Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality

QTL analysis of malting quality traits in two barley populations

J. F. Panozzo A E , P. J. Eckermann B C , D. E. Mather B C , D. B. Moody A , C. K. Black A , H. M. Collins B , A. R. Barr B , P. Lim B D and B. R. Cullis D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Primary Industries – Victoria, PB 260, Horsham, Vic. 3400, Australia.

B University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

C Molecular Plant Breeding Cooperative Research Centre, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.

D NSW Agriculture, Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

E Corresponding author. Email:

Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58(9) 858-866
Submitted: 19 June 2006  Accepted: 16 May 2007   Published: 28 September 2007


Selection for malting quality traits is a major breeding objective for barley breeding programs. With molecular markers linked to loci affecting these traits, this selection can be undertaken at an earlier stage of the breeding program than is possible using conventional tests. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with malting quality traits were mapped in 2 populations derived from parents with elite malting quality. Progeny from an Arapiles/Franklin population grown in 4 environments and an Alexis/Sloop population grown in 5 environments were tested for grain protein percentage, α-amylase activity, diastatic power, hot water extract, wort viscosity, wort β-glucan, β-glucanase, and free α-amino acids. QTL analysis was performed using a one-stage approach, which allowed for modelling of spatial variation in the field, and in each phase of the malting quality analysis in the laboratory. QTLs for malting quality traits were detected on all chromosomes and for both populations. Few of these QTLs were significant in all of the environments, indicating that QTL × environment interactions were important. There were many coincident QTLs for traits that are expected to be related such as diastatic power and α-amylase activity, wort β-glucan and wort viscosity and for some traits that are not expected to be related such as hot water extract and malt viscosity.

Additional keywords: malting quality, quantitative trait loci, QTL molecular markers.


The authors thank Kylie Camilleri, Belinda Evans, Sacha Gasperini, and the Department of Primary Industries Barley Quality Laboratory. The financial support of the Grains Research and Development Corporation is gratefully acknowledged. Colleagues of the Australian Winter Cereals Molecular Marker Program and Greg Lott, University of Adelaide, are also thanked. Helena Oakey is thanked for help with the preparation of figures.


Backes G, Hatz B, Jahoor A, Fischbeck G (2003) RFLP diversity within and between major groups of barley in Europe. Plant Breeding 122, 291–299.
CrossRef |

Barr AR (1998) Sloop syn. WI2875–22. Plant Varieties Journal 11, 15–16.

Barr AR, Jefferies SP, Broughton S, Chalmers KJ, Kretschmer JM , et al. (2003) Mapping and QTL analysis of the barley population Alexis/Sloop. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 1117–1123.
CrossRef |

Bathgate GN (1987) Quality requirements for malting. Aspects of Applied Biology 15, 18–31.

Black CK , Panozzo JF (2002) Predicting malting quality in whole grain malt compared with whole grain barley by near infrared spectroscopy. In ‘Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference’. (Eds AMC Davies, RK Cho) pp. 339–343. (NIR Publications: UK)

Butler D , Cullis BR , Gilmour AR , Gogel BJ (2000) ‘SAMM reference manual.’ (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Toowoomba, Qld)

Chalmers KJ , Jefferies SP , Langridge P (2001) Comparison of RFLP and AFLP marker systems for assessing genetic diversity in Australian barley varieties and breeding lines. In ‘Plant genotyping: the DNA fingerprinting of plants. Ch. 11’. (Ed. RJ Henry) pp. 161–178. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Collins HM, Panozzo JF, Logue SJ, Jefferies SP, Barr AR (2003) Mapping and validation of chromosome regions associated with high malt extract in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 1223–1240.
CrossRef |

Coombes NE (1999) SpaDes, a spatial design generator. NSW Agriculture Biometric Bulletin, Orange, NSW.

Coventry SJ, Collins HM, Barr AR, Jefferies SP, Chalmers KJ, Logue SJ, Langridge P (2003) Use of putative QTLs and structural genes in marker assisted selection for diastatic power in malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 1241–1250.
CrossRef |

Cullis BR, Smith AB, Panozzo JF, Lim P (2003) Barley malting quality: are we selecting the best? Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 1261–1275.
CrossRef |

Eckermann PJ, Verbyla AP, Cullis BR, Thompson R (2001) The analysis of quantitative traits in wheat mapping populations. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 1195–1206.
CrossRef |

Eglinton JK, Langridge P, Evans DE (1998) Thermostability variation in alleles of barley beta-amylase. Journal of Cereal Science 28, 301–309.
CrossRef |

Emebiri LC, Moody DB, Panozzo JF, Chalmers KJ, Krestschmer JM, Albett GA (2003) Identification of QTLs associated with variations in grain protein concentration in two-row barley. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 1211–1221.
CrossRef |

