Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effect of whole cottonseed supplementation on energy and nitrogen partitioning and rumen function in dairy cattle on a forage and cereal grain diet

C. Grainger A C , T. Clarke A and R. J. Eckard B
+ Author Affliations
- Author Affliations

A Department of Primary Industries, Ellinbank, Vic. 3821, Australia.

B Faculty of Land and Food Resources, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: chris.grainger@dpi.vic.gov.au

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48(7) 860-865 https://doi.org/10.1071/EA07400
Submitted: 10 December 2007  Accepted: 8 April 2008   Published: 20 June 2008

Abstract

The experimental objective was to determine the effect of adding whole cottonseed (WCS) to a forage and cereal grain diet on the energy and nitrogen balance and rumen function of lactating dairy cattle. Two experiments were carried out, a field experiment and an indoor metabolism experiment. In the field experiment, 50 lactating cows ~200 days in milk were randomly allocated to one of two groups (control or WCS). Cows were offered lucerne hay (morning) and ryegrass-based pasture silage (afternoon) in one group for 5 weeks. The hay and silage were placed on the ground in a bare paddock. Cows in each group were also individually offered cracked grain in a feed trough at 3 kg dry matter (DM)/cow.day at milking times. In addition, at milking times, cows in the WCS group were individually offered 2.7 kg DM/cow.day of WCS with their grain supplement. Samples of rumen fluid were collected from each fistula, ~4 h after grain feeding in the morning, of eight cows (four per group) on 1 day in each of the 5 weeks of treatment. In the metabolism experiment, immediately after the 5 weeks of feeding, 12 lactating cows, six from each treatment from the field experiment, were randomly selected and individually housed in metabolism stalls and fed the same diets for a 6-day energy and nitrogen balance study. Cows were fed at milking times (0700 and 1530 hours) and all feed offered and refused was weighed daily. All cows were offered 5.6 kg DM/cow.day of pasture silage, 4 kg DM/cow.day of lucerne hay and 3 kg DM/cow.day of cereal grain. In addition, cows in the WCS treatment group were offered 2.7 kg DM/cow.day of WCS with their grain supplement. In the metabolism study, adding WCS to the diet resulted in a greater energy intake, but there was no depression in energy digestibility. Whole cottonseed also increased nitrogen intake and nitrogen digestibility of the diet was increased from 62 to 75%, but the proportion of nitrogen in milk remained the same with a greater proportion of nitrogen appearing in body tissue. In the field experiment, supplementation with WCS did not alter rumen fluid ammonia-N or volatile fatty acid concentrations. Adding WCS did not affect three of the main classes of protozoa, based on size, within the two major orders of ciliate protozoa. The WCS did, however, reduce the levels of entodiniomorphs >200 µm diameter and holotrichs < 200 µm diameter, but these only account for a small number of the total protozoa present. Supplementation of a forage and grain-based diet with WCS improved the energy and protein content of the diet without any negative effects on rumen digestion and with a similar proportion of dietary energy and nitrogen appearing in milk. Over the summer period in winter-rainfall dairying areas in south-east Australia when pasture availability is limited and the diet is mainly comprised of forage and cereal grain fed at a level that is energy-limiting for maximum production, WCS can be and is used to supplement the diet to improve milk yield and profitability.

Additional keywords: rumen protozoa, methane.


Acknowledgements

The Department of Primary Industries – Victoria, the Victorian Greenhouse Strategy, the Australian Greenhouse Office and Dairy Australia funded this study.


References


Arieli A (1992) Energetic value of whole cottonseeds fed for maintenance of sheep at 2 levels in the diet. Livestock Production Science 31, 301–311.
CrossRef | open url image1

Arieli A (1994) Effect of whole cottonseed on energy partitioning and nitrogen balance in sheep. Animal Production 58, 103–108. open url image1

Arieli A (1998) Whole cottonseed in dairy cattle feeding: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 72, 97–110.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Beauchemin KA, Kreuzer M, O’Mara FO, McAllister TA (2008) Nutritional management for enteric methane abatement: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 21–27.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Coppock CE, Lanham JK, Horner JL (1987) A review of the nutritive value and utilization of whole cottonseed, cottonseed meal and associated by-products by dairy cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology 18, 89–129.
CrossRef | open url image1

DeKlein CAM, Eckard RJ (2008) Targeted technologies for nitrous oxide abatement from animal agriculture. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 14–20.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Ehrlich WK, Cowan RT, Reid A (1993) Use of whole cotton seed as a dietary supplement for grazing dairy cows. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 33, 283–286.
CrossRef | open url image1

Erwin ES, Marco GJ, Emery EM (1961) Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. Journal of Dairy Science 44, 1768–1771.
CAS |
open url image1

Grainger C (1990) Effect of stage of lactation and feeding level on milk yield response by stall-fed dairy cows to change in pasture intake. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 30, 495–501.
CrossRef | open url image1

Grainger C, Clarke T, Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM, Eckard RJ (2008) Supplementation with whole cottonseed reduces methane emissions and can profitably increase milk production of dairy cows offered a forage and cereal grain diet. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 73–76.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Harrison JH, Kincaid RL, McNamara JP, Waltner S, Loney KA, Riley RE, Cronrath JD (1995) Effect of whole cottonseeds and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids on performance of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 181–193.
CAS | PubMed |
open url image1

Hegarty RS (1999) Reducing rumen methane emissions through elimination of rumen protozoa. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 1321–1327.
CrossRef | open url image1

Holmes CW , Brookes IM , Garrick DJ , Mackenzie DDS , Parkinson TJ , Wilson GF (2002) ‘Milk production from pasture – principles and practices.’ (Massey University: Palmerston North, New Zealand)

Kellaway R , Harrington T (2004) ‘Feeding concentrates: supplements for dairy cows.’ Revised edn. (Landlinks Press: Melbourne)

Mohamed OE, Satter LD, Grummer RR, Ehle FR (1988) Influence of dietary cottonseed and soybean on milk production and composition. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 2677–2688. open url image1

National Research Council (1984) ‘Nutrient requirements of beef cattle.’ 6th edn. (National Academy Press: Washington DC)

Newbold CJ, Lasalas B, Jouany JP (1995) The importance of methanogens associated with ciliate protozoa in ruminal methane production in-vitro. Letters in Applied Microbiology 21, 230–234.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed | open url image1

O’Kelly JC, Robinson DW (1968) The effect of drought feeding with whole cottonseed, and vitamin therapy, on the serum lipids and liveweight changes of beef cattle in North-Western Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 19, 657–664.
CrossRef | open url image1

Perrin DR (1958) The calorific value of milk of different species. Journal of Dairy Research 25, 215–220.
CAS |
open url image1

Pires AV, Eastridge ML, Firkins JL, Lin YC (1997) Effects of heat treatment and physical processing of cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production performance by lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80, 1685–1694.
CAS | PubMed |
open url image1

Schall R (1991) Estimation in generalised linear models with random effects. Biometrika 78, 719–727.
CrossRef | open url image1

Smith NE, Collar LS, Bath DL, Dunkley WL, Franke AA (1981) Digestibility and effects of whole cottonseed fed to lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 64, 2209–2215.
CAS | PubMed |
open url image1

Tyrrell HF, Moe PW (1975) Effect of intake on digestive efficiency. Journal of Dairy Science 58, 1151–1163. open url image1

Warren HM, Neutze SA, Morrison JM, Nicholls PJ (1988) The value of whole cottonseed in a wheat-based maintenance ration for sheep. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 28, 453–458.
CrossRef | open url image1








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (2)