Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals

Postharvest characteristics and handling of litchi fruit — an overview

Y. M. Jiang A B G , Y. Wang A , L. Song A , H. Liu A , A. Lichter C , O. Kerdchoechuen D , D. C. Joyce E and J. Shi F

A South China Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou ReYiJu 510650, The People’s Republic of China.

B College of Food Science, Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035, The People’s Republic of China.

C Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.

D School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology at Thonburi, 83 Mu 8 Bangkhuntein Road, Thakam, Bangkhuntein, Bangkok 10150, Thailand.

E Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld 4343, Australia.

F Food Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, ON N1G 5C9, Canada.

G Corresponding author. Email:

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 46(12) 1541-1556
Submitted: 28 April 2005  Accepted: 14 June 2006   Published: 10 November 2006


Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a tropical to subtropical crop that originated in South-East Asia. Litchi fruit are prized on the world market for their flavour, semi-translucent white aril and attractive red skin. Litchi is now grown commercially in many countries and production in Australia, China, Israel, South Africa and Thailand has expanded markedly in recent years. Increased production has made significant contributions to economic development in these countries, especially those in South-East Asia. Non-climacteric litchi fruit are harvested at their visual and organoleptic optimum. They are highly perishable and, consequently, have a short life that limits marketability and potential expansion of demand. Pericarp browning and pathological decay are common and important defects of harvested litchi fruit. Postharvest technologies have been developed to reduce these defects. These technologies involve cooling and heating the fruit, use of various packages and packaging materials and the application of fungicides and other chemicals. Through the use of fungicides and refrigeration, litchi fruit have a storage life of about 30 days. However, when they are removed from storage, their shelf life at ambient temperature is very short due to pericarp browning and fruit rotting. Low temperature acclimation or use of chitsoan as a coating can extend the shelf life. Sulfur dioxide fumigation effectively reduces pericarp browning, but approval from Europe, Australia and Japan for this chemical is likely to be withdrawn due to concerns over sulfur residues in fumigated fruit. Thus, sulfur-free postharvest treatments that maintain fruit skin colour are increasingly important. Alternatives to SO2 fumigation for control of pericarp browning and fruit rotting are pre-storage pathogen management, anoxia treatment, and dipping in 2% hydrogen chloride solution for 6-8 min following storage at 0°C. Insect disinfestation has become increasingly important for the expansion of export markets because of quarantine issues associated with some fruit fly species. Thus, effective disinfestation protocols need to be developed. Heat treatment has shown promise as a quarantine technology, but it injures pericarp tissue and results in skin browning. However, heat treatment can be combined with an acid dip treatment that inhibits browning. Therefore, the primary aim of postharvest litchi research remains the achievement of highly coloured fruit which is free of pests and disease. Future research should focus on disease control before harvest, combined acid and heat treatments after harvest and careful temperature management during storage and transport.


Akamine EK 1960 Preventing the darkening of fresh lychees prepared for transport. Technical Programme Report. Hawaii Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Hawaii 127 3 17

Akamine EK Goo T 1973 Respiration and ethylene production during ontogeny of fruit. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 98 381 383

Akamine EK Goo T 1977 Effects of gamma irradiation on shelf life of fresh lychees (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Hawaii Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 169 20

Armstrong JW (1994) Tropical and subtropical crops. In ‘Insect pests and fresh horticultural products: treatments and responses’. (Eds RE Paull, JW Armstrong). p. 281 (CAB International: Wallingford)

Badiyala SD 1993 Maturity standards for Muzaffarpur litchi fruits. South Indian Horticulture 41 223 224

Batten D 1989 Maturity criteria for litchis (lychees). Food Quality and Preference 1 149 155

Bose TK, Mitra SK (1996) In ‘Fruits: tropical and subtropical’. (Naya Prokash: Calcutta)

Brown BI Scott KJ Mayer DG 1984 Control of ripe fruit rots of guava, lychee and custard apple by postharvest prochloraz dips. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries 12 40 49

Campbell CA 1994 Handling of Florida-grown and imported tropical fruits and vegetables. HortScience 29 75 978

Caro Y Joas J 2005 Postharvest control of litchi pericarp browning (cv. Kwai Mi) by combined treatments of chitosan and organic acids II. Effect of the initial water content of pericarp. Postharvet Biology and Technology 38 137 144