Fox G , Logue S , Harasymow S , Taylor H , Ratcliffe M , et al (1999) Standardisation of diastatic power method for barley breeding programs. In ‘Proceedings of the 9th Barley Technology Symposium’. Melbourne, Australia. pp. 2.35.1–2.35.5. (

Fox GP, Panozzo JF, Li CD, Lance RCM, Henry RJ (2003) Molecular basis of barley quality. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 1081–1101.
CrossRef |

Friedt W , Werner K , Ordon F (2000) Genetic progress as reflected in highly successful and productive modern barley cultivars. In ‘Proceedings 8th International Barley Genetics Symposium’. Adelaide. (ISBN 0-086396-677v.1)

Gilmour AR, Cullis BR, Verbyla AP (1997) Accounting for natural and extraneous variation in the analysis of field experiments. Journal of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics 2, 269–273.
CrossRef |

Gilmour AR , Gogel BJ , Cullis BR , Welham SJ , Thompson R (2002) ‘ASReml user guide Release 1.0.’ (VSN International Ltd: Hemel Hempstead, UK)

Hayes PM , Castro A , Marquez-Cedillo L , Corey A , Henson C , et al (2003) Genetic diversity for quantitatively inherited agronomic and malting quality traits. In ‘Diversity of barley (Hordeum vulgare)’. (Eds R von-Bothmer, T van Hintum, H Knupfer, K Sato) pp. 201–226. (Elsevier Science: Amsterdam)

Hayes PM, Liu BH, Knapp SJ, Chen F, Jones B , et al. (1993) Quantitative trait locus effects and environmental interaction in a sample of North American barley germplasm. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 87, 392–401.
CrossRef |

Henry RJ (1989) Factors influencing the rate of modification of barleys during malting. Journal of Cereal Science 10, 51–59.

Igartua E , Hayes PM , Thomas WTB , Meyer R , Mather DE (2002) Genetic control of quantitative grain and malting quality traits in barley. In ‘Quality improvements in field crops’. (Eds AS Basara, LS Randhawa) pp. 131–164. (The Haworth Press: Binghamton, NY)

Marquez-Cedillo LA, Hayes PM, Jones BL, Kleinhofs A, Legge WG, Rossnagel BG, Sato K, Ullrich SE, Wesenburg DM (2001) The North American Barley Genome Mapping Project. QTL analysis of malting quality in barley based on the doubled haploid progeny of two elite North American varieties representing different germplasm groups. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 103, 625–637.
CrossRef |

Martinez O, Curnow RN (1994) Missing markers when estimating quantitative trait loci using regression mapping. Heredity 73, 198–206.

Mather DE, Tinker NA, LaBerge DE, Edney M, Jones BL , et al. (1997) Regions of the genome that affect grain and malt quality in a North American two-row barley cross. Crop Science 37, 544–554.

McCleary MV, Glennie-Holmes M (1985) Enzymatic quantification of (1-3)(1-4)-beta-glucan in barley and malt. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 91, 111–119.

McCleary MV, Shameer I (1987) Assay of malt-β-glucanase using azo-barley glucan: an improved precipitant. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 93, 87–90.

McCleary MV, Sheehan H (1987) Measurement of cereal alpha-amylase: a new assay procedure. Journal of Cereal Science 6, 237–251.

Moody DB (1994) Register of Australian winter cereal cultivars. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34, 573.
CrossRef |

Oziel A, Hayes PM, Chen FQ, Jones B (1996) Application of quantitative trait locus mapping to the development of winter-habit malting barley. Plant Breeding 115, 43–51.
CrossRef |

Pillen K, Zachararias A, Leon J (2003) Advanced backcross QTL analysis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 107, 340–352.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Royal Australian Chemical Institute (2000) ‘Approved methods of the RACI Cereal Chemistry Division.’ (RACI: North Melbourne, Vic.)

Smith AB, Cullis BR, Thompson R (2001) Analysing variety-environment using multiplicative mixed models and adjustments for spatial field trends. Biometrics 57, 1138–1147.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Spielmayer W , Ellis MH , Chandler PM (2002) Cloning sd-1, the semidwarfing gene in rice and developing ‘perfect markers’ for breeding. In ‘Proceedings of the 12th Australasian Plant Breeding Conference’. Perth, WA. (Australasian Plant Breeding Association Inc.)

Thomas WTB, Powell W, Swanston JS, Ellis RP, Chalmers KJ , et al. (1996) Quantitative trait loci for germination and malting quality characters in a spring barley cross. Crop Science 36, 1053–1062.

Verbyla AP, Eckermann PJ, Thompson R, Cullis BR (2003) The analysis of quantitative trait loci in multi-environment trials using a multiplicative mixed model. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 1395–1408.
CrossRef |

Whittaker JC, Thompson R, Visscher PM (1996) On the mapping of QTL by regression of phenotype on marker-type. Heredity 77, 23–32.
CrossRef |

Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (2 MB) Export Citation Cited By (35)