Australian Journal of Chemistry Australian Journal of Chemistry Society
An international journal for chemical science
RESEARCH FRONT

Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Composites

Caroline McClory A , Seow Jecg Chin A and Tony McNally A B
+ Author Affliations
- Author Affliations

A School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AH, UK.

B Corresponding author. Email: t.mcnally@qub.ac.uk

Australian Journal of Chemistry 62(8) 762-785 https://doi.org/10.1071/CH09131
Submitted: 6 March 2009  Accepted: 15 July 2009   Published: 13 August 2009

Abstract

The unique geometry and extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal conductivity properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them ideal candidates as functional fillers for polymeric materials. In this paper we review the advances in both thermoset and thermoplastic CNT composites. The various processing methods used in polymer/CNT composite preparation; solution mixing, in-situ polymerization, electrospinning, and melt blending, are discussed. The role of surface functionalization, including ‘grafting to’ and ‘grafting from’ using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), radical addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) in aiding dispersion of CNTs in polymers and interfacial stress transfer is highlighted. In addition the effect of CNT type, loading, functionality and alignment on electrical and rheological percolation is summarized. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of both Raman spectroscopy and oscillatory plate rheology as tools to characterize the extent of dispersion of CNTs in polymer matrices. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential applications of polymer/CNT composites and highlight the challenges that remain so that the unique properties of CNTs can be optimally translated to polymer matrices.


Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support of the EU through Specific Targeted Research Project DESYGN-IT (No. NMP4-CT-2004-505626) and S.J.C. is grateful to QUB for funding a studentship.


References


[1]   P. M. Ajayan, O. Stephan, C. Colliex, D. Trauth, Science 1994, 265,  1212.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[2]   http://apps.isiknowledge.com, accessed February 2009.

[3]   L. V. Radushkevish, V. M. Lukyanovich, Zurn. Fisic. Chim. 1952, 28,  88.
         open url image1

[4]   A. Oberlin, M. Endo, T. Koyama, J. Cryst. Growth 1976, 32,  335.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[5]   Edison T., U.S. Patent 223 898, 1880.