Cavaletto CG (1980) Lychee. In ‘Tropical and subtropical fruits: composition, properties and uses’. (Eds S Nagy, PE Shaw) pp. 469–478. (The AVI Publishing Company: Westport, CN)

Chan HT Jr Kwok DCM 1974 Nonvolatile acids in lychee. Journal of Food Science 39 792 793

Chan HT Jr Kwok SCM Lee CWQ 1975 Sugar composition and invertase activity in lychee. Journal of Food Science 40 772 774

Chen F Li YB Chen MD 1986 Production of ethylene by litchi fruits during storage and its control. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 13 151 156
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Chen WJ Hong QZ 1992 A study on the senescence and browning in the pericarp of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) during storage. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 19 227 232
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Chen W Wu Z Ji Z Su M 2001 Postharvest research and handling of litchi in China - A review. Acta Horticulturae 558 321 329

Chyau CC Kob PT Changa CH Mau JL 2003 Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Food Chemistry 80 387 392

Coates L Johnson GI Sardsud U Cooke AW 1994 Postharvest diseases of lychee in Australia and their control. ACIAR Proceedings 58 68 69

Coates L, Cooke T, Persley D, Beattie B, Wade N, Ridgway R (1995) In ‘Tropical fruit: postharvest diseases of horticultural produce, Vol. 2’. p. 86 (Information Series of Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane)

Coates L, Zhou E, Sittigul C (2005) Diseases. In ‘Litchi and longan: botany, production and uses’. (Eds CM Menzel, GK Maite) pp. 261–272 (CAB International: Wallingford)

Datta SC Sarkar KP Lodh SB 1963 Storage behaviour of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Science and Culture 67 761 768

Deng YC Zhu HY Xu MY Li AN 1994 Lychee fruit coat browning and its relation to water content and respiratory variation of the fruits. Guangdong Agricultural Sciences 5 17 19
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Dong HQ Cheng LY Tan JH Zheng KW Jiang YM 2004 Effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of peeled litchi pulp. Journal of Food Engineering 64 355 358

Duan XW Jiang YM Su XG Zhang ZQ 2004 a Effects of pure oxygen on enzymatic browning and quality of postharvest litchi fruit. Journal of Horticulture Science and Biotechnology 79 859 862

Duan XW Jiang YM Su XG Liu H Li YB Zhang ZQ Zheng YH Jiang WB 2004 b Role of pure oxygen treatment in browning of litchi fruit after harvest. Plant Science 167 665 668

Duan XW Jiang YM Su XG Zhang ZQ Shi J 2006 Antioxidant property of anthocyanins extracted from litchi (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.) fruit pericarp tissues in relation to their role in the pericarp browning. Food Chemistry in press

Duvenhage JA 1994 Control of postharvest decay and browning of litchi fruit by sodium metabisulphite and low pH dips-an update. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 6 36 38

Duvenhage JA Mostert MM Marais JJ 1995 Postharvest sulfuring and low pH treatment for retention of red skin colour of litchi fruit. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 7 44 46

Finger FL Vieira G Ledsham LR 1997 Maturity standard and pericarp browning of litchi fruit. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal 9 15 18

Follett PA Sanxter SS 2001 Hot water immersion to ensure quarantine security for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in lychee and longan exported from Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology 94 1292 1295

Follett PA Sanxter SS 2003 Lychee quality after hot-water immersion and x-ray irradiation quarantine treatments. HortScience 38 1159 1162

Fong TD (1966) Constituent and utilization. In ‘Tropical fruit trees. Vol. 2’. (Agricultural Press: Beijing)

Fontes VL De-Moura MA Vieira G Finger FL 1999 Influence of plastic films and temperature on postharvest pericarp browning in litchi (Litchi chinensis). Revista Brasilerira de Armazenamento 24 56 59

Fuchs Y Zauberman G Ronen R Rot I Weksler A Akerman M 1993 The physiological basis of litchi fruit pericarp colour retention. Acta Horticulturae 343 29 33

Ghosh SP 2001 World trade in litchi: past, present and future. Acta Horticulturae 558 23 30

Harborne JB (1988) ‘The flavonoids: Advances in research since 1980.’ (Chapman and Hall: London)

Holcroft DM Mitcham EJ 1996 Postharvest physiology and handling of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Postharvest Biology and Technology 9 265 281

