Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals

The potential for developing fodder plants for the salt-affected areas of southern and eastern Australia: an overview

M. E. Rogers A B N , A. D. Craig A C , R. E. Munns A D , T. D. Colmer A E , P. G. H. Nichols A F , C. V. Malcolm G , E. G. Barrett-Lennard A F , A. J. Brown A H , W. S. Semple I , P. M. Evans A J , K. Cowley D , S. J. Hughes A K , R. Snowball A F , S. J. Bennett A , G. C. Sweeney A L , B. S. Dear A M and M. A. Ewing A

A Cooperative Research Centre for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.

B Department of Primary Industries Victoria, Tatura, Vic. 3616, Australia.

C South Australian Research and Development Institute, Struan Agricultural Centre, Naracoorte SA 5271, Australia.

D CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

E University of Western Australia, Perth, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

F Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Perth, WA 6983, Australia.

G 11 Price Street, Denmark, WA 6333, Australia.

H Department of Primary Industries Victoria, Werribee, Vic. 3030, Australia.

I Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources, PO Box 53, Orange, NSW 2800, Australia.

J Department of Primary Industries Victoria, Hamilton, Vic. 3300, Australia.

K South Australian Research and Development Institute, Waite Institute, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.

L South Australian Research and Development Institute, Flaxley, SA 5153, Australia.

M NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

N Corresponding author. Email:

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45(4) 301-329
Submitted: 29 April 2004  Accepted: 15 December 2004   Published: 23 May 2005


This paper reviews the major issues that impact upon the development of improved fodder species for saline environments across temperate Australia. It describes past and present research that has been, or is being, undertaken towards improvements in salt tolerance in forage species within Australia in relation to the principal regions where salinity occurs. It includes a discussion on the mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. An extensive list of known or potential salt-tolerant fodder species is provided and the key opportunities for advancement within each of the 4 major forage groups: grasses, legumes, herbs and shrubs are discussed. Constraints to developing new salt and waterlogging tolerant fodder species are identified. A number of recommendations are made for research that should ensure that Australian producers have access to a new array of productive fodder species suited to saline environments.


Ab-Shukar NA Kay QON Stevens DP Skinbinski DOF 1988 Salt tolerance in natural populations of Trifolium repens L. New Phytologist 109 483 490

Adem L (1989) Synthesis of research work on annual species of Medicago in Algeria. In ‘Proceedings of the 16th international grassland congress’. pp. 227–228.

Ahmad R , Ismail S (1996) Pakistan’s experience in the agricultural use of halophytic species. In ‘Halophytes and biosaline agriculture’. (Eds R Choukr-Allah, CV Malcolm, H Hamdy) pp. 349–359. (Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York)

Anderson ER 1973 Effects of flooding on some tropical grasses. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 40 53

Anon. (1961) ‘Flora of cultivated plants of the USSR XIII perennial leguminous plants. Part I.’ (Ed. EN Sinskaya) pp. 514, 570. (Israel Program for Scientific Translations: Jerusalem)

Anon. (1963) ‘Flora of the USSR. Vol. 2.’ (Eds VL Komarov, R Rozhevits, BK Shishkin) pp. 521, 565. (Israel Program for Scientific Translations: Jerusalem)

Anon. (1970) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol 3.’ (Ed. PH Davis) pp. 449–450. (Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh)

Armstrong W 1979 Aeration in higher plants. Advances in Botanical Research 7 255 332

Armstrong W , Drew MC (2002) Root growth and metabolism under oxygen deficiency. In ‘Plant roots: the hidden half’. (Eds Y Waisel, A Eshel, U Kafkafi) pp. 729–761. (Marcel Dekker: New York)

Aronsen JA (1985) Economic halophytes — a global review. In ‘Plants for arid lands’. (Eds GE Wickens, JR Gooden, DV Field) pp. 177–188. (George Allen and Unwin: London)

Aronsen JA (1989) ‘Haloph. A data base of salt tolerant plants of the world.’ (Office of Arid Lands Studies, The University of Arizona Tucson: Arizona)

Arriaga MO 1992 Salt glands in flowering culms of Eriochloa species (Poaceae). Bothalia 22 111 117

Asad A 2002 Growing Atriplex and Maireana species in saline sodic and waterlogged soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 33 973 989

Ashby WC Beadle NCW 1957 Salinity factors in the growth of Australian saltbushes. Ecology 38 344 352

Aslam Z Jeschke WD Barrett-Lennard EG Greenway H Setter TL Watkin E 1986 Effects of external NaCl on the growth of Atriplex amnicola and the ion relations and carbohydrate status of the leaves. Plant, Cell and Environment 9 571 580

Ashraf M McNeilly T Bradshaw AD 1986 The response to NaCl and ionic content of selected salt-tolerant and normal lines of three legume forage species in sand culture. New Phytologist 104 463 471

ANZECC Task Force (2001) Implications of salinity for biodiversity conservation and management. Australian and New Zealand Environmental Conservation Council, Canberra.