[6]   C. Li, E. T. Thostenson, T.-W. Chou, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2008, 68,  1227.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[7]   S. V. Ahir, Y. Y. Huang, E. M. Terentjev, Polymer 2008, 49,  3841.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[8]   L. Bokobza, Polymer 2007, 48,  4907.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[9]   J.-H. Du, J. Bai, H.-M. Cheng, eXPRESS Polym. Lett. 2007, 1,  253.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[10]   M. Moniruzzaman, K. Winey, Macromolecules 2006, 39,  5194.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[11]   J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, W. J. Blau, Y. K. Gun’ko, Carbon 2006, 44,  1624.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[12]   A. V. Desai, M. A. Haque, Thin-walled Struct. 2005, 43,  1787.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[13]   R. Andrews, M. C. Weisenberger, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 2004, 8,  31.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[14]   O. Breuer, U. Sundararaj, Polym. Compos. 2004, 25,  630.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[15]   K.-T. Lau, D. Hui, Compos. Part B: Eng. 2002, 33,  263.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[16]   E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T.-W. Chou, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2001, 61,  1899.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[17]   Q. H. Wang, A. A. Setlur, J. M. Lauerhaas, J. Y. Dai, E. W. Seelig, R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1998, 72,  2912.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[18]   S. A. Curran, P. M. Ajayan, W. J. Blau, D. L. Carroll, J. N. Coleman, A. B. Dalton, A. P. Davey, A. Drury, B. McCarthy, S. Maier, A. Strevens, Adv. Mater. 1998, 10,  1091.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[19]   J. Sandler, M. S. P. Shaffer, T. Prasse, W. Bauhofer, K. Schulte, A. H. Windle, Polymer 1999, 40,  5967.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[20]   T. McNally, P. Pötschke, P. Halley, M. Murphy, D. Martin, S. E. J. Bell, G. P. Brennan, D. Bien, P. Lemoine, J. P. Quinn, Polymer 2005, 46,  8222.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[21]   A. Bhattacharyya, T. Sreekumar, T. Liu, S. Kumar, L. Ericson, R. Hauge, R. Smalley, Polymer 2003, 44,  2373.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[22]   M. Treacy, T. Ebbesen, J. Gibson, Nature 1996, 381,  678.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[23]   R. D. Ruoff, J. Tersoff, D. C. Lorents, S. Subramoney, B. Chan, Nature 1993, 364,  514.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[24]   H. D. Wagner, O. Lourie, Y. Feldman, R. Tenne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1998, 72,  188.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[25]   A. Kelly, W. R. Tyson, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1965, 13,  329.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[26]   P. Pötschke, H. Brunig, A. Janke, D. Fischer, D. Jehnichen, Polymer 2005, 46,  10355.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[27]   O. Lourie, D. M. Cox, H. D. Wagner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 81,  1638.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[28]   L. S. Schadler, S. C. Giannaris, P. M. Ajayan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1998, 73,  3842.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[29]   M. S. P. Shaffer, A. H. Windle, Adv. Mater. 1999, 11,  937.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[30]   T. Kashiwagi, F. Du, K. I. Winey, K. Groth, J. Shields, Polymer 2005, 46,  471.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[31]   D. Zilli, C. Chiliotte, M. Escobar, V. Bekeris, G. Rubiolo, A. Cukierman, S. Goyanes, Polymer 2005, 46,  6090.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[32]   Á. Kukovecz, T. Kanyó, Z. Kónya, I. Kiricsi, Carbon 2005, 43,  994.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[33]   X. Gong, J. Liu, S. Baskaran, R. Voise, J. Young, J. Chem. Mater. 2000, 12,  1049.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[34]   S. L. Ruan, P. Gao, X. G. Yang, T. X. Yu, Polymer 2003, 44,  5643.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[35]   X. Jiang, Y. Bin, M. Matsuo, Polymer 2005, 46,  7418.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[36]   J. Sung, H. S. Kim, H. Jin, H. J. Choi, I. Chin, Macromolecules 2004, 37,  9899.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[37]   B. Khare, P. Wilhite, M. Meyyappan, Nanotechnology 2004, 15,  1650.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[38]   R. F. Gibson, E. O. Ayorinde, Y.-F. Wen, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  1.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[39]   O. Lourie, H. D. Wagner, Compos. Sci. Technol. 1999, 59,  975.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[40]   Q. Zhao, M. Frogely, H. D. Wagner, Polym. Adv. Technol. 2002, 13,  759.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[41]   J. K. W. Sandler, J. E. Kirk, I. A. Kinloch, M. S. P. Shaffer, A. H. Windle, Polymer 2003, 44,  5893.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[42]   C. A. Martin, J. K. W. Sandler, M. S. P. Shaffer, M.-K. Schwarz, W. Bauhofer, K. Schulte, A. H. Windle, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2004, 64,  2309.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[43]   J. Zhu, J. Kim, H. Peng, J. L. Margrave, V. N. Khabashesku, E. V. Barrera, Nano Lett. 2003, 3,  1107.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[44]   V. G. Hadjiev, D. C. Lagoudas, E.-S. Oh, P. Thakre, D. Davis, B. S. Files, L. Yowell, S. Arepalli, J. L. Bahr, J. M. Tour, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2006, 66,  128.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[45]   R. Schüeler, J. Petermann, K. Schulte, H.-P. Wentzel, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1997, 63,  1741.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[46]   Hunter R. J., in Foundations of Colloid Science 1987, Vol. 1 (Clarendon Press: Oxford).

