Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality

Modelling the growth and water uptake function of plant root systems: a review

Enli Wang A B and Chris J. Smith A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A CSIRO Land and Water/Agricultural Production Systems Research Unit, GPO Box 1666 (Clunnies Ross St), Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

B Corresponding author; email:

Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 55(5) 501-523
Submitted: 29 September 2003  Accepted: 4 March 2004   Published: 8 June 2004


Crop models have been intensively used as a tool to analyse the performance of cropping systems under variable climate in terms of productivity, profitability, and off-site impact. The importance of modelling the function of plant roots in water and nutrient uptake from the soil is becoming increasing clear with the expanding application areas of crop models. This paper reviews the approaches and assumptions used in growth and uptake modelling of plant roots, and how the responses of plant root system to internal and external factors are captured in the widely used crop models. Most modelling approaches are based on one of the following assumptions: (i) that plant roots are uniformly distributed in homogenous soil layers and all roots have the same ability for uptake, or (ii) that plant root length is always sufficient for resource uptake in rooted soil layers. In structured soils, an overestimation of water uptake is likely to be expected. Further studies on root growth, distribution, and function in structured soils will require quantification of soil structures and root distribution patterns; and for non-uniformly distributed plant populations, spatial distribution of plant roots and non-uniform uptake need to be modelled. Root architecture modelling may help to address such issues. However, in order for the model to be useful at the field production level, simplified approaches that require easily measurable inputs need to be developed.

Some examples are given. The oversimplification of root response to soil drying and hardness is likely to lead to overestimation of root growth and water uptake in dense soils. A soil strength factor needs to be incorporated so that the improved model can help evaluate the effect of subsoil compaction on production and resource use. Responses of root growth and uptake to soil salinity, boron toxicity, and extreme pH need to be further investigated if models are to be used for evaluation of crop performance in such environments. Effect of waterlogging also needs to be added for use of the model on heavy clay soils under irrigation or concentrated rainfall. There is an urgent need for joint efforts of crop physiologists, agronomists, breeders, and soil scientists to integrate interdisciplinary knowledge and to collect data that better describe the crop root system and its growth and uptake ability, to quantify plant process level responses, and for better soil quantification. Such knowledge and data are essential for improvement of model performance and successful applications.


We gratefully thank Drs Senthold Asseng and Tivi Theiveyanathan for their helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This study was supported by the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC).


Acock B, Pachevsky YA (1996) Convection-diffusive model of two-dimensional root growth and proliferation. Plant and Soil 180, 231–240.

Alm DM, Cavelier J, Nobel PS (1992) A finite element model of radial and axial conductivities for individual roots: development and validation for two desert succulents. Annals of Botany 69, 87–92.

Allamaras RA, Nelson WW, Voorhees WB (1975) Soybean and corn rooting in Southwestern Minnesota. II. Root distributions and related water inflow Soil Science Society of America Proceedings , 771–777.

Angus JF, van Herwaarden AF (2001) Increasing water use efficiency in dryland wheat. Agronomy 93, 290–298.

Asseng S, Keating BA, Fillery IRP, Gregory PJ, Bowden JW, Turner NC, Palta JA, Abrecht DG (1998) Performance of the APSIM-Wheat model in Western Australia. Field Crops Research 57, 163–179.
CrossRef |

Asseng S, Keating BA, Huth NI, Eastham J (1997) Simulation of perched watertables in a duplex soil. ‘MODSIM 97 Proceedings of the International Conference on Modelling and Simulation’. Tasmania.. Vol. 2. (Ed.  A McDonald , M McAleer ) pp. 538–543. (The Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia Inc.: Canberra)

Asseng S, Richter C, Wessolek G (1997) Modelling root growth of wheat as the linkage between crop and soil. Plant and Soil 190, 267–277.
CrossRef |

Asseng S,, Ritchie JT, Smucker AJM, Robertson MJ (1998) Root growth and water uptake during water deficit and recovering in wheat. Plant and Soil 201, 265–273.
CrossRef |

Baker JM, Wraith JM, Dalton FN (1992) Root function in water transport. ‘Limitations to plant root growth’. Vol. 19,(Eds JL Hatfield, BA Steward) pp. 343–364. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin, New York)

Bengough AG (1997) Modelling rooting depth and soil strength in a drying soil profile. Journal of Theoretical Biology 186, 327–338.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Bengough AG, Mullins CE (1990) Mechanical impedance to root growth: a review of experimental techniques and root growth responses. Journal of Soil Science 41, 341–358.