Banwari L Lal B 1995 Performance of grasses on salt-affected soils with and without amendments. Range Management and Agroforestry 16 119 121

Barrett-Lennard EG 2002 Restoration of saline land through revegetation. Agricultural Water Management 53 213 226

Barrett-Lennard EG 2003 a The interaction between waterlogging and salinity in higher plants: causes, consequences and implications. Plant and Soil 253 35 54 DOI

Barrett-Lennard EG (2003 b) ‘Saltland pastures in Australia. A practical guide’. 2nd edn. Land, water and wool sustainable grazing on saline lands sub-program. Land, Water and Wool, Canberra, ACT.

Barry TN McNabb WC 1999 The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants. British Journal of Nutrition 81 263 272

Blokhina O Virolainen E Fagerstedt KV 2003 Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Annals of Botany 91 179 194

Boomsma CD (1975) Tree planting guide for South Australia. Bulletin No. 12. 3rd edn. Woods and Forests Department, South Australia.

Bouma TJ Koutstaal BP van Dongen M Nielsen KL 2001 Coping with low nutrient availability and inundation: root growth responses of three halophytic grass species from different elevations along a flooding gradient. Oecologia 126 472 481 DOI

Boyd DC Rogers ME 2004 The effect of salinity on the growth of chicory (Cichorium intybus cv. Puna) — a potential dairy forage species for irrigation areas. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 44 189 192 DOI

Briggs SV Taws N 2003 Impacts of salinity on biodiversity — clear understanding or muddy confusion? Australian Journal of Botany 51 609 617 DOI

Brown JW Hayward HE 1956 Salt tolerance in alfalfa varieties. Agronomy Journal 48 18 20

Brown AJ , Rogers ME (2003) A review of field and greenhouse research on salt tolerance in temperate Australian native grasses. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd national native grasses conference: sustainability and beyond’. (Eds C O’Dwyer, S Hamilton) pp. 146–160. (Institute of Land and Food Resources, University of Melbourne)

Burnside D , Holm A , Payne A , Wilson G (1995) ‘Reading the rangeland. A guide to the arid shrublands of Western Australia.’ (Department of Agriculture Western Australia: Perth)

Carland F , Hurley B , Atkinson C , Shone K , Brown C (1998) High quality feed from tall wheatgrass. In ‘Proceedings of 5th national conference on the productive use and rehabilitation of saline lands’. (Eds NE Marcar, AKM Afzal Hossain) pp. 139–141. (PNM Editorial Publications: Canberra)

Christiansen IH , Gordon IJ (1994) Potential vegetation indicators of soil salting in southeast Queensland. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd national PUR$L conference’. (Eds M Schulz, G Petterson) pp. 43–49. (Salt Action: Echuca, Vic.)

Cocks PS 2001 Ecology of herbaceous perennial legumes: a review of characteristics that may provide management options for the control of salinity and waterlogging in dryland cropping systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52 137 151

Colman RL Wilson GPM 1960 The effects of floods on pasture plants. New South Wales Agricultural Gazette 71 337 347

Colmer TD 2003 Long-distance transport of gases in plants: a perspective on internal aeration and radial oxygen loss from roots. Plant, Cell and Environment 26 17 36

Colmer TD , Greenway H (2005) Oxygen transport, respiration, and anaerobic carbohydrate catabolism in roots in flooded soils. In ‘Plant respiration: from cell to ecosystem’. (Eds H Lambers, M Ribas-Carbo) (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht) (in press.)

Craig AD , Rowe TD (2000) Frontier — an early maturing balansa clover. SARDI Technote No. 4. PIRSA, South Australia.

CSIRO Australia (1993) ‘CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia.’ (Eds M Lazarides, B Hince) pp. 56, 213, 216, 232, 248. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Dear BS Sandral GA Peoples MB Wilson BCD Taylor JN Rodham CA 2003 Growth, seed set and nitrogen fixation of 28 annual legume species on 3 Vertosol soils in southern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43 1101 1115 DOI

Department of Agriculture Western Australia (2002) ‘Salinity — an introduction.’ (Department of Agriculture Western Australia: Perth) Available online at: salinity/intro/salinity/salinity_intro.htm (verified 26 April 2005).