[47]   T. Prasse, L. Flandin, K. Schulte, W. Bauhofer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1998, 72,  2903.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[48]   H. Chen, O. Jacobs, W. Wu, G. Rüdiger, B. Schädel, Polym. Test. 2007, 26,  351.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[49]   K. L. Lu, R. M. Lago, Y. K. Chen, M. L. H. Green, P. J. F. Harris, S.C. Tsang, Carbon 1996, 34,  814.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[50]   K. B. Shelimov, R. O. Esenaliev, A. G. Rinzler, C. B. Huffman, R. E. Smalley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 1998, 282,  429.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[51]   K.-T. Lau, M. Lu, L. Chun-ki, H.-Y. Cheung, F.-L. Sheng, H.-L. Li, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2005, 65,  719.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[52]   S.-M. Yuen, C.-C. M. Ma, Y.-Y. Lin, H.-C. Kuan, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  2564.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[53]   Z. Yang, X. Chen, Y. Pu, L. Zhou, C. Chen, W. Li, L. Xu, B. Yi, Y. Wang, Polym. Adv. Technol. 2007, 18,  458.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[54]   F. H. Gojny, M. H. G. Wichmann, U. Köpke, B. Fiedler, K. Schulte, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2004, 64,  2363.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[55]   F. H. Gojny, H. G. Malte, M. H. G. Wichmann, B. Fiedler, K. Schulte, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2005, 65,  2300.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[56]   C. A. Dyke, M. P. Stewart, J. M. Tour, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127,  4497.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[57]   M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, P. Bhowmik, S. Niyogi, B. Zhao, M. E. Itkis, R. C. Haddon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2001, 347,  8.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[58]   M. S. P. Shaffer, X. Fan, A. H. Windle, Carbon 1998, 36,  1603.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[59]   J. Chen, A. M. Rao, S. Lyuksyutov, M. E. Itkis, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, R. W. Cohn, P. C. Eklund, D. T. Colbert, R. E. Smalley, R. C. Haddon, J. Phys. Chem. B 2001, 105,  2525.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[60]   M. T. Martínez, M. A. Callejas, A. M. Benito, M. Cochet, T. Seeger, A. Ansón, J. Schreiber, C. Gordon, C. Marhic, O. Chauvet, J. L. G. Fierro, W. K. Maser, Carbon 2003, 41,  2247.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[61]   J. E. Riggs, Z. Guo, D. L. Carroll, Y.-P. Sun, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122,  5879.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[62]   M. A. Hamon, J. Chen, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, M. E. Itkis, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, Adv. Mater. 1999, 11,  834.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[63]   F. H. Gojny, M. H. G. Wichmann, B. Fiedler, I. A. Kinloch, W. Bauhofer, A. H. Windle, K. Schulte, Polymer 2006, 47,  2036.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[64]   A. Peigney, C. Laurent, E. Flahaut, R. R. Bacsa, A. Rousset, Carbon 2001, 39,  507.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[65]   J. A. Kim, D. G. Seong, T. J. Kang, J. R. Youn, Carbon 2006, 44,  1898.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[66]   Y. S. Song, J. R. Youn, Carbon 2005, 43,  1378.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[67]   M. Wong, M. Paramsothy, X. J. Xu, Y. Ren, S. Li, K. Liao, Polymer 2003, 44,  7757.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[68]   X. Xu, M. M. Thwe, C. Shearwood, K. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2002, 81,  2833.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[69]   L. Liu, H. D. Wagner, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2005, 65,  1861.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[70]   J. B. Bai, Carbon 2003, 41,  1325.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[71]   J. B. Bai, A. Allaoui, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. 2003, 34,  689.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[72]   D. Puglia, L. Valentini, J. M. Kenny, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2003, 88,  452.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[73]   H. Miyagawa, L. T. Drzal, Polymer 2004, 45,  5163.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[74]   C. McClory, T. McNally, G. Brennan, J. Erskine, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2007, 105,  1003.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[75]   F. H. Gojny, K. Schulte, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2004, 64,  2303.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[76]   D. Zilli, C. Chiliotte, M. M. Escobar, V. Bekeris, G. R. Rubiolo, A. L. Cukierman, S. Goyanes, Polymer 2005, 46,  6090.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[77]   M. J. Biercuk, M. C. Liaguno, M. Radosavljevic, J. K. Hyun, A. T. Johnson, J. E. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2002, 80,  2767.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[78]   C. A. Martin, J. K. W. Sandler, A. H. Windle, M.-K. Schwarz, W. Bauhofer, K. Schulte, M. S. P. Shaffer, Polymer 2005, 46,  877.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[79]   E. S. Choi, J. S. Brooks, D. L. Eaton, M. S. Al-Haik, M. Y. Hussaini, H. Garmestani, D. Li, K. Dahmen, J. Appl. Phys. 2003, 94,  6034.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[80]   X. Jiang, Y. Bin, M. Matsuo, Polymer 2005, 46,  7418.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[81]   T. Ogasawara, Y. Ishida, T. Ishikawa, R. Yokota, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. 2004, 35,  67.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[82]   S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, C. Lacabanne, Macromolecules 2003, 36,  5187.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[83]   Stauffer D., Aharony A., in Introduction to Percolation Theory 1992, p. 31 (Taylor & Francis: London).