Holcroft DM, Lin HT, Ketsa S (2005) Harvesting and storage. In ‘Litchi and longan: botany, production and uses’. (Eds CM Menzel, GK Maite) pp. 273–296. (CAB International: Wallingford)

Hu WR Zhang ZQ Jiang YM Ji ZL 2005 Study on the parameter of ice-temperature storage in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Scientia Agricultura Sinica 38 797 802 [in Chinese with English abstract]

Huang HB 1995 Advances in fruit physiology of the arillate fruits of litchi and longan. Annual Review of Horticultural Science 1 107 120
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Huang PY Scott KJ 1985 Control of rotting and browning of litchi fruit after harvest at ambient temperatures in China. Tropical Agriculture 62 2 4

Huang CC Wang YT 1990 Effects of storage temperature on the colour and quality of litchi fruit. Acta Horticulturae 269 307 308

Huang HB Xu J 1983 The developmental patterns of fruit tissues and their correlative relationships in Litchi chinensis Sonn. Scientia Horticulturae 19 335 342

Huang S Hart H Lee H Wicker L 1990 Enzymic and color changes during postharvest storage of lychee fruit. Journal of Food Science 55 1762 1763

Huang X, Subhadrabandhu S, Mitra SK, Ben-Aire R, Stern RA (2005a) Origin, history, production and processing. In ‘Litchi and longan: botany, production and uses’. (Eds CM Menzel, GK Maite) pp. 1–24. (CAB International: Wallingford)

Huang XM Wang HC Yuan WQ Lu JM Yin JH Luo S Huang HB 2005 b A study of rapid senescence of detached litchi: roles of water loss and calcium. Postharvest Biology and Technology 36 177 189

Jacobi KK Wong LS Giles JE 1993 Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit quality following vapour heat treatment and cool storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 3 111 119 DOI

Jaiswal BP Sah NL Prasad US 1986 Studies on phenolics of rind and aril during ripening and senescence of litchi fruits. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 13 40 45

Jaiswal BP Sah NL Prasad US 1987 Regulation of colour break during Litchi chinensis Sonn. ripening. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 25 66 72

Jiang YM 2000 Role of anthocyanins, polyphenol oxidase and phenols in lychee pericarp browning. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80 305 310

Jiang YM Chen F 1995 a A study on polyamine change and browning of fruit during cold storage of litchi fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 5 245 250 DOI

Jiang YM Chen F 1995 b Effect of spermidine on regulation of senescence of litchi fruit and its relation to ethylene. Chinese Journal of Botany 2 22 25

Jiang YM Fu JR 1999 a Biochemical and physiological changes involved in browning of litchi fruit caused by water. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 74 43 46

Jiang YM Fu JR 1999 b Postharvest browning of litchi fruit by water loss and its control by controlled atmosphere storage at high relative humidity. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft and Technologie 32 278 283

Jiang YM Li YB 2003 Effects of low temperature acclimation on browning of litchi fruit in relation to shelf life. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 78 437 440

Jiang JP Su MX Lee PM 1986 The production and physiological effects of ethylene during ontogeny and after harvest of litchi fruits. Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica 12 95 103
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Jiang YM Liu SX Li YB Chen F 1996 A reassessment of heat treatment as a means of reducing the occurrence of browning of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture 14 163 167

Jiang YM Zauberman G Fuchs Y 1997 a Partial purification and some properties of polyphenol oxidase extracted from litchi pericarp. Postharvest Biology and Technology 10 221 226

Jiang YM Liu SX Chen F Li YB Zhang DL 1997 b The control of postharvest browning of litchi fruit by sodium bisulfite and hydrochloric acid. Tropical Science 37 189 192

Jiang YM Zauberman G Fuchs Y Fu JR 1998 Analysis of litchi polyphenol oxidase activity under different conditions. Wuhan Journal of Botany 16 207 212

Jiang YM Zauberman G Fuchs Y Fu JR 1999 Purification of polyphenol oxidase and the browning control of litchi fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79 950 954

Jiang YM Zhu XR Li YB 2001 Postharvest control of litchi fruit rot by Bacillus subtilis. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft and Technology 34 430 436 DOI

Jiang YM Yao LH Lichter A Li JR 2003 Postharvest biology and technology of litchi fruit. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 1 2 76 81

Jiang YM Li YB Li JR 2004 a Browning control, shelf life extension and quality maintenance of frozen litchi fruit by hydrochloric acid. Journal of Food Engineering 63 147 151