Drew MC 1992 Soil aeration and plant root metabolism. Soil Science 154 259 268

Drew MC 1997 Oxygen deficiency and root metabolism: injury and acclimation under hypoxia and anoxia. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 48 223 250

Duke JA (1978) The quest for tolerant germplasm. In ‘ASA Special Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions’. (Ed. CA Jung) pp. 1–61. (American Society of Agronomy Madison: Wisconsin)

Dunbabin JS , Slavich PG (1990) Relative salt tolerance of annual legumes. In ‘Management of soil salinity in south east Australia’. (Eds E Humphreys, WA Muirhead, A Van de Lelij) pp. 171–179. (Australian Society of Soil Science Inc.: Wagga Wagga, NSW)

Duncan WH (1974) Vascular halophytes of the Atlantic and gulf coasts of North America north of Mexico In ‘Ecology of halophytes’. (Eds RJ Reimold, WH Queen) pp. 23–50. (Academic Press: New York)

Duncan RR Carrow RN 1999 Turfgrass molecular genetic improvement for biotic/edaphic stress resistance. Advances in Agronomy 67 233 305

Evans PM (2001) Melilotus albus: the preferred forage legume for autumn and spring–summer production on saline soils in SW Victoria. In ‘Proceedings of the 10th Australian agronomy conference’. (Eds N Mendham, P Lane, B Reid) p. 89. (The Australian Society of Agronomy: Hobart)

Evans PM , Cameron NL (1998) Performance of pasture legumes on three contrasting soil types in Western Victoria. In ‘Proceedings of the 9th Australian agronomy conference’. (Eds DL Michalk, JE Pratley) pp. 174–177. (The Australian Society of Agronomy: Wagga Wagga, NSW)

Evans PM Kearney GA 2003 Melilotus albus (Medik) is productive and persistent on saline soils of neutral to alkaline reaction in the high rainfall zone of south-west Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43 349 355

Evans PM , Thompson AN , Gordon DJ , Byron AH (2001) A case study for a highly productive salt tolerant forage legume. 1. Agronomic performance of Melilotus albus. In ‘Proceedings of the 7th national PUR$L conference’. (Eds C Grose, L Bond, P Pinkard) pp. 170–171.

Felker P Clark PR Laag AE Pratt PF 1981 Salinity tolerance of tree legumes: mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana, P. velutina and P. articulata), algarrobo (P. chilensis), kiawe (P. pallida) and tamarugo (P. tamarugo) grown in sand culture on nitrogen-free media. Plant and Soil 61 311 317

Ferdowsian R , George R , Lewis F , McFarlane D , Short R , Speed R (1996) The extent of dryland salinity in Western Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the 4th national PUR$L conference’. pp. 89–97. (Promaco Conventions: Perth)

Fisher MJ Skerman PJ 1986 Salt tolerant forage plants for summer rainfall areas. Reclamation and Revegetation Research 5 263 284

Flowers TJ Hajibagheri MA Clipson NJW 1986 Halophytes. Quarterly Review of Biology 61 313 337

Forsberg DE 1953 The response of various forage crops to saline soils. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Science 33 542 549

Francis CM Poole ML 1973 Effect of waterlogging on the growth of annual Medicago species. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 13 711 713

Francois LE Grieve CM Maas EV Donovan TJ Lesch SM 1984 Time of salt stress affects growth and yield components of irrigated wheat. Agronomy Journal 86 100 107

Fry JD 1991 Submersion tolerance of warm season turfgrasses. HortScience 26 927

Gallaway R Davidson NJ 1993 The response of Atriplex amnicola to the interactive effects of salinity and hypoxia. Journal of Experimental Botany 44 653 663

Garthwaite AJ von Bothmer R Colmer TD 2003 Diversity in root aeration traits associated with waterlogging tolerance in the genus Hordeum. Functional Plant Biology 30 875 889

Gibberd MR Colmer TD Cocks PS 1999 Root porosity and oxygen movement in waterlogging-tolerant Trifolium tomentosum and intolerant Trifolium glomeratum. Plant, Cell and Environment 22 1161 1168 DOI

Gibberd MR Gray JD Cocks PS Colmer TD 2001 Waterlogging tolerance among a diverse range of Trifolium accessions in related to root porosity, lateral root formation and aerotropic rooting. Annals of Botany 88 579 589 DOI

Gibbs J Greenway H 2003 Mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in plants. I. Growth, survival and anaerobic catabolism. Functional Plant Biology 30 1 47 DOI

Glenn EP Brown JJ Blumwald E 1999 Salt tolerance and crop potential of halophytes. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 18 227 255 DOI