[84]   Zallen R., in The Physics of Amorphous Solids 1983 (John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY).

[85]   H. M. Kim, K. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. Joo, H. S. Yoon, S. J. Cho, S. C. Lyu, C. J. Lee, Curr. Appl. Phys. 2004, 4,  577.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[86]   J.-M. Benoit, B. Corraze, S. Lefrant, W. J. Blau, P. Bernier, O. Chauvet, Synth. Met. 2001, 121,  1215.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[87]   F. Du, J. E. Fischer, K. I. Winey, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2003, 41,  3333.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[88]   K. H. Kim, W. H. Jo, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2008, 68,  2120.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[89]   P. Bonnet, D. Sireude, B. Garnier, O. Chauvet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 91,  201910.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[90]   B. Safadi, R. Andrews, E. A. Grulke, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2002, 84,  2660.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[91]   M. T. Byrne, W. P. McNamee, Y. Gun’ko, Nanotechnology 2008, 19,  415707.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[92]   S. L. Ruan, P. Gao, X. G. Yang, T. X. Yu, Polymer 2003, 44,  5643.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[93]   Z. Wang, P. Ciselli, T. Peijis, Nanotechnology 2007, 18,  455709.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[94]   K. P. Ryan, M. Cadek, V. Nicolosi, D. Blond, M. Ruether, G. Armstrong, H. Swan, A. Fonseca, J. B. Nagy, W. K. Maser, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  1640.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[95]   C. Bartholome, P. Miaudet, A. Derré, M. Maugey, O. Roubeau, C. Zakri, P. Poulin, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2008, 68,  2568.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[96]   C. Pan, L.-Q. Ge, Z.-Z. Gu, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  3271.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[97]   Z. Yang, B. Dong, Y. Huang, L. Liu, F.-Y. Yan, H.-L. Li, Mater. Lett. 2005, 59,  2128.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[98]   Z. Yang, B. Dong, Y. Huang, L. Liu, F.-Y. Yan, H.-L. Li, Mater. Chem. Phys. 2005, 94,  109.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[99]   Z. Jia, Z. Wang, C. Xu, J. Liang, B. Wei, D. Wu, S. Zhu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 1999, 271,  395.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[100]   C. Velasco-Santos, A. L. Martínez-Hernàndez, F. T. Fisher, R. Ruoff, V. M. Castaño, Chem. Mater. 2003, 15,  4470.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[101]   S. J. Park, S. T. Kim, M. S. Cho, H. M. Kim, J. Joo, H. J. Choi, Curr. Appl. Phys. 2005, 5,  302.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[102]   K. Kim, S. J. Cho, S. T. Kim, I.-J. Chin, H. J. Choi, Macromolecules 2005, 38,  10623.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[103]   J. Shen, C. Zeng, L. J. Lee, Polymer 2005, 46,  5218.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[104]   Y. Wang, J. Deng, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, Q. Fu, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2007, 104,  3695.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[105]   S. H. Jin, Y.-B. Park, K. H. Yoon, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  3434.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[106]   M. R. Karim, C. J. Lee, A. M. S. Chowdhury, N. Nahar, M. S. Lee, Mater. Lett. 2007, 61,  1688.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[107]   H.-X. Wu, R. Tong, X.-Q. Qiu, H.-F. Yang, Y.-H. Lin, R.-F. Cai, S.-X. Qian, Carbon 2007, 45,  152.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[108]   P. Liu, Eur. Polym. J. 2005, 41,  2693.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[109]   S. Qin, D. Qin, W. T. Ford, D. E. Resasco, J. E. Herrera, Macromolecules 2004, 37,  752.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[110]   M. Liu, T. Zhu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. 2009, 113,  9670.
         open url image1