Jiang YM Duan XW Joyce DC Zhang ZQ Li JR 2004 b Advances in understanding enzymatic browning of harvested litchi fruit. Food Chemistry 88 443 446 DOI

Jiang YM Su XG Duan XW Lin WB Li YB Jiang WB 2004 c Anoxia treatment delays skin browning, inhibits disease development and maintains quality of litchi fruit. Food Technology and Biotechnology 42 131 134

Jiang YM Li JR Jiang WB 2005 a Effects of chitosan coating on shelf life of cold-stored litchi fruit at ambient temperature. LWT-Food Science and Technology 39 223 228

Jiang YM Su XG Jiang YL Li YB Lin WB 2005 b Preharvest bagging affects storage potential of harvested litchi fruit. Journal of Applied Horticulture 7 105 107

Joas J Caro Y Ducamp MN Reynes M 2005 Postharvest control of pericarp browning of litchi fruit (Litchi chinensis Sonn cv Kwai Mi) by treatment with chitosan and organic acids. I. Effect of pH and pericarp dehydration. Postharvet Biology and Technology 38 128 136

Johnson GI Sangchote S 1994 Control of postharvest diseases of tropical fruits: challenges for the 21stcentury. ACIAR Proceedings 58 140 161

Johnston JC Welch RC Hunter GLK 1980 Volatile constitutes of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 28 859 861

Joubert AJ (1986) Litchi. In ‘Handbook of fruit set and development ’. (Ed SP Monselise) pp. 233-246. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Kader AA 1994 Modified and controlled atmosphere storage of tropical fruits. ACIAR Proceedings 58 239 249

Kader AA (2000) Lychee. Available at (verified 22 August 2006)

Kaiser C 1994 Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn) pericarp colour retention. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 6 32 35

Kaiser C 1995 Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn) pericarp colour retention — alternatives to sulfur. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 7 47 52

Kaiser C Levin J Wolstenholme BN 1995 Vapour, heat and low pH dips improve litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp colour retention. Journal of the South African Society for Horticultural Sciences 5 7 10

Kanwar JS Nijar GS 1984 Comparative evaluation of fruit-grown in relation to cracking of fruits in some litchi cultivars. Punjab Horticultural Journal 24 79 82

Ketsa S Leelawatana K 1990 Effect of pre-cooling and polyethylene film lines in corrugated boxes on quality of lychee fruit. Acta Horticulturae 321 742 746

Ketsa S Leelawatana K Subhadrabandhu S 1992 Effect of pre and poststorage acid dipping on browning of lychee fruits. Acta Horticulturae 321 726 731

Korsten L De-Villiers EE De-Jager ES Van-Harmelen MWS 1993 Biological control of litchi fruit diseases. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 5 36 40

Kramer MS Kuhn GD 1964 The effect of radiation on mold populations on fresh lychees. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 77 436 438

Kremer-Kohne S 1993 SO2 residues in litchi fruit after postharvest SO2 treatment. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 5 15 16

Kremer-Kohne S Lonsdale JH 1991 Maintaining market quality of fresh litchis during storage. Part 1: control of browning. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 3 16 17

Kuhn GD 1962 Dehydration studies of lychee fruit. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 75 273 277

Lee HS Wicker L 1990 Anthocyanin pigments in the skin of lychee fruit. Journal of Food Science 56 466 468, 483

Lee HS Wicker L 1991 Quantitative changes in anthocyanin pigments of lychee fruit during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry 40 263 270

Lichter A Dvir O Rot I Akerman M Regev R Wiesblum A Fallik E Zauberman G Fuchs Y 2000 Hot water brushing: An alternative method to SO2 fumigation for color retention of litchi fruits. Postharvest Biology and Technology 18 235 244 DOI

Lichter A Dvir O Akerman M Feygenberg O Pesis E 2004 Acidified peel of litchi fruits selects for postharvest Penicillium decay. Phytoparasitica 32 226 236

Lin BF 1999 Study on fresh keeping of litchi fruits at room temperature. Journal of Guangxi Agricultural and Biological Science 18 205 208
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Lin SC Chiang HL 1988 Postharvest handling system for subtropical fruits in Taiwan. Extension Bulletin of Food and Fertilizer Technology Center (Taiwan) 268 10 17

