Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

An overview of integrated pest management (IPM) in north-eastern Australian grain farming systems: past, present and future prospects

H. B. Brier A G , D. A. H. Murray B , L. J. Wilson C , A. H. Nicholas E , M. M. Miles B , P. R. Grundy D and A. J. McLennan F
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, PO Box 23, Kingaroy, Qld 4610, Australia.

B Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, PO Box 102, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.

C Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, PO Box 39, Narrabri, NSW 2390, Australia.

D Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Ayr Research Station, Old Clare Road, Ayr, Qld 4807, Australia.

E New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, 4 Marsden Park Road, Calala, NSW 2340, Australia.

F Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries and Mines, PO Box 1346, Katherine, NT 0851, Australia.

G Corresponding author. Email: hugh.brier@dpi.qld.gov.au

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48(12) 1574-1593 https://doi.org/10.1071/EA08166
Submitted: 30 May 2008  Accepted: 10 October 2008   Published: 6 November 2008

Abstract

The authors overview integrated pest management (IPM) in grain crops in north-eastern Australia, which is defined as the area north of latitude 32°S. Major grain crops in this region include the coarse grains (winter and summer cereals), oilseeds and pulses. IPM in these systems is complicated by the diversity of crops, pests, market requirements and cropping environments. In general, the pulse crops are at greatest risk, followed by oilseeds and then by cereal grains. Insecticides remain a key grain pest management tool in north-eastern Australia. IPM in grain crops has benefited considerably through the increased adoption of new, more selective insecticides and biopesticides for many caterpillar pests, in particular Helicoverpa spp. and loopers, and the identification of pest–crop scenarios where spraying is unnecessary (e.g. for most Creontiades spp. populations in soybeans). This has favoured the conservation of natural enemies in north-eastern Australia grain crops, and has arguably assisted in the management of silverleaf whitefly in soybeans in coastal Queensland. However, control of sucking pests and podborers such as Maruca vitrata remains a major challenge for IPM in summer pulses. Because these crops have very low pest-damage tolerances and thresholds, intervention with disruptive insecticides is frequently required, particularly during podfill. The threat posed by silverleaf whitefly demands ongoing multi-pest IPM research, development and extension as this pest can flare under favourable seasonal conditions, especially where disruptive insecticides are used injudiciously. The strong links between researchers and industry have facilitated the adoption of IPM practices in north-eastern Australia and augers well for future pest challenges and for the development and promotion of new and improved IPM tactics.

Additional keywords: area-wide management, bean podborer, corn, Eretmocerus, etiella, Helicoverpa, loopers, mirids, mungbeans, peanuts, podsucking bugs, silverleaf whitefly, soybean aphids, Trichogramma, western flower thrips, wheat.


Acknowledgements

The concepts described in this paper have benefited from the feedback provided by industry over many years. The authors also acknowledge invaluable RD&E funding and in-kind support from GRDC, CRDC, SPRC, the major grain industry organisations including Pulse Australia, the Australian Mungbean Association, the Australian Oilseeds Federation, the Northern Australian Soybean Industry Association and the Peanut Co. of Australia, and last but not least the numerous growers and consultants who have generously located and provided field trial sites for IPM trials.


References


ABARE (2008) Australian commodity statistics. Available at http://www.abareconomics.com/interactive/acs_dec06/htm/rural.htm [Verified 16 October 2008]

Anon. (2006) Central Queensland sunflower disorder – Tobacco streak virus. Crop Note. Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane. pp. 1–6.

Anon. (2007 a) Helicoverpa management in chickpea. Crop Note. Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane.

Anon. (2007 b) Module 4. Insects. In ‘Certified chickpea agronomy course manual’. (Ed. G Cumming) (Pulse Australia: Sydney) 20 pp.

Anon. (2007 c) Module 3. Insects. In ‘Certified mungbean agronomy course manual’. (Ed. G Cumming) (Pulse Australia: Sydney) 71 pp.

