |
Kumar R, Kamra DN, Agarwal N, Chaudhary LC (2007) In vitro methanogenesis and fermentation of feeds containing oil seed cakes with rumen liquor of buffalo. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 20, 1196–1200.
Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AR, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal Biology Chemistry 193, 265–275.
Menke KH, Steingass H (1988) Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained by chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research Development 28, 7–55.
Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Oskoueian A (2013) Effect of flavonoids on rumen fermentation activity, methane production and microbial population. BioMed Research International Open access,
| Effect of flavonoids on rumen fermentation activity, methane production and microbial population.CrossRef |
Patra AK (2010) Meta-analyses of effects of phytochemicals on digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics associated with methanogenesis. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90, 2700–2708.
| Meta-analyses of effects of phytochemicals on digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics associated with methanogenesis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsVSis7jO&md5=6cf1378a60bdb5679b2a160da758589fCAS | 20740549PubMed |
Patra AK, Saxena J (2009) Dietary phytochemicals as rumen modifiers: a review of the effects on microbial populations. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 96, 363–375.
| Dietary phytochemicals as rumen modifiers: a review of the effects on microbial populations.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXht12msLrK&md5=9f113d021d6f3599dd7551398a356841CAS | 19582589PubMed |
Patra AK, Saxena J (2011) Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91, 24–37.
| Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsValt7jO&md5=86f63eb4f73d29082ded5a520f7c8eeeCAS | 20815041PubMed |
Patra AK, Kamra DN, Agarwal N (2006) Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo. Animal Feed Science and Technology 128, 276–291.
| Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XkvVyis7c%3D&md5=ddcad7f3f7a924641397f5b7d487b858CAS |
Sirohi SK, Goel N, Pandey P (2012) Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro. Open Veterinary Journal 2, 72–77.
SPSS (1996) ‘Statistical packages for social sciences. Version 7.5.’ (SPSS Inc.: Illinois, USA)
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3585–3597.