Berntson GM (1994) Modelling root architecture: are there tradeoffs between efficiency and potential of resource acquisition? New Phytologists 127, 483–493.

Bidel LPR, Mannino MR, Rivère LM, Pagès L (1999) Tracing root development using the soft X-ray radiographic method, as applied to young cuttings of western red cedar (Thuja plicata). Canadian Journal of Botany 77, 348–360.
CrossRef |

Bloom AJ, Jackson LE, Smart DR (1993) Root growth as a function of ammonium and nitrate in the root. Plant, Cell and Environment 16, 199–206.

Brewer, R (1964). ‘Fabric and mineral analysis of soils.’ (John Wiley and Sons: New York)

Brouwer R (1983) Functional equilibrium: sense or nonsense? The Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 31, 335–348.

Calmon MA, Batchelor WD, Jones JW, Ritchie JT, Boote KJ, Hammond LC (1999) Simulating soybean root growth and soil water extraction using a functional crop model. Transactions of the ASAE 42, 1867–1877.

Campbell, GS (1985). ‘Soil physics with BASIC.’ (Elsevier: New York)

Cannon WA (1949) A tentative classification of root systems. Ecology 30, 452–458.

Chan KY, Mead JA, Roberts WP, Wong PTW (1989) The effect of soil compaction and fumigation on poor early growth of wheat under direct drilling. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40, 221–228.

Chapman SC, Hammer GL, Meinke H (1993) A sunflower simulation model: I. Model development. Agronomy Journal 85, 725–735.

Chen DX, Lieth JH (1993) A two-dimensional, dynamic model for root growth in potted plants. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 118, 181–187.

Clausnitzer V, Hopmans JW (1994) Simultaneous modelling of transient three-dimensional root growth and soil water flow. Plant and Soil 164, 299–314.

Cornish PS (1993) Soil macrostructure and root growth of establishing seedlings. Plant and Soil 151, 119–126.

Cowan IR (1965) Transport of water in the soil Journal of Applied Ecology 2, 221–239.

Crawford JW (1984) The relationship between structure and the hydraulic conductivity of soil. European Journal of Soil Science 45, 493–502.

Dardanelli JL, Bachmeier OA, Sereno R, Gil R (1997) Rooting depth and soil water extraction patterns of different crops in a silty loam Haplustoll. Field Crops Research 54, 29–38.
CrossRef |

Dexter AR (1987) Mechanics of root growth. Plant and Soil 98, 303–312.

Diggle AJ (1988) ROOTMAP—a model in three dimensional coordinates of the growth and structure of fibrous root systems. Plant and Soil 105, 169–178.

Dirksen C, Kool JB, Koorevaar P, van Genuchten M Th (1993) HYSWASOR: simulation model of hysteretic water and solute transport in the root zone. ‘Water flow and solute transport in soils’. (Eds D Russo, G Dagan) pp. 99–122. (Springer: Berlin)

Domisch T, Finer L, Lehto T (2001) Effects of soil temperature on biomass and carbohydrate allocation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings at the beginning of the growing season. Tree Physiology 21, 465–472.
PubMed |

Doussan C, Pagès L, Vercambre G (1998) Modelling of the hydraulic architecture of root systems: an integrated approach to water absorption—model description. Annals of Botany 81, 213–223.
CrossRef |

Doussan C, Pagès L, Vercambre G (1998) Modelling of the hydraulic architecture of root systems: an integrated approach to water absorption—distribution of axial and radial conductances in maize. Annals of Botany 81, 225–232.
CrossRef |

Droogers P, van der Meer FBW, Bouma J (1997) Water accessibility to plant roots in different soil structures occurring in the same soil type. Plant and Soil 188, 83–91.
CrossRef |