Anon. (2007 d) ‘Pulse break crop IPM reference manual.’ (Ed. H Brier) (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries: Brisbane)

Anon. (2008) ‘Southern Region IPM training workshop manual.’ (Eds H Brier, F Pritchard) (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australian Oilseeds Federation)

AOF (2005) Australian Oilseeds Federation Annual Report 2005/06. Available at http://www.abareconomics.com/interactive/acs_dec06/ [Verified 16 October 2008]

APVMA (2008) Chemical reviews. Available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/chemrev/ChemRevProgram.shtml [Verified 28 October 2008]

Atherton DG (1933) Experiment with baits for the control of certain cotton pests. Queensland Agricultural Journal (1 Sept 1933), 183–190.

Awan MS, Wilson LJ, Hoffman MP (1989) Prey location by Oechalia schellenbergii. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 51, 225–231.
CrossRef |

Bailey PT (2007) ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne) 520 pp.

Bajwa WI , Kogan M (2003) Integrated pest management adoption by the global community. In ‘Integrated pest management in the global arena’. (Eds KM Maredia, D Dakouo, D Mota-Sanchez) pp. 97–107. (CAB International: Wallingord, UK)

Berlandier FA , Bwye AM (1998) Cultural practices to control aphid landings in narrow-leaved lupin crops in Western Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the sixth Australian applied entomological research conference’. (Eds MP Zalucki, RAI Drew, GC White) pp. 289–293. (University of Queensland Press: Brisbane)

Bowling CC (1980) The stylet sheath as an indicator of feeding activity by the southern green stink bug on soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology 73, 1–3.

Brier H (2001) Soybean tolerance to attack by Nezara viridula (L.): formulating realistic economic thresholds. MA Thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Brier H (2007) Pulses – summer (including peanuts). In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 169–257. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Brier H , Wessels J , Knight K (1999) ‘Controlling Etiella in peanuts. CROPLINK Pest Update Q199046.’ (DPI Farming Systems Institute)

Brier H , Creagh R , Knight K , Wessels J (2004) Common salt as a mirid management tool. In ‘Proceedings of the XXII international congress of entomology, Brisbane, Qld’. (CD-ROM)

Brier H , Dougall A , Leighton M , Skilton J , Russo P , Tuite M , Wessels J (2005) Multi-pest IPM in coastal soybeans. In ‘Proceedings of the 13th Australian soybean conference, Barooga, NSW’. p. 7.

Brier H , McLennan A , Dougall A (2007) IPM in coastal soybeans and beyond. In ‘Proceedings of the 14th Australian soybean conference, Bundaberg, Qld’. pp. 12–18.

Brier HB (1998) The soybean moth outbreak of 1998. In ‘Proceedings of the 10th Australian soybean conference, Brisbane, Qld’. pp. 50–51.

Brier HB, Rogers DJ (1991a) Leaf-feeding resistance to six Australian noctuids in soybean. Crop Protection (Guildford, Surrey) 10, 320–324.
CrossRef |

Brier HB, Rogers DJ (1991b) Susceptibility of soybeans to damage by Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Riptortus serripes (F.) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) during three stages of pod development. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 30, 123–128.
CrossRef |

Brier HB , Quade AD , Wessels JW (2008) New thresholds for Helicoverpa in mungbeans – impact on yield, quality and harvest maturity. In ‘Proceedings of GRDC summer crop update, Dalby, Qld’. pp. 121–124.

Broadley RH (1986) Parasitism of Mythimna convecta (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in south-east Queensland. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 25, 61–62.
CrossRef |

Brown SL, Todd JW, Culbreath AK (1996) Effect of selected cultural practices on incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus and populations of thrips vectors in peanuts. Acta Horticulturae 431, 491–498.

Bueno AdeF, Bueno RCOdeF, Fernandes OA (2005) Physiological reply of soybean and tomato injury caused by white-fly Bemisia tabaci Raca B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Ecossistema 30(1/2), 65–70.