[111]   Y.-L. Liu, W.-H. Chen, Macromolecules 2007, 40,  8881.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[112]   H. Kong, C. Gao, D. Yan, J. Mater. Chem. 2004, 14,  1401.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[113]   A. M. Shanmugharaj, J. H. Bae, R. R. Nayak, S. H. Ryu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2007, 45,  460.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[114]   C. Gao, C. D. Vo, Y. Z. Jin, W. Li, S. P. Armes, Macromolecules 2005, 38,  8634.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[115]   Y.-L. Liu, W.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Chang, Carbohydr. Polym. 2009, 76,  232.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[116]   Y.-L. Liu, Y.-H. Chang, M. Liang, Polymer 2008, 49,  5405.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[117]   B. Fragneaud, K. Masenelli-Varlot, A. Gonzalez-Montiel, M. Terrones, J. Y. Cavaillé, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2008, 68,  3265.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[118]   J. Cui, W.-P. Wang, Y.-Z. You, C. Liu, P. Wang, Polymer 2004, 45,  8717.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[119]   C.-Y. Hong, Y.-Z. You, C.-Y. Pan, Polymer 2006, 47,  4300.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[120]   Y.-Z. You, C.-Y. Hong, C.-Y. Pan, Nanotechnology 2006, 17,  2350.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[121]   Y.-Z. You, C.-Y. Hong, C.-Y. Pan, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2006, 27,  2001.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[122]   J. Liu, Z. Nie, Y. Gao, A. Adronov, H. Li, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2008, 46,  7187.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[123]   W. Zhou, S. Lv, W. Shi, Eur. Polym. J. 2008, 44,  587.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[124]   X. Pei, W. Liu, J. Hao, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2008, 46,  3014.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[125]   G. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Pang, W.-T. Wu, Q. Zhu, P. Wang, Polym. Int. 2007, 56,  847.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[126]   G. Xu, W.-T. Wu, Y. Wang, W. Pang, Q. Zhu, P. Wang, Nanotechnology 2007, 18,  145606.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[127]   G. Xu, W.-T. Wu, Y. Wang, W. Pang, P. Wang, Q. Zhu, F. Lu, Nanotechnology 2006, 17,  2485.
         open url image1

[128]   C.-Y. Hong, Y.-Z. You, C.-Y. Pan, Chem. Mater. 2005, 17,  2247.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[129]   X. Pei, J. Hao, W. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111,  2947.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[130]   M. Weck, J. J. Jackiw, R. R. Rossi, P. S. Weiss, R. H. Grubbs, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121,  4088.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[131]   C. Slugovc, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2004, 25,  1283.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[132]   G.-X. Chen, H.-S. Kim, B. H. Park, J.-S. Yoon, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2007, 208,  389.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[133]   W. Jeong, M. R. Kessler, Chem. Mater. 2008, 20,  7060.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[134]   W. Jeong, M. R. Kessler, Carbon 2009, 47,  2406.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[135]   Y. Liu, A. Adronov, Macromolecules 2004, 37,  4755.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[136]   K. R. Yoon, W.-J. Kim, I. S. Choi, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2004, 205,  1218.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[137]   Z. Jin, K. P. Pramoda, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2001, 337,  43.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[138]   R. E. Gorga, R. E. Cohen, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2004, 42,  2690.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[139]   R. Haggenmueller, H. H. Gommans, A. G. Rinzler, J. E. Fischer, K. I. Winey, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2000, 330,  219.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[140]   Z. Zhou, S. Wang, L. Lu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Comp. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  1861.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[141]   Z. Jin, K. P. Pramoda, S. H. Goh, G. Xu, Mater. Res. Bull. 2002, 37,  271.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[142]   M. Ferrara, H.-C. Neitzert, M. Sarno, G. Gorrasi, D. Sannino, V. Vittoria, P. Ciambelli, Physica E 2007, 37,  66.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[143]   G. D. Liang, S. C. Tjong, Mater. Chem. Phys. 2006, 100,  132.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[144]   O. Valentino, M. Sarno, N. G. Rainone, M. R. Nobile, P. Ciambelli, H. C. Neitzert, G. P. Simon, Physica E 2008, 40,  2440.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[145]   M. A. L. Manchado, L. Valentini, J. Biagiotti, J. M. Kenny, Carbon 2005, 43,  1499.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[146]   P. Pötschke, A. R. Bhattacharyya, A. Janke, Carbon 2004, 42,  965.
         open url image1