Lin ZF Li SS Zhang DL Lin GZ Li YB Liu SX Chen MD 1988 a The changes of pigments, phenolic content and activities of polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in pericarp of postharvest litchi fruit. Acta Botanica Sinica 30 40 45
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Lin ZF Li SS Zhang DL Liu SX Li YB Lin GZ Chen MD 1988 b The changes of oxidation and peroxidation in postharvest litchi fruit. Acta Botanica Sinica 30 383 387
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Liu XS Jiang YM Chen F Zhang DL Li YB 1991 The relationship between the browning in pericarp of litchi (Litchi Chinensis Sonn.) fruit and polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenolics and their compartmentation. Acta Botanica Austro Sinica 7 95 98
[in Chinese with English abstract]

McLauchlan RL Mitchell GE Johnson GI Nottingham SM Hammerton KM 1992 Effects of disinfestation-dose irradiation on the physiology of Tai So lychee. Postharvest Biology and Technology 1 273 281

Mahajan PV 1997 Studies on the biochemical changes in litchi fruits during storage. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 2 310 311

Mahajan PV Goswami TK 2004 Exteded storage life of litchi fruit using controlled atmoshpere and low temperature. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 28 388 403

Mathew AB Pushpa MC 1964 Organic acids and carbohydrates of litchi. Journal of Food Science and Technology 1 71 72

Nagar PK 1994 Physiological and biochemical studies during fruit ripening in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Postharvest Biology and Technology 4 225 234

Nakasone HY, Paull RE (1998) Tropical fruits. In ‘Crop production science in horticulture, Series no. 7’. (CAB International: Wallingford)

National Research Council (1987) Regulating pesticides in food — the Delaney paradox. (National Academy Press: Washington, DC)

Normand F Bouffin J 1995 Litchi processing and storage in Reunion. Fruits Paris 50 205 214

Olesen T Nacey L Wiltshire N O’Brien S 2004 Hot water treatments for the control of rots on harvested litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 32 135 146

Ong PKC Acree TE 1998 Gas chromatography olfactory analysis of lychee (Litchi chinesis Sonn.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46 2282 2286 DOI

Oosthuizen JH 1993 Recommended cultural practices and research priorities for litchi in South African. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 5 2 3

Paull RE Chen JN 1987 Effect of storage temperature and wrapping on quality characteristics of litchi fruit. Scientia Horticulturae 33 223 236

Paull RE Reyes MEQ Reyes MU 1995 Litchi and rambutan insect disinfestation: treatments to minimize induced pericarp browning. Postharvest Biology and Technology 6 139 148 DOI

Paull RE Reyes MEQ Reyes MU 1998 Sulfite residues on litchi fruit treated with sulfur dioxide. Postharvest Biology and Technology 14 229 233 DOI

Paull RE Chen JN Deputy J Huang H Cheng G Go F 1984 Litchi growth and compositional changes during fruit development. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 109 817 821

Peng YH Cheng W 1999 Review on fruit postharvest technology. Journal of Fruit Science 16 293 300
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Pesis E Dvir O Feygenberg O Ben Arie R Ackerman M Lichter A 2002 Production of acetaldehyde and ethanol during maturation and modified atmosphere storage of litchi fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 26 157 165

Pornchaloempong P Sargent SA Fox AJ 1998 Controlled atmosphere storage can extend postharvest quality of lychee fruit (cv. Mauritius). Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 111 238 243

Prasad SS Bilgrami RS 1973 Investigation on diseases of litchi. III. Fruit rots and their control by postharvest treatments. Indian Phytopathology 26 523 527

Prasad US Jha OP 1978 Changes in pigmentation patterns during litchi ripening: flavonoid peoduction. The Plant Biochemical Journal 5 44 49

Prasad US Jha OP 1979 Variations in the levels of oxygen uptake, fructose, and pyruvate in fruit aril of Litchi chinensis Sonn. during maturation and ripening. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 22 163 165

Qu HX Sun GZ Jiang YM Zhu XR 2001 Induction of several pathogenesis-related proteins in litchi after inoculation with Peronophythora litchii. Acta Horticulturae 558 439 442

Ray PK 1998 Postharvest handling of litchi fruits in relation to colour retention - A critical appraisal. Journal of Food Science and Technology 35 103 116

Ray PK Ruby R Singh SK 2005 Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation and low temperature storage on postharvest browning and quality of litchi fruits. Journal of Food Science and Technology 42 226 230