Bueno VHP , van Lenteren JC (2002) The popularity of augmentative biological control in Latin America: history and state of affairs. In ‘Proceedings of the 1st symposium on biological control of Arthropods, Honolulu, Hawaii’. pp. 180–184.

Caldwell NEH (1945) Bean pests in Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal 60, 156–171.

Chang GC , Kareiva P (1999) The case for indigenous generalists in biological control. In ‘Theoretical approaches to biological control’. (Eds BA Hawkins, HV Cornell) pp. 103–115. (Cambridge University Press: New York)

Clarke AR (1990) The control of Nezara viridula (L.) with introduced parasitoids in Australia. A review of a ‘landmark’ example of classical biological control. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 41, 1127–1146.
CrossRef |

Clarke AR (1992) Current distribution and pest status of Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 31, 289–297.
CrossRef |

Clement SL , Wightman JA , Hardie DC , Bailey P , Baker G , McDonald G (2000) Opportunities for integrated management of insect pests of grain legumes. In ‘Linking research and marketing opportunities for pulses in the 21st Century’. (Ed. R Knight) pp. 467–480. (Kluwer Academic Publications: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Coombs M (2003) Post-release evaluation of Trichopoda giacomellii (Diptera: Tachinidae) for efficacy and non-target effects. In ‘Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on biological control of Arthropods, Honolulu, Hawaii’. pp. 399–406.

Coombs M (2004) Overwintering survival, starvation resistance, and post-diapause reproductive performance of Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and its parasitoid Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Biological Control 30, 141–148.
CrossRef |

Coombs M, Sands DPA (2000) Establishment in Australia of Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae), a biological control agent for Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 39, 219–222.
CrossRef |

Davies AP, Zalucki MP (2008) Collection of Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from tropical northern Australia: a survey of egg parasitoids for potential pest insect biological control in regions of proposed agricultural expansion. Australian Journal of Entomology 47, 160–167.
CrossRef |

De Barro PJ, Coombs MT (in press) Post-release evaluation of Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich and Rose in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research ,

Del Socorro A, Gregg P, Tennant R, Moore C (2003) Attract-and-kill heliothis for low pressure every season. The Australian Cottongrower 24(2), 14–19.

Doughton JA , Holford ICR (1997) Legumes. In ‘Part three of sustainable crop production in the sub-tropics – an Australian perspective’. (Eds AL Clarke, PB Wylie) pp. 235–257. (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane)

Duffield SJ, Jordan S (2000) Evaluation of insecticides for the control of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean, and the implications for field adoption. Australian Journal of Entomology 39, 322–327.
CrossRef |

Duffield SJ, Winder L, Chapple DG (2005) Calibration of sampling techniques and determination of sample size for the estimation of egg and larval populations of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on irrigated soybean. Australian Journal of Entomology 44, 293–298.
CrossRef |

Elder RJ , Brough EJ , Beavis CHS (1992) ‘Managing insects and mites in field crops, forage crops and pastures. QI92004.’ (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane)

Elliott N, Kiechkhefer R, Kauffman W (1996) Effects of an invading coccinellid on native coccinellids in an agricultural landscape. Oecologia 105, 537–544.
CrossRef |

Farrell T (2007) ‘Cotton pest management guide 2007–08.’ (NSW Department of Primary Industries: Orange) 124 pp.

Ferguson J , Miles M (2002) Area-wide management on the Darling Downs – has it worked? In ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian cotton conference, Brisbane, Qld’. pp. 717–719.