Dunbabin VM, Diggle AJ, Rengel Z (2002a) Simulation of field data by a basic three-dimensional model of interactive root growth. Plant and Soil 239, 39–54.
CrossRef |

Dunbabin VM, Diggle AJ, Rengel Z, van Hugten R (2002) Modelling the interaction between water and nutrient uptake and root growth. Plant and Soil 239, 19–38.
CrossRef |

Dunin F, Passioura JB (2001) Preface: enduring prosperity for farmland? Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52, U3–U4.
CrossRef |

Engels C (1994) Effect of root and shoot meristem temperature on shoot to root dry matter partitioning and the internal concentrations of nitrogen and carbohydrates in maize and wheat. Annals of Botany 73, 211–219.
CrossRef |

Feddes, RA , Kowalik, P ,  and  Zarandy, H (1978). ‘Simulation of field water use and crop yield.’ (Pudoc: Wageningen, The Netherlands)

Fitter AH (1986) The topology and geometry of plant root systems: Influence of watering rate on root system topology in Trifolium pratens.  Annals of Botany 58, 91–101.

Fitter AH, Stickland TR, Harvey ML, Wilson GW (1991) Architectural analysis of plant root systems. 1. Architectural correlates of exploitation efficiency. New Phytologists 118, 375–382.

Gardner WR (1960) Dynamic aspects of water availability to plants. Soil Science 89, 63–73.

van Genuchten MTh (1987) A numerical model for water and solute movement in and below the root zone. Research Report. US Salinity Lab., Riverside, CA.

Gerwitz A, Page ER (1974) An empirical mathematical model to describe plant root systems. Journal of Applied Ecology 11, 773–782.

Goss MJ (1977) Effects of mechanical impedenace on root growth in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Effects on elongation and branching of seminal roots. Journal of Experimental Botany 28, 96–111.

Green S, Clothier B (1998) The root zone dynamics of water uptake by a mature apple tree. Plant and Soil 206, 61–77.
CrossRef |

Gregory PJ, McGowan M, Biscoe PV, Hunter B (1978) Water relations of winter wheat. 1. Growth of the root system. The Journal of Agricultural Science 96, 539–547.

Groot JJ (1987) Simulation of nitrogen balance in a system of winter wheat and soil. Simulation Report No. CABO-TT, 13. Centre for Agrobiological Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Guo Y, Li B (2001) New advances in virtual plant research. Chinese Science Bulletin 46, 888–894.

Hackett C, Rose DA (1972) A model of the extension and branching of a seminal root of barley, and its use in studying relations between root dimensions. I. The model. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 25, 669–679.

Hamblin A, Tennant D (1987) Root length density and water uptake in cereals and grain legumes: how well are they correlated? Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 38, 513–527.

Hammer GL, Chapman SC, Muchow RC (1996) Modelling sorghum in Australia: the state of the science and its role in the pursuit of improved practices. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd Australian Sorghum Conference’. Tamworth.. Occasional Publication No. 93.. (Ed.  MA Foale , RG Henzell , JF Kneipp ) pp. 43–61. (Australian Institute of Agricultural Science: Melbourne, Vic.)

Hatano R, Iwanaga K, Okajima H, Sakuma T (1988) Relationship between the distribution of soil macropores and root elongation. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 34, 535–546.

Hatano R, Sakuma T (1990) The role of macropores on rooting pattern and movement of water and solutes in various field soils Transaction of the 14th Congress of International Society of Soil Science (Kyoto) I, 130–135.

Hayhoe H (1980) analysis of a diffusion model for plant root growth and an application to plant Soil Science 131, 334–343.

Herkelrath WN, Miller EE, Gardner WR (1977) Water uptake by plants: II. The root contact model. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41, 1039–1043.