[147]   S. D. Wanjale, J. P. Jog, Polymer 2006, 47,  6414.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[148]   E. T. Thostenson, T.-W. Chou, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2002, 35,  L77.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[149]   F. Du, R. C. Scogna, W. Zhou, S. Brand, J. E. Fischer, K. Winey, Macromolecules 2004, 37,  9048.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[150]   B. H. Cipriano, A. K. Kota, A. L. Gershon, C. J. Laskowski, T. Kashiwagi, H. A. Bruck, S. R. Raghavan, Polymer 2008, 49,  4846.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[151]   L. Valentini, J. Biogotti, J. M. Kenny, S. Cantucci, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2003, 87,  708.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[152]   W. E. Dondero, R. E. Gorga, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2006, 44,  864.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[153]   Q. Zhang, S. Rastogi, D. Chen, D. Lippits, P. J. Lemstra, Carbon 2006, 44,  778.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[154]   J. Maultzsch, S. Reich, C. Thomsen, Phys. Rev. B 2002, 65,  233402.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[155]   A. Linares, J. C. Canalda, M. E. Cagio, M. C. García-Guitiérrez, A. Nogales, I. Martín-Gullón, J. Vera, T. A. Ezquerra, Macromolecules 2008, 41,  7090.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[156]   N. Grossiord, P. J. J. Kivit, J. Loos, J. Meuldijk, A. V. Kyrylyuk, P. van der Schoot, C. E. Koning, Polymer 2008, 49,  2866.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[157]   K. Kobashi, T. Villmow, T. Andres, P. Pötschke, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2008, 134,  787.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[158]   Y. F. Shih, L. S. Chen, R. J. Jeng, Polymer 2008, 49,  4602.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[159]   F. Deng, T. Ogasawara, N. Takeda, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  2959.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[160]   M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, A. G. Souza Filho, M. A. Pimenta, R. Saito, Acc. Chem. Res. 2002, 35,  1070.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[161]   Q. Zhao, H. D. Wagner, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 2004, 362,  2407.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[162]   R. J. Nemanich, S. A. Solin, Phys. Rev. B 1979, 20,  392.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[163]   Y. Huang, R. J. Young, Carbon 1995, 33,  97.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[164]   A. Jorio, M. A. Pimenta, A. G. Souza Filho, R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, New J. Phys. 2003, 5,  139.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[165]   G. R. Dieckmann, A. B. Dalton, P. A. Johnson, J. Razal, J. Chen, G. M. Giordono, E. Munoz, I. Musselman, R. H. Baughman, R. J. Draper, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125,  1770.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[166]   J. R. Wood, H. D. Wagner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2000, 76,  2883.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[167]   O. Lourie, H. D. Wagner, J. Mater. Res. 1998, 13,  2418.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[168]   S. Reich, H. Jantoljak, C. Thomsen, Phys. Rev. B 2000, 61,  R13389.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[169]   J. P. Lu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1997, 79,  1297.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[170]   C. A. Cooper, R. J. Young, M. Halsall, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. 2001, 32,  401.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[171]   D. F. Farrar, J. Rose, Biomaterials 2001, 22,  3005.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[172]   K. Fuchs, Chr. Friedrich, J. Weese, Macromolecules 1996, 29,  5893.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[173]   R. Krishnamoorti, E. P. Giannelis, Macromolecules 1997, 30,  4097.