Ferguson J , Miles M , Murray D , Dillon M , Kauter G , Lloyd R , Sequeira R (2000) ‘Spring trap crop management guidelines.’ (Australian Cotton CRC Publication)

Fitt GP (1989) The ecology of Heliothis species in relation to agroecosystems. Annual Review of Entomology 34, 17–52.
CrossRef |

Fitt GP (1994) Cotton pest management. 3. An Australian perspective. Annual Review of Entomology 39, 543–562.
CrossRef |

Fitt GP , Cotter SC (2005) Heliothis/Helicoverpa management: emerging trends and strategies for future research. In ‘The Helicoverpa problem in Australia: biology and management’. (Ed. HC Sharma) pp. 45–61. (Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd: New Delhi)

Forrester NW (1980) Insect pests of sunflowers. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 91, 34–37.

Forrester NW , Saini H (1982) Effect of moisture stress on damage to sunflowers by Rutherglen bug (Nysius vinitor). In ‘Proceedings of the 10th international sunflower conference, Surfers Paradise, Australia’. pp. 130–132. (International Sunflower Association: Paris)

Forrester NW, Cahill M, Bird LJ, Layland JK (1993) Management of pyrethroid and endosulfan resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research Suppl. 1 , 1–132.

Franzmann BA (2002) Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predaceous ladybird new in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 41, 375–377.
CrossRef |

Franzmann BA (2004) Resistance to sorghum midge and management of panicle pests in sorghum. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Franzmann BA (2007 a) Summer oilseeds. In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 155–162. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Franzmann BA (2007 b) Sorghum. In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 294–304. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Franzmann BA , Monsour CJ , Teakle RE , Murray DAH (1996) A small-plot trial on the management of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on sorghum with nuclear polyhedrosis virus and larval parasitoids. Australian Institute of Agricultural Science Occasional Publication 93.

Franzmann BA, Hardy AT, Murray DAH, Henzell RG (2008) Host-plant resistance and a biopesticide: ingredients for successful integrated pest management (IPM) in Australian sorghum production. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1594–1600.
CrossRef |

Goolsby JA, DeBarro PJ, Kirk AA, Sutherst RW, Canas L , et al. (2005) Post-release evaluation of biological control of Bemisia tabaci biotype ‘B’ in the USA and the development of predictive tools to guide introductions for other countries. Biological Control 32, 70–77.
CrossRef |

Grundy P, Maelzer D (2000) Assessment of Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as an augmented biological control in cotton and soybean crops. Australian Journal of Entomology 39, 305–309.
CrossRef |

Grundy P , Short S , Hawes A , Zalucki M , Gregg P (2006) Moth busting for Bt resistance management. In ‘Proceedings of the 13th Australian cotton conference, Gold Coast, Qld’. pp. 1–7.

Gunning R, Byrne F, Conde B, Connelly M, Hergstrom K, Devonshire A (1995) First report of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 34, 116.
CrossRef |

Gunning RV, Easton CS (1994) Endosulfan resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 33, 9–12.
CrossRef |

Gunning RV, Easton CS, Greenup LR, Edge VE (1984) Pyrethroid resistance in Heliothis armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 77, 1283–1287.
CAS |


Gunning RV, Balfe ME, Easton CS (1992) Carbamate resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 31, 97–103.
CrossRef |

Gunning RV, Moores GD, Devonshire AL (1998) Insensitive acetylcholinesterase and resistance to organophosphates in Australian Helicoverpa armigera. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 62, 147–151.
CrossRef | CAS |

Herron G , Gullick G , Wilson L (2002) Insecticide resistance in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii): results and management options after seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. In ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian cotton conference, Brisbane, Qld’. pp. 215–220.

Hertel K , Roberts K (2007) ‘Insect and mite control in field crops.’ (NSW Department of Primary Industries: Orange)

Hill CB, Li Y, Hartman GL (2004) Resistance to the soybean aphid in soybean germplasm. Crop Science 44, 98–106.

Holdom DG, Monsour CJ, Teakle RE, Rogers DJ, Walton MP (1996) Microbial biopesticides and integrated pest management. Australasian Biotechnology 6(4), 218–221.

Holloway JW (2002) Managing insecticide resistance in Australian Helicoverpa armigera. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter 11(2), 50.