Homaee M, Dirksen C, Feddes RA (2002a) Simulation of root water uptake. I. Non-uniform transient salinity using different macroscopic reduction functions. Agricultural Water Management 57, 89–109.
CrossRef |

Homaee M, Feddes RA, Dirksen C (2002b) Simulation of root water uptake. II. Non-uniform transient water stress using different reduction functions. Agricultural Water Management 57, 111–126.
CrossRef |

Homaee M, Schmidhalter U (2002) Root water uptake under heterogeneously distributed soil salinity. ‘Rhizosphere preferential flow and biol.-availability: a holistic view of soil to plant transfer’. (Ed. S Kramer) pp. 44–49. (Ascona: Switzerland)

Hopmans JW, Bristow KL (2002) Current capabilities and future needs of root water and nutrient uptake modelling. Advances in Agronomy 77, 103–183.
CrossRef |

Jackson MB, Drew MC (1984) Effects of flooding on growth and metabolism of herbaceous plants. ‘Flooding and plant growth’. (Ed. TT Kozlowski) pp. 47–128. (Academic Press: London)

Jakobsen BF, Dexter AR (1987) Effect of soil structure on wheat root growth, water uptake and grain yield. A computer simulation model. Soil and Tillage Research 10, 331–345.
CrossRef |

Jamieson PD, Ewert F (1999) The role of roots in controlling soil water extraction during drought: an analysis by simulation. Field Crops Research 60, 267–280.
CrossRef |

Jamieson PD, Semenov MA, Brooking IR, Francis GS (1998) Sirius: a mechanistic model of wheat response to environmental variation. European Journal of Agronomy 8, 161–179.
CrossRef |

Johnson IR, Thornley JHM (1987) A model for root:shoot partitiong and optimal growth. Annals of Botany 60, 133–142.

Jones CA, Bland WL, Ritchie JT, Williams JR (1991) Simulation of root growth. ‘Modelling plant and soil systems’. (Eds J Hanks, JT Ritchie) pp. 91–123. (ASA/CSSA/SSSA Publishers: Madison, WI)

Jones, CA ,  and  Kiniry, JR (1986). ‘CERES-Maize: a simulation model of maize growth and development.’ (Texas A&M University Press: College Station, TX)

Keating BA, Carberry PS, Hammer GL, Probert ME, Robertson MJ , et al . (2003) An overview of APSIM, a model designed for farming analysis simulation. European Journal of Agronomy 18, 267–288.
CrossRef |

Keating BA, Meinke H, Probert ME, Huth NI, Hills IG (2001) NWheat: documentation and performance of a wheat module for APSIM. CSIRO Tropical Agriculture Technical Memorandum No. 9, Australia.

van Keulen H, Seligman HG (1987) ‘Simulation of water use, nitrogen nutrition and growth of a spring wheat crop. ’ Simulation Monographs. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Kirkegaard JA, Munns R, James RA, Gardner PA, Angus JF (1995) Reduced growth and yield of wheat with conservation cropping. II. Soil biological factors limit growth under direct drilling. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46, 75–88.
CrossRef |

Klepper B, Belford RK, Rickman RW (1984) Root and shoot development in winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 76, 117–122.

van Laar HH, Goudriaan J, van Keulen H (1992) Simulation of crop growth for potential and water limited production situations (as applied to spring wheat). Simulation Reports CABO-TT, 27, CABO-DLO/TPE-WAU. , Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Landsberg JJ, Fowkes ND (1978) Water movement through plant roots. Annals of Botany 42, 493–508.

Lungley DR (1973) The growth of root systems—a numerical computer simulation model. Plant and Soil 38, 145–159.

Lupton FGH, Oliver RH, Ellis FB, Barnes BT, Howse KR, Welbank PJ, Taylor PJ (1974) Root and shoot growth of semi-dwarf and taller winter wheats. Annals of Applied Biology 77, 129–144.

Lynch JP, Nielsen KL, Davis RD, Jablokow AG (1997) SimRoot: modelling and visualization of root system. Plant and Soil 188, 139–151.
CrossRef |

Lyr L (1996) Effect of the root temperature on growth parameters of various European tree species. Annales Des Sciences Forestieres 53, 317–323.

Macduff JH, Wild A, Hopper MJ, Dhanoa MS (1986) Effects of temperature on parameters of root growth relevant to nutrient uptake: measurements on oilseed rape and barley grown in flowing nutrient solution. Plant and Soil 94, 321–332.