Gorham J McDonnell E Wyn Jones RG 1984 Salt tolerance in Triticaceae: Leymus sabulosus. Journal of Experimental Botany 35 1200 1209

Greenway H 1965 Plant response to saline substrates. VII. Growth and ion uptake throughout plant development in two varieties of Hordeum vulgare. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 18 763 779

Hitchcock AS (1950) ‘Manual of the grasses of the United States.’ US Department of Agriculture Publication Number 200. (US Government Printing Office: Washington DC)

Hodson MJ Opik H Wainwright SJ 1985 Changes in ion and water content of individual shoot organs in a salt-tolerant and a salt-sensitive clone of Agrostis stolonifera L. during and subsequent to treatment with sodium chloride. Plant, Cell and Environment 8 657 668

Ignaciuk R Lee JA 1980 The germination of four annual strand-line species. New Phytologist 84 581 591

Jackson MB , Drew MC (1984) Effects of flooding on growth and metabolism of herbaceous plants. In ‘Flooding and plant growth’. (Ed. TT Kozlowski) pp. 47–128. (Academic Press: New York)

Johnson RC 1991 Salinity resistance, water relations, and salt content of crested and tall wheatgrass accessions. Crop Science 31 730 734

Josh AJ Kumar AS Hinglajia H 2002 Effects of sea water on germination, growth, accumulation of organic compounds and inorganic ions in halophytic grass Heleochloa setulosa (Trin) Blatt et McCann). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 7 26 30

Justin SHFW Armstrong W 1987 The anatomical characteristics of roots and plant responses to soil flooding. New Phytologist 106 465 495

Kapulnik Y Tueber LR Phillips DA 1989 Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) selected for vigor in a nonsaline environment maintained growth under salt stress. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40 1253 1259

Keighery GJ , Mitchell D (1993) How do we integrate nature conservation with other land uses in the context of the Western Australian wheatbelt? In ‘Proceedings of the workshop on remnant vegetation ten years on: a decade of research and management’. pp. 81–83. (Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management: Como, WA)

Kelman WM (2004) Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars. Available online at: (verified 26 March 2005).

Kerr MKC , Westbrooke ME (2000) Conservation and reservation of endangered saline plant communities in south-western New South Wales. In ‘Australian Rangeland Society centenary symposium’. (Eds S Nicholson, J Noble) pp. 228–229.

Kim KS Yoo YK Lee GJ 1991 Comparitive salt tolerance study in Korean lawngrasses. I. Comparison with western turfgrass via in vitro salt tolerance test. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science 32 117 123

King IP Law CN Cant KA Orford SE Reader SM Miller TE 1997 Tritipyrum, a potential new salt-tolerant cereal. Plant Breeding 116 127 132

Kobayashi H Sato S Masaoka Y 2004 Tolerance of grasses to calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium chloride. Plant Production Science 7 30 35

Lawrence T (1983) Altai wild ryegrass. Agriculture Canada Bulletin 1983-3E. Swift Current, Saskatoon, Canada.

Lee G Duncan RR Carrow RN 2004 Salinity tolerance of seashore paspalum ecotypes: shoot growth responses and criteria. HortScience 39 1138 1142

Leeper GW (1967) ‘Introduction to soil science.’ (Melbourne University Press: Melbourne)

Le Houérou HN (1979) Resources and potential of the native flora for fodder and sown pasture production in the arid and semi-arid zones of North Africa. In ‘Arid land plant resources’. (Eds J R Goodwin, DK Northington) pp. 384–401. (Texas Technical University: Lubbock, Texas)

Le Houérou HN (1986) Salt tolerant plants of economic value in the Mediterranean basin. In ‘Forage and fuel production from salt affected wasteland’. (Eds EG Barrett-Lennard, CV Malcolm, WR Stern, SM Wilkens) pp. 319–341. (Elsevier: The Netherlands)

Lesins KA (1979) ‘Genus Medicago: (Leguminosae): a taxogenetic study.’ (Kluwer: The Netherlands)

Loch DS , Lees TW (2001) Halophytic native grasses for stabilisation and rehabilitation of salt-affected sites in northern Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the 4th Australian workshop on native seed biology for revegetation’. Mildura Victoria. (Eds SW Adkins, SM Bellairs, LC Bell) pp. 235–246. (Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research: Brisbane)

Lunt OR Youngner VB Oertli JJ 1961 Salinity tolerance of five turfgrass varieties. Agronomy Journal 53 247 249

Maas EV Hoffman GJ 1977 Crop salt tolerance — current assessment. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division 103 115 134

Macdonald KB , Barbour MJ (1974) Beach and salt marsh vegetationof the North American Pacific Coast. In ‘Ecology of halophytes’. (Eds RJ Reimold, WH Queen) pp. 175–233. (Academic Press: New York)

Malcolm CV (1963) An agronomic study of Kochia brevifolia R.Br. MSc Thesis, University of Western Australia.