Hopkins DC , McDonald G (2007) Cereals – pests and beneficials in the field. In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 169–257. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Hoque Z , Dillon M , Farquharson B (2002) Three seasons of IPM in an area-wide management group – a comparative analysis of field level profitability. In ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian cotton conference, Brisbane, Qld’. pp. 749–755.

Hutchins SH, Higley LG, Pedigo LP (1988) Injury equivalency as a basis for developing multiple-species economic injury levels. Journal of Economic Entomology 81, 1–8.

James AT , Rose IA (2004) Soybean breeding programme in Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the VII world soybean research conference, Iguassu Falls, Brazil’. pp. 202–208.

Johnson M-L , Pearce S , Wade M , Davies A , Silberbauer L , Gregg P , Zalucki M (2000) ‘Review of beneficials in cotton farming systems.’ (Cotton Research and Development Corporation)

Khan M , Murray D (2002) Evaluation of field parasitism of green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanch.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in the South Burnett District of Queensland. In ‘Proceedings of the 33rd Australian Entomological Society conference, Perth, WA’. p. 21.

Knight K , Brier H (2000) The efficacy of new insecticides and Dipel for soybean looper control in soybeans and effects on beneficial insects and arthropods. In ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian soybean conference, Ballina, NSW’. pp. 62–71.

Knight KMM, Gurr GM (2007) Review of Nezara viridula (L.) management strategies and potential for IPM in field crops with emphasis on Australia. Crop Protection (Guildford, Surrey) 26, 1–10.
CrossRef |

Knight KMM, Brier HB, Lucy MJ, Kopittke RA (2007) Impact of mirid (Creontiades spp.) (Hemiptera: Miridae) pest management on Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) outbreaks: the case for conserving natural enemies. Pest Management Science 63, 447–452.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Lei L , Khan M , Wilson L (2002) Boll damage by sucking pests: an emerging threat but what do we know about it? In ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian cotton conference, Brisbane, Qld’. pp. 385–393.

Lewis WJ, van Leteren JC, Phatak SC, Tumlinson JH (1997) A total systems approach to sustainable pest management.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94, 12243–12248.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Li Y, Hill CB, Carlson SR, Diers BW, Hartman GL (2007) Soybean aphid resistance genes in the soybean cultivars Dowling and Jackson – map to linkage group M. Molecular Breeding 19, 25–34.
CrossRef | CAS |

Liu SS, Cooper L, Llewellyn RR, Elson-Harris M, Duff J, Furlong MJ, Zalucki MP (2004) Field and laboratory assessment on egg parasitoids of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in southeast Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 43, 201–207.
CrossRef |

Loch AD, Walter GH (1999) Multiple host use by the egg parasitoid Trissoccus basalis (Wollaston) in a soybean agricultural system: biological control and environmental implications. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 1, 271–280.
CrossRef |

Lucy M , Ryan M , Slatter J , Heuke L (2005) ‘Mungbean management guide.’ (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries: Brisbane)

Maelzer DA, Zalucki MP (2000) Long range forecasts of the numbers of Helicoverpa punctigera and H. armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia using the Southern Oscillation Index and the Sea Surface Temperature. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90, 133–146.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Mansfield S, Elias NV, Lytton-Hitchins JA (2003) Ants as egg predators of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australian cotton crops. Australian Journal of Entomology 42, 349–351.
CrossRef |

Mansfield S, Dillon ML, Whitehouse MEA (2006) Are arthropod communities in cotton really disrupted? An assessment of insecticide regimes and evaluation of the beneficial disruption index. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 113, 326–335.
CrossRef | CAS |

McPherson RM (1979) Evaluation of four stink bug species from three genera affecting soybean yield and quality in Louisiana. Journal of Economic Entomology 72, 188–194.

Mensah R , Austin L (2008) Development of a new fungus for sucking pest management in transgenic and conventional cotton crops. In ‘Proceedings of the 14th Australian cotton conference, Broadbeach, Qld’. pp. 1–8.