Masle J (2002) High soil strength: mechanical forces at play on root morphogenesis and in root:shoot signalling. ‘Plant roots the hidden half’. 3rd edn(Eds Y Waisel, A Eshel, U Kafkafi) pp. 807–819. (Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York)

Materechera SA, Dexter AR, Alston AM (1991) Penetration of very strong soils by seedling roots of different plant species. Plant and Soil 135, 31–41.

McConnaughay KDM, Coleman JS (1999) Biomass allocation in plants: ontogeny or optimality? A test along three resource gradients. Ecology 80, 2581–2593.

McDonald, RC , Isbell, RF , Speight, JG , Walker, J ,  and  Hopkins, MS (1990). ‘Australian soil and land survey.’ 2nd edn . (Inkata Press: Melbourne; Sydney)

McLean G, Whish J, Routley R, Broad I, Hammer G (2003) The effect of row configuration on yield reliability in grain sorghum: II. Modelling the effects of row configuration. ‘Solutions for a better environment. Proceedings of the 11th Australian Agronomy Conference’. Geelong, Vic. (Australian Society of Agronomy)

McMichael BL, Upchurch DR, Burke JJ (1996) Soil temperature derived prediction of root density in cotton. Environmental and Experimental Botany 36, 303–312.
CrossRef |

Meinke H, Hammer GL, Want P (1993) Potential soil water extraction by sunflower on a range of soils. Field Crops Research 32, 59–81.
CrossRef |

van Meirvenne M (2003) Is the soil variability within the small fields of Flanders structured enough to allow precision agriculture? Precision Agriculture 4, 193–201.
CrossRef |

Meyer WS, Barrs HD, Jayawardane NS (1985) Waterlogging as a limitation to wheat yield in an irrigated clay soil. ‘Wheat growth and modelling’. (Eds W Day, PK Atkin, U Kafkafi) pp. 199–204. (Plenum Press: New York)

Meyer WS, Tan CS, Barrs HD, Smith RCG (1990) Root growth and water uptake by wheat during drying of undisturbed and repacked soil in drainage lysimeters. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 41, 253–265.

Molz FJ (1981) Models of water transport in the soil Water Resources Research 17, 245–260.

Monteith JL (1986) How do crops manipulate supply and demand? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Londo, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences 316, 245–259.

Moran CJ, Kirby JM, Stewart JB (1996) Simulation of root extraction of moisture from unsaturated structured soil. ‘Soil science—raising the profile. Australian and New Zealand Soils Conference’. Vol. 2. (Australian Society of Soil Science and New Zealand Society of Soil Science: Melbourne)

van Noordwijk M (1983) Functional interaction of root densities in the field for nutrient and water uptake. ‘Root ecology and its practical application’. (Eds W Böhm, L Kutschera, E Lichtenegger) pp. 207–226. (Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft: Irdning, Austria)

van Noordwijk M (1992) Root position effectivity ratio, Rper, a simple measure of the effects of non-homogeneous root distribution on uptake of homogeneous resources. ‘Root ecology and its practical application’. (Eds L Kutschera, E Hubl, E Lichtenegger, H person, M Sobotik) pp. 790–792. (Verein für wurzelforschung: Klagenfurt, Austria)

van Noordwijk M, Brouwer G, Karmanny K (1993) Concepts and methods for studying interactions of roots and soil structure. Geoderma 56, 351–375.
CrossRef |

van Noordwijk M, van de Geijn SC (1996) Root, shoot and soil parameters required for process-oriented models of crop growth limited by water or nutrients. Plant and Soil 183, 1–25.

O’Brian L (1979) Genetic variability of root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 30, 587–595.
CrossRef |

O’Leary GJ, Connor DJ, White DH (1985) A simulation model of the development, growth and yield of the wheat crop. Agricultural Systems 17, 1–26.
CrossRef |

Otter-Nacke S, Godwin DC, Ritchie JT (1987) Testing and validating the CERES-Wheat model in diverse environments. AgRISTARS Publication No. YM-15–00407. NTIS. Springfield, VA.

Oyanagi A, Nakamoto T, Wada M (1993) Relationships between root growth angle of seedlings and vertical distribution of roots in the field in wheat cultivars. Nihon Sakumotsu Gakkai Kiji 62, 565–570.