Malcolm CV (1969) Plant collection for pasture improvement in saline and arid environments. Western Australian Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 6, Perth, WA.

Malcolm CV (1982) Wheatbelt salinity. Western Australian Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 52, Perth, WA.

Malcolm CV (1994) Use of halophyte forages for rehabilitation of degraded lands. In ‘Halophytes as a resource for livestock and for rehabilitation of degraded lands’. (Eds VR Squires, AT Ayoub) pp. 25–41. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: The Netherlands)

Malcolm CV (2002) Characteristics of long term sustainable plantings of halophyte forage plants on saline land. Interim report to CRC for lant-based Management of Dryland Salinity, Perth, WA.

Malcolm CV , Clarke AJ (1973) Plant collection for saltland revegetation and soil conservation. Western Australian Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 21, Perth, WA.

Malcolm CV , Clarke AJ , Swaan TC (1984) Plant collections for saltland revegetation and soil conservation. Western Australian Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 65, Perth, WA.

Malcolm CV Lindley VA O'Leary JW Runciman HV Barrett-Lennard EG 2003 Halophyte and glycophyte salt tolerance at germination and the establishment of shrubs in saline environments. Plant and Soil 253 171 185

Malcolm CV , Swaan TC (1989) Screening shrubs for establishment and survival on salt-affected soils in south-western Australia. Western Australian Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 81, Perth, WA.

Mano Y Takeda K 1998 Genetic resources of salt tolerance in wild Hordeum species. Euphytica 103 137 141 DOI

Maranon T Garcia LV Troncoso A 1989 Salinity and germination of annual Melilotus from the Guadalquivir delta (SW Spain). Plant and Soil 119 223 228

Marcum KB 1999 Salinity tolerance mechanisms of grasses in the subfamily Chloridoideae. Crop Science 39 1153 1160

Marcum KB Murdoch CL 1994 Salinity tolerance mechanisms of six C4 turfgrasses. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119 779 784

Marcum KB Anderson SJ Engelke MC 1998 Salt gland ion secretion: a salinity tolerance mechanism among five Zoysia grass species. Crop Science 38 806 810

Masters DG Norman HC Dynes RA 2001 Opportunities and limitations for animal production from saline land. Asian–Australian Journal of Animal Science 14 199 211

McCarthy DG (1992) Salt tolerant grasses — mediterranean environment. In ‘National workshop on productive use of saline land’. (Ed. TN Herrmann) pp. 28–35. (South Australian Department of Agriculture: Adelaide)

McDonald MP Galwey NW Colmer TD 2001 Waterlogging tolerance in the tribe Triticeae: the adventitious roots of Critesion marinum have a relatively high porosity and a barrier to radial oxygen loss. Plant, Cell and Environment 24 585 596

McKenzie RE 1951 The ability of forage plants to survive early spring flooding. Scientific Agriculture 31 358 367

Mehanni AH West DW 1992 Effect of nitrogen fertilise on yield of perennial pastures irrigated with saline water. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 32 1087 1093

Migahid MM 2003 Effect of salinity shock on some desert species native to the northern part of Egypt. Journal of Arid Environments 53 155 167

Migahid MA Elhaak MA 2001 Ecophysiological studies on some desert plant species native to the Mediterranean area in Egypt. Journal of Arid Environments 48 191 203 DOI

Miller TE Forster BP Reader SM Ainsworth CC 1986 ‘Introduction of genes for salt tolerance in wheat’. Annual Report of the Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge, UK 1986 65 66

Mozafar A Goodin JR Oertli JJ 1970 Na and K interactions in increasing the salt tolerance of Atriplex halimus L. 1. Yield characteristics and osmotic potential. Agronomy Journal 62 478 481

Munns R 1993 Physiological processes limiting plant growth in saline soils; some dogmas and hypotheses. Plant, Cell and Environment 16 15 24

Munns R 2002 Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 25 239 250

Munns R James RA 2003 Screening methods for salinity tolerance: a case study with tetraploid wheat. Plant and Soil 253 201 218 DOI

Myers BA Couper DI 1989 Effects of temperature and salinity on the germination of Puccinellia ciliata (Bor) cultivar Menemen. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40 561 572

Myers BA Morgan WC 1989 Germination of the salt-tolerant grass Diplachne fusca. 2. Salinity responses. Australian Journal of Botany 37 239 251

Naidu R , Rengasamy P (1995) Ion interactions and constraints to plant nutrition in Australian sodic soils. In ‘Australian sodic soils: distribution, properties and management’. (Eds R Naidu, ME Sumner, P Rengasamy) pp. 127–139. (CSIRO Publications: Melbourne)

National Land and Water Resources Audit (2001) Australian dryland salinity assessment 2000. Extent, impacts, processes, monitoring and management options. National Land and Water Resources Audit, Canberra.