Rivera-López J Ordorica-Falomirb C Wesche-Ebelingc P 1999 Changes in anthocyanin concentration in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp during maturation. Food Chemistry 65 195 200

Roth G 1963 Postharvest decay of litchi fruit. Technical Communications of Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, South Africa 11 1 16

Sandhu SS Randhawa JS 1992 Effect of postharvest application of methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate and in pack fumigant on the cold storage life of litchi cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 269 185 189

Sarni-Manchado L Roux E Guerneve L Lozano Y Cheynier V 2000 Phenolic composition of litchi fruit pericarp. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48 5995 6002

Schutte GC Botha T Kotze JM 1991 Postharvest control of decay and browning of litchi fruit by fungicide dips and paper sheets impregnated with sodium metabisulphite. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 3 10 14

Scott KJ Brown BI Chaplin GR Wilcox ME Bain JM 1982 The control of rotting and browning of litchi fruit by hot benomyl and plastic film. Scientia Horticulturae 16 253 262

Singh R Abidi AB 1986 Level of carbohydrate fractions and ascorbic acid during ripening and storage of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars. Indian Journal of Agricultural Chemistry 19 197 202

Siriphanich J, Jingtair S, Nawa Y, Takagi H, Noguchi A, Tsubota K (1999) Postharvest problems in Thailand: priorities and constraints. JIRCAS International Symposium Series 7, 17–23.

Sivakumar D Regnier T Demoz B Korsten L 2005 Effect of different postharvest treatments on overall quality retention in litchi fruit during low temperature storage. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 80 32 38

Subhadrabandhu S 1992 Status of the tropical fruit industry in Thailand. Acta Horticulturae 292 3 23

Swarts DH 1985 Sulfur content of fumigated South African litchi fruit. Subtropica 6 18 20

Swarts DH 1991 The postharvest treatment of Madras litchis. Yearbook of South African Litchi Growers’ Association 3 21 22

Swarts DH Anderson T 1980 Chemical control of mould growth on litchis during storage and sea shipment. Subtropica 1 13 15

Tandon MP Tandon RN 1975 Rot of fruits of litchi (Litchi chinensis) in marketing processes. Indian Phytopathology 28 530 531

Tian SP Li BQ Xu Y 2005 Effects of O2 and CO2 concentrations on physiology and quality of litchi fruit in storage. Food Chemistry 91 659 663

Tindall HD 1994 Sapindaceous fruits: botany and horticulture. Horticultural Reviews 16 143 196

Tongdee SC 1994 Sulfur dioxide fumigation in postharvest handling of fresh longan and lychee for export. ACIAR Proceedings 58 186 189

Tongdee SC Subhadrabandhu S 1992 Postharvest handling and technology of tropical fruit. Acta Horticulturae 321 713 717

Tongdee SC Scott KJ McGlasson WB 1982 Packaging and cool storage of litchi fruit. CSIRO Food Research Quarterly 42 25 28

Tsai JN Hsieh WH 1998 Occurrence of litchi sour rot and characteristics of the pathogens Geotrichum candidum and G. ludwigii. Plant Pathological Bulletin 7 10 18

Underhill SJR 1992 Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp browning. Tropical Science 32 305 312

Underhill SJR Critchley C 1992 The physiology and anatomy of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp during fruit development. Journal of Horticultural Science 67 437 444

Underhill SJR Critchley C 1993 a Physiological, biochemical and anatomical changes in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp during storage. Journal of Horticultural Science 68 327 335

Underhill SJR Critchley C 1993 b Lychee pericarp browning caused by heat injury. HortScience 28 721 722

Underhill SJR Critchley C 1994 Anthocyanin decolorisation and its role in lychee pericarp browning. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34 115 122

Underhill SJR Critchley C 1995 Cellular localisation of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity in Litchi chinensis Sonn. pericarp. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24 627 632

Underhill SJR Simons DH 1993 Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp desiccation and the importance of postharvest micro-cracking. Scientia Horticulturae 54 287 294

Underhill SJR Wong LS 1990 A maturity standard for lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Acta Horticulturae 316 245 251

Underhill SJR Bagshaw J Prasad A Zauberman G Ronen R Fuchs Y 1992 The control of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) postharvest skin browning using sulfur dioxide and low pH. Acta Horticulturae 321 732 741