Mensah RK (2002) Development of an integrated pest management programme for cotton. Part 1: establishing and utililizing natural enemies. International Journal of Pest Management 48, 87–94.
CrossRef |

Mensah RK , Pyke BA (2007) Cotton – beneficials. In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 169–257. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Mensah RK , Sequeira RV (2004) Habitat manipulation for insect pest management in cotton cropping systems. In ‘Ecological engineering for pest management: advances in habitat manipulation for arthropods’. pp. 187–197.

Miles MM , Baker GG , Hawthorne W (2007) Pulses – winter. In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 259–278. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Moore AD, Sequeira RV, Woodger TA (2004) Susceptibility of crop plants to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in central Queensland, Australia. Australian Entomologist 31, 69–74.

Moore N , Gunning R , Brier H , Franzmann B , Mills G , McCaffery D (2003) Silverleaf whitefly alert for soybean growers. NSW DPI Publication. Available at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file/0003/149196/silverleaf-whitefly-soybean.pdf [Verified 21 October 2008]

Murray D , Boddington J , Lloyd R , Rogers J , Zalucki M , Ward A (1998) Regional management of heliothis on the Darling Downs. In ‘Proceedings of the 9th Australian cotton conference, Broadbeach, Qld’. pp. 351–355.

Murray D , Ferguson J , Lloyd R , Hopkinson J , Maclean S , Powell R (2001) Advances in grain sorghum management in Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the 4th Australian sorghum conference’. (CD-ROM) (Range Media: Toowoomba)

Murray DAH (2007) Maize. In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 121–134. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Murray DAH , Rynne KP (1992) Biocontrol of heliothis using larval parasitoids. In ‘Proceedings of the Australian Sunflower Association 9th conference, Yeppoon, Qld’. pp. 98–101.

Murray DAH, Lloyd RJ, Hopkinson JE (2005a) Efficacy of new insecticides for management of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australian grain crops. Australian Journal of Entomology 44, 62–67.
CrossRef |

Murray DAH , Miles MM , McLennan AJ , Lloyd RJ , Hopkinson JE (2005 b) Area-wide management of Helicoverpa spp. in an Australian mixed cropping agroecosystem. In ‘Proceedings of the Beltwide cotton conferences, New Orleans, Louisiana’. pp. 1246–1251.

Naranjo SE , Luttrell RG (In press) Cotton arthropod IPM. In ‘Integrated pest management’. (Eds EB Radcliff, WD Hutchinson) (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)

Naranjo SE, Hagler JR, Ellsworth PC (2003) Improved conservation of natural enemies with selective management systems for Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton. Biocontrol Science and Technology 13, 571–587.
CrossRef |

New TR (2002) ‘Insects and pest management in Australian agriculture.’ (Oxford University Press: Melbourne)

Nicholas AH , Coutts KA (2006) Can two-spotted mite be controlled by predatory mite releases in irrigated maize crops? In ‘Water to gold. Proceedings of the Maize Association of Australia 6th triennial conference, Griffith, NSW’. pp. 141–147.

Norton GA (1976) Analysis of decision making in crop protection. Agro-ecosystems 3, 27–44.
CrossRef |

Oliveira MRV, Henneberry TJ, Anderson P (2001) History, current status, and collaborative research projects for Bemisia tabaci. Crop Protection (Guildford, Surrey) 20, 709–723.
CrossRef |

Parker N , Scholz B (2004) A survey of egg parasitoids in sorghum on the Darling Downs. In ‘Proceedings of the 12th Australian cotton conference, Broadbeach, Qld’. pp. 657–660.

Pearce S, Hebron WM, Raven RJ, Zalucki MP, Hassan E (2004) Spider fauna of soybean crops in south-east Queensland and their potential as predators of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 43, 57–65.
CrossRef |

Prasadja I (1993) Interactions of an insect resistant soybean genotype with corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and its natural enemies. PhD Thesis, University of North Carolina, Raleigh.