Pabin J, Lipiec J, Wlodek S, Biskupski A, Kaus A (1998) Critical soil bulk density and strength for pea seedling root growth as related to other soil factors. Soil and Tillage Research 46, 203–208.
CrossRef |

Pagès L (1999) Root system architecture: from its representation to the study of its elaboration. Agronomie 19, 295–304.

Passioura JB (1983) Roots and drought resistance. Agricultural Water Management 7, 265–280.
CrossRef |

Pagès L (2002) Modelling root system architecture. ‘Plant roots the hidden half’. 3rd edn(Eds Y Waisel, A Eshel, U Kafkafi, H person, M Sobotik) pp. 359–382. (Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York)

Pagès L, Asseng S, Pellerin S, Diggle A (2000) Modelling root system growth and architecture. ‘Root method: a hand book’. (Eds AL Smit, AG Bengough, C Engels, M vanNoordwijk, S Pellerin, SC vande Geijn) pp. 113–146. (Springer: Berlin)

Pagès L, Jordan MO, Picard D (1989) A simulation model of the three-dimensional architecture of the maize root system. Plant and Soil 119, 147–154.

Pardo A, Amato M, Quaglietta F, Chiaranda Q (2000) Relationships between soil structure, root distribution and water uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Plant growth and water distribution. European Journal of Agronomy 13, 39–45.
CrossRef |

Passioura JB (1980) The transport of water from soil to shoot in wheat seedlings. Journal of Experimental Botany 31, 335–345.

Passioura JB (1984) Root and water economy of wheat. ‘Wheat growth and modelling’. (Eds W Day, PK Atkin, C Engels, M vanNoordwijk, S Pellerin, SC vande Geijn) pp. 185–198. (Plenum Press: New York)

Passioura JB (1988) Water transport in and to root. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 39, 245–265.
CrossRef |

Passioura JB (1991) Soil structure and plant growth. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29, 717–728.

Passioura JB (2002a) Environmental biology and crop improvement. Functional Plant Biology 29, 537–546.

Passioura JB (2002b) Soil conditions and plant growth. Plant, Cell and Environment 25, 311–318.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Penning de Vries FWT, Jansen DM, ten Berge HFM, Bakema A (1989) Simulation of ecophysiological processes of growth in several annual crops. Simulation Monographs. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Philip JR (1957) The physical principles of soil water movement during the irrigation cycle. Proclamations of the International Congress of Irrigation Drainage 8, 125–154.

Pierret A, Moran CJ, Pankhurst CE (1999) Differentiation of soil properties related to the spatial association of wheat roots and soil macropores. Plant and Soil 211, 51–58.
CrossRef |

Porter JR (1993) AFRCWHEAT2: a model of the growth and development of wheat incorporating responses to water and nitrogen. European Journal of Agronomy 2, 69–82.

Porter JR, Klepper B, Belford RK (1986) A model (WHTROOT) which synchronizes root growth and development with shoot development for winter wheat. Plant and Soil 92, 133–145.

Pronk AA,, de Willigen P,, Heuvelink E,, Challa H (2002) Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis? Brabant in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots. Plant and Soil 243, 161–171.
CrossRef |

Rebetzke GJ, Richards RA (1999) Genetic improvement of early vigour in wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 291–301.

Rickman RW, Waldman SE, Klepper BL (1992) Calculating daily root length density profiles by applying elastic theory to agricultural soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 15, 661–675.

Ringrose-Voase AJ (1987) A scheme for the quantitative description of soil macrostructure by image analysis. Journal of Soil Science 38, 343–356.

Ringrose-Voase AJ (1996) Measurement of soil macropore geometry by image analysis of sections through impregnated soil. Plant and Soil 183, 27–47.

Ritchie JT (1985) A user-oriented model of the soil water balance in wheat. ‘Wheat growth and modelling’. (Eds W Day, PK Atkin, C Engels, M vanNoordwijk, S Pellerin, SC vande Geijn) pp. 293–305. (Plenum Press: New York)

Ritchie JT, Godwin DC, Otter S (1985) CERES-Wheat: a user oriented wheat yield model. Preliminary documentation. AGRISTAR Publication No. YM-U3–04442-JSC-18892. Michigan State University, MI.