Underhill SJR, Coates LM, Saks Y (1997) Litchi. In ‘Postharvest physiology and storage of tropical and subtropical fruits’. (Ed. K Mitra) pp. 191-208. (CAB International: Wallingford)

US Department of Agriculture (1996) ‘Plant protection and quarantine treatment manual, T107c.’ (US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC)

Vilasachandran T, Sargent S, Maul F (1997) Controlled atmosphere storage shows potential for maintaining postharvest quality of fresh lychee fruit. In ‘Proceedings of the 7th international controlled atmosphere research conference’. (Ed AA Kader) pp. 83-89. (University of California: Davis, CA)

Wang SF Cheng ZM Li Y 1996 Effect of postharvest treatments on physiology and quality of litchi and their economics. Acta Horticulturae 429 503 507

Wang J Chen H Zhou Q Zhang X 2003 Effects of bagging on the fruit quality in Litchi chinensis fruit and pesticide residues in it. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 14 710 715
[in Chinese with English abstract]

Wang HC Huang XM Hu GB Yang ZY Huang HB 2005 A comparative study of chlorophyll loss and its related mechanism during fruit maturation in the pericarp of fast- and slow-degreening litchi pericarp. Scientia Horticulturae 106 247 257

Wang Y Lu WJ Li JG Jiang YM 2006 Differential expression of two expansin genes in developing fruit of cracking-susceptible and -resistant litchi cultivars. Journal of American Socieity for Horticultural Science 131 118 121

Watkins JB (1990) ‘Forced-air cooling. Q188027.’ (Queensland Department of Primary Indutries Information Series: Brisbane)

Watt BK, Merrill AL (1963) Composition of Foods. In ‘USDA Handbook No. 8’. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Wills RBH Lim JSK Greenfield H 1986 Composition of Australian foods - Tropical and subtropical fruit. Food Technology Australia 38 118 123

Wong LS Jacobi KK Peacock BB 1990 Effects of hot benomyl and cold prochloraz on the external appearance of lychee (Litchi chinensis) during storage. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries 18 15 17

Wong LS Jacobi KK Giles JE 1991 The influence of hot benomyl dips on the appearance of cool stored lychee (Litchi chinensis). Scientia Horticulturae 46 245 251

Yahia EM 1998 Modified and controlled atmospheres for tropical fruits. Horticultural Reviews 22 123 183

Zauberman G Ronen R Akerman M Fuchs Y 1990 Low pH treatment protects litchi fruit colour. Acta Horticulturae 269 309 314

Zauberman G Ronen R Akerman M Weksler A Rot I Fuchs Y 1991 Postharvest retention of the red colour of litchi fruit pericarp. Scientia Horticulturae 47 89 97

Zhang DL Quantick PC 1997 Effects of chitosan coating on enzymatic browning and decay during postharvest storage of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 12 195 202 DOI

Zhang DL Chen F Liu SX Li YB Jiang YM Guo JY Quantick PC Warren PJ 1997 Effects of Pro-long coating on changes in colour and enzyme activity of postharvest litchi fruit. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 5 54 60 [in Chinese with English abstract]

Zhang DL Grigor JM Quantick PC 2000 Changes in phenolic compounds in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 19 165 172

Zhang ZQ Pang XQ Ji ZL Jiang YM 2001 Role of anthocyanin degradation in litchi pericarp browning. Food Chemistry 75 217 221 DOI

Zhang ZQ Pang XQ Yang C Ji ZL Jiang YM 2004 Purification and structural analysis of anthocyanins from litchi pericarp. Food Chemistry 84 601 604 DOI

Zhang ZQ Pang XQ Duan XW Jiang YM 2005 Role of peroxidase in anthocyanin degradation in litchi fruit pericarp. Food Chemistry 90 47 52 DOI

Zhao M Yang B Wang JS Li BZ Jiang YM 2006 Identification of the major flavonoids from pericarp tissues of lychee fruit in relation to their antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry XX 000 000

Zheng XL Tian SP 2006 Effect of oxalic acid on control of postharvest browning of litchi fruit. Food Chemistry 96 519 523

Zhuang YM, Ke KW, Zeng WX, Pan XW (1998) Litchi. In ‘Tropical and subtropical fruits in China’. pp. 103-107. (Agricultural Press: Beijing)

Export Citation