Nichols C (2002) Establishing and managing tall wheat grass in saline soils for productivity. Available online at (verified 26 March 2005).

Noble CL Halloran GM West DW 1984 Identification and selection for salt tolerance in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 35 239 252 DOI

Northcote KH , Skene JKM (1972) ‘Australian soils with saline and sodic properties. Soil Publication 27.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

NRC (1990) ‘Saline agriculture: salt-tolerant plants for developing countries — report of a panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development.’ (National Academy Press: Washington, DC)

Office of International Affairs (1990) Saline agriculture: salt-tolerant plants for developing countries. Report of a Panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academy Press, Washington DC. pp. 18, 26,79, 90, 105, 117.

Oram RN (1990) ‘Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars.’ 3rd edn. (CSIRO Division of Plant Industry: Melbourne)

Oram RN Edlington JP Gardner PA 2002 Selection for resistance to salinity and waterlogging in Phalaris aquatica L. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53 391 399 DOI

Paczkowska G , Chapman AR (2000) ‘The Western Australia flora: a descriptive catalogue.’ (Wildflower Society of Western Australia Inc., Western Australian Herbarium, CALM and Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority: Perth)

Pasternak D Nerd A De Malach Y 1993 Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions. IX. The salt tolerance of six forage crops. Agricultural Water Management 24 321 334 DOI

Peng Y-H Zhu Y-F Mao Y-Q Wang S-M Su W-A Tang Z-C 2004 Alkali grass resists salt stress through high [K+] and endodermis barrier to Na+. Journal of Experimental Botany 55 939 949 DOI

Ponnamperuma FN (1984) Effects of flooding on soils. In ‘Flooding and plant growth’. (Ed. TT Kozlowski) pp. 9–45. (Academic Press: New York)

Priebe A Jager HJ 1978 Influence of NaCl on growth and ion content of plants differing in salt tolerance. Angewandte Botanik 52 331 341

Qadir M Qureshi RH Ahmad N Ilyas M 1996 Salt-tolerant forage cultivation on a saline-sodic field for biomass production and soil reclamation. Land Degradation and Development 7 11 18

Qureshi RH , Barrett-Lennard EG (1998) ‘Saline agriculture for irrigated land in Pakistan: a handbook.’ Monograph No. 50. (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra)

Rengasamy P 2002 Transient salinity and subsoil constraints to dryland farming in Australian sodic soils: an overview. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 42 351 361

Rengasamy P Green RSB Ford GW Mehanni AH 1984 Identification of dispersive behaviour and management of red-brown earths. Australian Journal of Soil Research 22 413 431

Rengasamy P Chittleborough D Helyar K 2003 Root zone constraints and plant-based solutions for dryland salinity. Plant and Soil 257 249 260

Richards RA 1983 Should selection for yield in saline regions be made on saline or non-saline soils? Euphytica 32 431 438 DOI

Richards RA 1992 Increasing salinity tolerance of grain crops: is it worthwhile? Plant and Soil 146 89 98 DOI

Richards RA Dennett CW Qualset CO Epstein E Norlyn JD Winslow MD 1987 Variation in yield and grain and biomass in wheat, barley and triticale in a salt-affected field. Field Crops Research 15 277 287 DOI

Rogers AL Bailey ET 1963 Salt tolerance trials with forage plants in south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 3 125 130

Rogers ME 2001 The effect of saline irrigation on lucerne production: shoot and root growth, ion relations and flowering incidence in six cultivars grown in northern Victoria, Australia. Irrigation Science 20 55 64

Rogers ME , Evans PM (1996) Do Melilotus species have a role in saline areas of Australia? In ‘Proceedings of the 8th Australian agronomy conference’. (Ed. MM Asghar) pp. 486–489. (The Australian Society of Agronomy: Toowoomba, Qld)

Rogers ME Grieve CM Shannon MC 1998 Variation in the growth of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in response to sulphate salinity. Plant and Soil 202 271 280 DOI

Rogers ME Noble CL 1991 The effect of NaCl on the establishment and growth of balansa clover (Trifolium michelianum Savi var. balansae Boiss.) Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 42 847 857 DOI