Pyke B (2007) The impact of high adoption of Bollgard II cotton on pest management in Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the world cotton research conference 4, Lubbock, Texas, USA’. (Ed. D Etheridge) (CD-ROM)

Pyke B , Doyle B (2006) Changes in production due to Bollgard II and Roundup Ready Cotton. In ‘Proceedings of the 13th Australian cotton conference, Gold Coast, Qld’. pp. 1–8.

Radford BJ, Allsopp PG (1987) Use of insecticides and a press wheel to control soil insects affecting sorghum and sunflower establishment in southern Queensland. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 26, 161–167.
CrossRef |

Robertson LN (1993) Population dynamics of false wireworms (Gonocephalum macleayi, Pterohelaeus alternatus, P. darlingensis) and development of an integrated pest management program in central Queensland field crops: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 33, 953–962.
CrossRef |

Rossiter L , Gunning R , Herron G , Larsen D , Pyke B , Wilson L (2007) Insecticide resistance management strategy for conventional cotton 2007–08. In ‘Cotton pest management guide 2007–08’. pp. 1–9. (CRC and NSW DPI Publication)

Rule J , Bush D , Zunker C , Webb S , Williams A (2007) Building IPM capacity for soybean break crops in the Bundaberg/Isis regions of coastal Queensland. In ‘Proceedings of the 14th Australian soybean conference, Bundaberg, Qld’. pp. 60–64.

Schellhorn NA, Pearce S, Bianchi FJJA, Williams DG, Zalucki M (2008) Managing ecosystem services in broadacre landscapes: what are the appropriate spatial scales? Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1549–1559.
CrossRef |

Scholz BCG (1991) Evaluation and selection of native egg parasitoids for bollworm management in Australian cotton. Colloques de l’INRA 56, 235–238.

Scholz BCG , Zalucki MP (1999) The effects of two new insecticides on the survival of adult Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in sweet corn. Hymenoptera: evolution, biodiversity and biological control. In ‘Proceedings of the fourth international Hymenoptera conference, Canberra, Australia’. pp. 381–387.

Scholz BCG, Monsour CJ, Zalucki MP (1998) An evaluation of selective Helicoverpa armigera control options in sweet corn. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 38, 601–607.
CrossRef |

Sequeira R (2001) Inter-seasonal population dynamics and cultural management of Helicoverpa spp. in a central Queensland cropping system. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 249–259.
CrossRef |

Sequeira RV, Naranjo SE (2008) Sampling and management of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B in Australian cotton. Crop Protection (Guildford, Surrey) 27, 1262–1268.
CrossRef |

Sosa-Gomez DR, Alves SB (2000) Temperature and relative humidity requirements for conidiogenesis of Beauvaria bassiana (Deuteromycetes: Moniliaceae). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 29, 515–521.

Stam PA (1987) Predation and food as factors affecting survival of Nezara viridula in a soybean ecostytem. Environmental Entomology 16, 1211–1216.

Stern VM (1973) Economic thresholds. Annual Review of Entomology 18, 259–280.
CrossRef |

Stern VM, van den Bosch T (1959) Field experiments on the effects of insecticides. Hilgardia 29, 103–130.
CAS |


Strickland G , Lacey I (1996) The seasonal abundance of Trichogramma pretiosum in cotton grown with different pest management strategies in the Ord River Irrigation Area (ORIA). In ‘Proceedings of the 8th Australian cotton conference, Broadbeach, Qld’. pp. 273–277.

Szmedra PI, Wetzstein ME, McClendon RM (1990) Economic threshold under risk: a case study of soybean production. Journal of Economic Entomology 83, 641–646.

Teakle RE , Murray DAH , Mensah R , Monsour CJ (1996) Heliothis virus: can it rise from the ashes of ‘Elcar’? In ‘Proceedings of the 8th Australian cotton conference, Broadbeach, Qld’. pp. 347–354.