Robertson MJ, Carberry PS, Huth NI, Turpin JE, Probert ME, Poulton PL, Bell M, Wright GC, Yeates SJ, Brinsmead RB (2002) Simulation of growth and development of diverse legume species in APSIM. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53, 429–446.
CrossRef |

Robertson MJ, Fukai S (1994) Comparison of water extraction models for grain sorghum under continuous soil drying. Field Crops Research 36, 145–160.
CrossRef |

Robertson MJ, Fukai S, Hammer GL, Ludlow MM (1993a) Modelling root growth of grain sorghum using the CERES approach. Field Crops Research 33, 113–130.
CrossRef |

Robertson MJ, Fukai S, Ludlow MM, Hammer GL (1993b) Water extraction by grain sorghum in a sub-humid environment. I. Analysis of the water extraction pattern. Field Crops Research 33, 81–97.
CrossRef |

Robertson MJ, Fukai S, Ludlow MM, Hammer GL (1993) Water extraction by grain sorghum in a sub-humid environment. II. Extraction in relation to root growth. Field Crops Research 33, 99–112.
CrossRef |

Rodriguez D, Nuttall J, Armstrong R (2003) Constraints to the growth and production of cereals on soils having hostile subsoils: experimental and simulation results. ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian Agronomy Conference’. Geelong, Vic. (Australian Society of Agronomy)

Rose DA (1983) The description of the growth of root systems. Plant and Soil 75, 405–415.

Rosolem CA, Foloni JSS, Tiritan CS (2002) Root growth and nutrient accumulation in cover crops as affected by soil compaction. Soil and Tillage Research 65, 109–115.
CrossRef |

Routley R, Broad I, McLean G, Whish J, Hammer G (2003) The effect of row configuration on yield reliability in grain sorghum: I. Water use efficiency and soil water extraction. ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian Agronomy Conference’. Geelong, Vic. (Australian Society of Agronomy)

Savin R, Hall AJ, Satorre EH (1994) Testing the root growth subroutine of the CERES-Wheat model for two cultivars of different cycle length. Field Crops Research 38, 125–133.
CrossRef |

Schuurman JJ (1983) Effect of soil conditions on morphology and physiology of roots and shoots of annual plants. A generalised vision. ‘Root ecology and its practical application’. (Eds W Böhm, L Kutschera, E Lichtenegger, M vanNoordwijk, S Pellerin, SC vande Geijn) pp. 343–354. (Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft: Irdning, Austria)

Seiler GJ (1998) Influence of temperature on primary and lateral root growth of sunflower seedling. Environmental and Experimental Botany 40, 135–146.
CrossRef |

Somma F, Clausnitzer V, Hopmans JW (1997) An algorithm for three-dimensional, simultaneous modelling of root growth, transient soil water flow, and solute transport and uptake, version 2.1. Paper No. 100034. Dept of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California.

Somma F, Hopmans JW, Clausnitzer V (1998) Transient three-dimensional modelling of soil water and solute transport with simultaneous root growth, root water and nutrient uptake. Plant and Soil 202, 281–293.
CrossRef |

Stapper, M (1984). ‘SIMTAG: A simulation model of wheat genotypes.’ (University of New England: Armidale, NSW)

Stewart JB (1997) The spatial distribution of plant roots and their interaction with soil structure. PhD Thesis, Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Sydney, NSW.

Stirzaker, RJ , Lefroy, T , Keating, B ,  and  Williams, J (2000). ‘A revolution in land use: emerging land use system for managing dryland salinity.’ (CSIRO Land and Water: Australia)

Stirzaker RJ, Passioura JB, Wilms Y (1996) Soil structure and plant growth: impact of bulk density and biopores. Plant and Soil 185, 151–162.