Rogers ME Noble CL Pederick RJ 1996 Identifying suitable temperate grass species for saline areas. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 36 197 202

Rogers ME Noble CL Pederick RJ 1997 a Identifying suitable temperate forage legume species for saline areas. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 37 639 645

Rogers ME Noble CL Halloran GM Nicolas ME 1997 b Selecting for salt tolerance in white clover (Trifolium repens): chloride ion exclusion and its heritability. New Phytologist 135 645 654 DOI

Rogers ME Noble CL Nicolas ME Halloran GM 1994 a Leaf, stolon and root growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in response to irrigation with saline water. Irrigation Science 15 183 194

Rogers ME Noble CL Halloran GM Nicolas ME 1994 b The effect of NaCl on the germination and early seedling growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) populations selected for high and low salinity tolerance. Seed Science and Technology 23 277 287

Rogers ME , Spokes C , John U , Spangenberg G (2002) Native Victorian Fabaceae species: a potential source of salt tolerant material? In ‘Proceedings of the 8th national PUR$L conference’. p. 139. (Promaco Conventions: Perth, WA.

Rogers ME West DW 1993 The effects of rootzone salinity and hypoxia on shoot and root growth in Trifolium species. Annals of Botany 72 503 509

Roundy BA 1993 Response of basin wildrye and tall wheatgrass seedlings to salinisation. Agronomy Journal 75 65 71

Roundy BA , Cluff GJ , Young JA , Evans RA (1983) Treatment of inland saltgrass and greasewood sites to improve forage production. USDA Gen. Technical Report INT-157. Ogden, UT.

Rozema J Rozema-Dijst E Freijsen AHJ Huber JJL 1978 Population differentiation within Festuca rubra L. with regard to soil salinity and soil water. Oecologia 34 329 341

Rumbaugh MD Pendery BM 1990 Germination salt resistance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm in relation to subspecies and centres of diversity. Plant and Soil 124 47 51

Rumbaugh MD Pendery BM James DW 1993 Variation in the salinity tolerance of strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum L.) Plant and Soil 153 265 271

Russell JS 1976 Comparative salt tolerance of some tropical and temperate legumes and tropical grasses. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 16 103 109

Sargeant MR , Rogers ME , White RE (2001) Productive reclamation of saline soils with Distichlis spicata var. Yensen-4a. In ‘Proceedings of the 10th Australian agronomy conference’. (Eds N Mendham, P Lane, B Reid) p. 150. (The Australian Society of Agronomy: Hobart)

Schachtman DP Kelman WM 1991 Potential of Lotus germplasm for the development of salt, aluminium and manganese tolerant pasture plants. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 42 139 149

Schulz MA , West DW (1994) Salt bush production under irrigation. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd national PURL workshop’. (Eds M Schulz, G Petterson) pp. 104–106. (Salt Action: Echuca, Vic.)

Schwab KB Gaff DF 1990 Influence of compatible solutes on soluble enzymes from desiccation-tolerant Sporobolus stapfianus and desiccation-sensitive Sporobolus pyramidaris. Journal of Plant Physiology 137 208 215

Semple WS (1998) Alternatives to old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) on saline sites. Dryland Salinity Information Sheet HO/3/98, Salt Action NSW.

Semple WS Cole IJ 2002 Native grasses for saline site revegetation. Stipa Newsletter 21 6 11

Semple WS , Cole IJ , Koen TB (2001) Native couch grass for saline site revegetation. In ‘Proceedings of the 2nd national native grasses conference (Stipa)’. pp. 134–138. (Institute of Land and Food Resources, The University of Melbourne: Dookie, Vic.)

Semple WS Cole IA Koen TB 2003 Performance of some perennial grasses on severely salinised sites in the inland slopes of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43 357 371

Setter TL Waters I 2003 Review of prospects for germplasm improvement for waterlogging tolerance in wheat, barley and oats. Plant and Soil 253 1 34 DOI

Shamsutdinov NZ (2001) Biology of licorice and its introduction to culture in Russian semiarid zone. In ‘Breeding for stress tolerance in fodder crops and amenity grasses’. (Eds P Monjardino, A da Camara Machado, V Carnide) pp. 153–156. (Department of Agricultural Science, University of Azores, Azorres: Portugal)

Short DC Colmer TD 1999 Salt tolerance in the halophyte Halosarcia pergranulata subsp. pergranulata. Annals of Botany 83 207 213 DOI

Slavich PG Smith KS Tyerman SD Walker GR 1999 Water use of grazed salt bush plantations with saline water table. Agricultural Water Management 39 169 185 DOI

Smith KF , Lee CK , Borg PT (1993) Phenotypic variability in tall wheatgrass cv. Tyrell. In ‘Proceedings of the national conference on land management for dryland salinity control’. p. 274. (La Trobe University: Bendigo, Vic.)