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[174]   M. C. Newstein, H. Wang, N. P. Balsara, A. A. Lefebvre, Y. Shnidman, H. Watanabe, K. Osaki, T. Shikata, H. Niwa, Y. Morishima, J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 111,  4827.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[175]   K. Yurekli, R. Krisnamoorti, M. F. Tse, K. O. McElrath, A. H. Tsou, H. C. Wang, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2001, 39,  256.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[176]   K. Lozano, J. Bonilla-Rios, E. V. Barrera, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2001, 80,  1162.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[177]   P. Pötschke, T. D. Fornes, D. R. Paul, Polymer 2002, 43,  3247.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[178]   G. Hu, C. Zhao, S. Zhang, M. Yang, Z. Wang, Polymer 2006, 47,  480.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[179]   A. K. Kota, B. H. Cipriano, M. K. Duesterberg, A. L. Gershon, D. Powell, S. R. Raghavan, H. A. Bruck, Macromolecules 2007, 40,  7400.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[180]   M. Castro, J. Lu, S. Bruzaud, B. Kumar, J.-F. Feller, Carbon 2009, 47,  1930.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[181]   K. Kobashi, T. Villmow, T. Andres, P. Pötschke, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2008, 134,  787.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[182]   M. Pumera, A. Merkoçi, S. Alegret, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2006, 113,  617.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[183]   B. Pradhan, R. R. Kohlmeyer, K. Setyowati, H. A. Owen, Carbon 2009, 47,  1686.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[184]   R. H. Baughman, C. Cui, A. A. Zakhidov, Z. Iqbal, J. N. Barisci, G. M. Spinks, G. G. Wallace, A. Mazzoldi, D. De Rossi, A. G. Rinzler, O. Jaschinski, S. Roth, M. Kertesz, Science 1999, 284,  1340.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[185]   G. M. Spinks, B. Xi, V.-T. Truong, G. G. Wallace, Synth. Met. 2005, 151,  85.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[186]   D. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, M.-H. Lee, K. J. Kim, S. Heo, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 2007, 133,  117.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[187]   B. S. Harrison, A. Atala, Biomaterials 2007, 28,  344.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[188]   X. Shi, B. Sitharaman, Q. P. Pham, F. Liang, K. Wu, W. E. Billups, L. J. Wilson, A. G. Mikos, Biomaterials 2007, 28,  4078.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[189]   B. Sitharaman, X. Shi, X. F. Walboomers, H. Liao, V. Cuijpers, L. J. Wilson, A. G. Mikos, J. J. Jansen, Bone 2008, 43,  362.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[190]   N. A. Kumar, H. S. Ganapathy, J. S. Kim, Y. S. Jeong, Y. T. Jeong, Eur. Polym. J. 2008, 44,  579.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[191]   Majumder M., Stinchcomb A., Hinds B. J., Life Sci. 2009, in press. doi:10.1016/J.LFS.2009.04.006

[192]   Y.-W. Lee, S. M. Kang, K. R. Yoon, Y. S. Chi, I. S. Choi, S.-P. Hong, B.-C. Yu, H.-J. Paik, W. S. Yun, Macromol. Res. 2005, 13,  356.
         open url image1

[193]   D. Zhou, L. Yang, R. Yang, W. Song, S. Peng, Y. Wang, Electrophoresis 2008, 29,  4637.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[194]   L. Lacerda, A. Bianco, M. Prato, K. Kostarlos, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2006, 58,  1460.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[195]   C.-S. Zhang, Q.-Q. Ni, S.-Y. Fu, K. Kurashiki, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  2973.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1

[196]   N. G. Sahoo, Y. C. Jung, H. J. Yoo, J. W. Cho, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,  1920.
        | CrossRef |   open url image1



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (52)