Tang C, Asseng S, Diatloff E, Rengel Z (2003) Modelling yield losses of aluminium-resistant and aluminium-sensitive wheat due to subsurface soil acidity: effects of rainfall, liming and nitrogen application. Plant and Soil 254, 349–360.
CrossRef |

Tardieu F, Bruckler L, Lafolie F (1992) Root clumping may affect the root water potential and the resistance to soil-root water transport. Plant and Soil 140, 291–301.

Tatsumi J, Yamauchi A, Kono Y (1989) Fractal analysis of plant root systems. Annals of Botany 64, 499–503.

Taylor HM (1974) Root behaviour as affected by soil structure and strength. ‘The plant root and its environment’. (Ed. EW Carson) pp. 271–291. (University Press of Virginia: Charlottesville, VA)

Taylor HM, Ratliff LF (1969) Root elongation rates of cotton and peanuts as a function of soil strength and soil water content. Agronomy Journal 108, 113–119.

Taylor HM, Roberson GM, Parker JJ (1966) Soil strength Soil Science 102, 18–22.

Thornley JM (1969) A model to describe the partitioning of photosynthate during vegetative plant growth. Annals of Botany 33, 419–430.

Thornley JM (1972) A balanced quantitative model for root:shoot ratios in vegetative plants. Annals of Botany 36, 431–441.

Varney GT,, Canny MJ (1993) Rates of water uptake into the mature root systems of maize plants. New Phytologist 123, 775–786.

Verburg K, Bond WJ (2003) Use of APSIM to simulate water balances of dryland farming systems in south eastern Australia. Technical Report 50/03, November 2003, CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, Australia.

Verburg K,, Ross PJ,, Bristow KL (1996) SWINv2.1 user manual. CSIRO Divisional Report No. 130. CSIRO Division of Soils, Australia.

Vrugt JA,, van Wijk MT,, Hopmans JW,, Simunek J (2001) One-, two-, and three-dimensional root water uptake functions for transit modeling. Water Resources Research 37, 2457–2470.
CrossRef |

Wang E,, Engel Th (2002) Simulation of growth, water and nitrogen uptake of a wheat crop using the SPASS model. Environmental Modelling and Software 17, 387–402.
CrossRef |

Wang E,, Meinke H,, Ryley M (2000) Event frequency and severity of sorghum ergot in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 51, 457–466.
CrossRef |

Wang E,, van Oosterom E,, Meinke H, Asseng S,, Robertson M,, Huth N,, Keating B,, Probert M (2003) The New APSIM-Wheat Model—performance and future improvements. ‘Proceedings of the 11th Australian Agronomy Conference’. Geelong, Vic. (Australian Society of Agronomy)

Wang E, Robertson MJ, Hammer GL, Carberry PS, Holzworth D, Meinke H, Chapman SC, Hargreaves JNG, Huth NI, McLean G (2002) Development of a generic crop model template in the cropping system model APSIM. European Journal of Agronomy 18, 121–140.
CrossRef |

Wang E, Ryley M, Meinke H (2000) Prediction of sorghum downy mildew risk in Australia using daily weather data. Australasian Plant Pathology 29, 108–119.
CrossRef |

Weaver, JE (1926). ‘Root development of field crops.’ 1st edn . (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.: New York)

Weir AH, Bragg PL, Porter JR, Rayner JH (1984) A winter wheat crop simulation model without water or nutrient limitations. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Cambridge 102, 371–382.

Whalley WR, Bengough AG, Dexter AR (1998) Water stress induced by PEG decreases the maximum growth pressure of the roots of pea seedlings. Journal of Experimental Botany 49, 1689–1694.
CrossRef |

Williams J, Preddle RE, Williams WT, Hignett CT (1983) The influence of texture, structure and clay mineralogy on the soil moisture characteristics. Australian Journal of Soil Research 21, 15–32.

de Willigen P, Heinen M, Mollier A, Van Noordwijk M (2002) Two-dimensional growth of a root system modelled as a diffusion process. I. Analytical solutions. Plant and Soil 240, 225–234.
CrossRef |

de Willigen P,  van Noordwijk M (1987) Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency. PhD thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.

Yapa LGG, Fritton DD, Willat ST (1988) Effect of soil strength on root growth under different water conditions. Plant and Soil 109, 9–16.

Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (58)