Thomas GD, Ignoffo CM, Biever KD, Smith DB (1974) Influence of defoliation and depodding on yield of soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology 67, 683–685.
CAS |


Titmarsh IJ (1992) Mortality of immature Lepidoptera: a case study with Heliothis species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in agricultural crops on the Darling Downs. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Todd JW, Turnipseed SG (1974) Effects of southern green stink bug damage on yield and quality of soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology 67, 421–426.

Turner JW, Brier H (1979) Effect of leafhopper control on yield of peanuts and navy beans. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin 16, 23–25.

Turner JW , Franzmann BA (1978) Development of management programmes for lucerne aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). In ‘Proceedings of the 2nd Australasian conference on grassland invertebrate ecology, Palmerston North, New Zealand’. pp. 191–192.

Turner JW, Titmarsh I (1979) When is a soybean ‘pest’ a pest? Queensland Journal of Agriculture 105, 355–362.

Twine PH , Kay IR (1982) A determination of an economic injury level of Heliothis armigera (Hübner) in sorghum for southeast Queensland. In ‘Proceedings of the international workshop on Heliothis management’. pp. 189–195. (ICRISAT: Andra Pradesh, India)

Twine PH, Lloyd RJ (1982) Observations on the effect of regular releases of Trichogramma spp. in controlling Heliothis spp. and other insects in cotton. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 39, 159–167.

Valle GE, Lourencao AL (2002) Resistance of soybean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Neotropical Entomology 31, 285–295.
CrossRef |

Velasco LRI, Walter GH (1992) Availability of different host plant species and changing abundance of the polyphagous bug Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Environmental Entomology 21, 751–759.

Wade M, Scholz B, Lloyd R, Cleary A, Franzmann B, Zalucki M (2006) Temporal variation in arthropod sampling effectiveness: the case for using the beat sheet method in cotton. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 120, 139–153.
CrossRef |

Walker P , Hunter D , Elder R (2007) Locusts and grasshoppers of pastures and rangelands. In ‘Pests of field crops and pastures: identification and control’. (Ed. PT Bailey) pp. 169–257. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Ward AL, Rogers DJ (2006) Population ecology of Heteronyx piceus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in a peanut/maize cropping system. Bulletin of Entomological Research 96, 129–136.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Waterhouse DF (1998) ‘Biological control of insect pests: Southeast Asian prospects. ACIAR monograph No. 51.’ (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra)

Waterhouse DF , Norris KR (1987) ‘Biological control: Pacific prospects.’ (Inkata Press: Melbourne)

Waterhouse DF , Sands DPA (2001) ‘Classical biological control of arthropods in Australia. ACIAR monograph No. 77.’ Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Williams DG, Il’ichev AL (2003) Integrated pest management in Australia. In ‘Integrated pest management in the global arena’. (Eds KM Maredia, D Dakouo, D Mota-Sanchez) pp. 371–384. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Wilson F (1960) A review of the biological control insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea. Technical Communication No. 1, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, England. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau.

Wilson L , Mensah R , Khan M , Dillon M , Wade M , Scholz B , Murray D , Lloyd R , Heimoana V , Holloway J (2007) Impact of insecticides and miticides on beneficials in Australian cotton. In ‘Cotton pest management guide 2007–08’. pp. 29–30. (CRC and NSW DPI Publication)

Wilson LJ (1993) Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) affect yield and fiber quality of cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology 86, 566–585.

Zalucki MP, Furlong MJ (2005) Forecasting Helicoverpa populations in Australia: a comparison of regression-based models and a bio-climatic-based modelling approach. Insect Science 12, 45–56.

Zalucki MP, Daglish G, Firempong S, Twine P (1986) The biology and ecology of Heliothis armigera (Hübner) and H. punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia: what do we know? Australian Journal of Zoology 34, 779–814.
CrossRef |








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (13)