Smith SE Poteet DC Robinson DL Dobrenz AK 1989 Stability of salt tolerance at germination in lucerne following seed multiplication at a non-saline site. Seed Science and Technology 17 555 561

South Australian Government Printing Division (1986) Flora of South Australia. Part. 1. Lycopodiaceae–Rosaceae.’ 4th edn. (Eds JP Jessop, HR Toelken) pp. 280, 348. (South Australian Government Printing Division: Adelaide)

Southwell A (1999) Productive management of saline soils. In ‘Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of the grasslands society of NSW’. (Eds D Garden, H Lloyd Davies, D Michalk, H Dove) pp. 73–77. (NSW Grasslands Society: Orange)

Staal M Maathuis FJM Elzenga TM Overbeek HM Prins HBA 1991 Na+/H+ antiport activity in tonoplast vesicles from roots of the salt-tolerant Plantago maritima and the salt-sensitive Plantago media Physiologia Plantarum 82 179 184

Sundararaj DD Ramakrishnan V Khan AMMA Vijayan KP 1975 Sporobolus orientalis Kunth. and S. tremulus Kunth. — two new lawn grasses for coastal and saline tracts. South Indian Horticulture 23 73 74

Teakle LJH Burvill GH 1938 The movement of soluble salts in soils under light rainfall conditions. Journal of Agriculture of Western Australia 15 218 245

Truong PN , Roberts MH (1992) Salt tolerance of some tropical and subtropical grass species grown in Queensland. In ‘Proceedings of the national workshop on productive use of saline land’. pp. 36–44. (Waite Agricultural Research Institute: Adelaide)

Tsvelev NN (1984) ‘Grasses of the Soviet Union.’ (Ed. AA Fedovov) p. 559. (AA Balkema: Rotterdam)

Tzvelev NN (2001) Plants of Central Asia. Vol. 4: Gramineae.’ (Ed. VI Grubov) p. 254. (Science Publishers Inc.: Plymouth)

Tursunay Gao HY An SZ Li W Gao HY An SZ 1995 Comprehensive evaluation of salt resistance of eight herbage species. Grassland of China 1 30 32

Ungar IA 1978 Halophyte seed germination. Botanical Review 44 233 264

USA National Research Council (1990) ‘Saline agriculture: salt-tolerant plants for developing countries’. Report of a Panel of the Board on Science and Technology for the International Development Office of Internal Affairs, National Research Council, Washington DC.

USDA/NRC (1996) Plant materials for saline-alkaline soils. Technical Note: Plant Materials No. 26 (revised), Bridger, Montana.

Venables AV Wilkins DA 1978 Salt tolerance in pasture grasses. New Phytologist 80 613 622

Waghorn GC Douglas GB Niezen JH McNabb WC Foote AG 1998 Forages with condensed tannins — their management and nutritive value for ruminants. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 60 89 98

Warwick NWM Halloran GM 1991 Variation in salinity tolerance and ion uptake in accessions of brown beetle grass (Diplachne fusca L. Beauv.). New Phytologist 119 161 168

Weimberg R Shannon MC 1988 Vigor and salt tolerance in three lines of tall wheatgrass. Physiologia Plantarum 73 232 237

Weng SH Jiang YQ Wang CB 1992 A preliminary study of indices and methods for evaluating salt tolerance in forage plants. Grassland of China 1 30 34

Wilson JR 1985 Comparative response to salinity of the growth and nodulation of Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro and Neonotonia wightii cv. Cooper seedlings. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 36 589 599

Winter E Läuchli A 1982 Salt tolerance of Trifolium alexandrinum L. I. Comparison of salt response of T. alexandrinum and T. pratense. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 9 221 226

Xiao-Bing 1994 A study of the critical and ultimate salt tolerance values of five legumes. Pratacultural Science 11 70 73

Yensen NP , Barrett-Lennard EG , Malcolm CV , Marcar NE (2000) ‘Australasian salt-tolerant plants and their uses.’ (NyPa Publishing Co.: Tucson, Arizona)

Yensen NP , Bedell JL , Yensen SB (1995) Domestication of Distichlis as a grain and forage. In ‘Biology of salt tolerant plants’. (Eds MA Khan, IA Ungar) pp. 388–392. (Ohio University: Athens)

Zohary M , Heller D (1984) ‘The genus Trifolium.’ (The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities)

Export Citation