Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Progress in developing perennial wheats for grain and grazing

Philip J. Larkin A B F , Matthew T. Newell B C E , Richard C. Hayes B D , Jesmin Aktar E , Mark R. Norton B D , Sergio J. Moroni E and Len J. Wade B E

A CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

B Future Farm Industries Cooperative Research Centre, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

C NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cowra Agricultural Research and Advisory Station, PO Box 129, Cowra, NSW 2794, Australia.

D NSW Department of Primary Industries, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Private Mail Bag, Pine Gully Road, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

E Charles Sturt University, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

F Corresponding author. Email: philip.larkin@csiro.au

Crop and Pasture Science 65(11) 1147-1164 https://doi.org/10.1071/CP13330
Submitted: 26 September 2013  Accepted: 5 December 2013   Published: 26 February 2014

Abstract

Dual-purpose cereals have been important for increasing the flexibility and profitability of mixed farming enterprises in southern Australia, providing winter feed when pasture dry matter production is low, and then recovering to produce grain. A perennial dual-purpose cereal could confer additional economic and environmental benefits. We establish that, at the end of a second growth season, selected perennial cereals were able to achieve up to 10-fold greater below-ground biomass than a resown annual wheat. We review and expand the data on available, diverse, perennial, wheat-derived germplasm, confirming that perenniality is achievable but that further improvements are essential through targeted breeding. Although not yet commercially deployable, the grain yields and dry matter production of the best performing lines approach the benchmarks predicted to achieve profitability. On reviewing the genomic composition of the most promising wheat-derived perennials, we conclude that the best near-term prospect of a productive breeding program for a perennial, wheat-derived cereal will utilise a diploid, perennial donor species, and the most promising one thus far is Thinopyrum elongatum. Furthermore, the breeding should be aimed at complete wheat–Th. elongatum amphiploids, a hybrid synthetic crop analogous to triticale. We advocate the generation of many primary amphiploids involving a diversity of Th. elongatum accessions and a diversity of adapted annual wheat cultivars. Primary perennial amphiploids would be inter-crossed and advanced with heavy, early-generation selection for traits such as semi-dwarf plant height, non-shattering heads, large seed size and good self-fertility, followed by later generation selection for robust perenniality, days to flowering, grain yield, forage yield, stability of grain yield across seasons, and disease resistance.


References

Acharya SN, Mir Z, Moyer JR (2004) ACE-1 perennial cereal rye. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 84, 819–821.
ACE-1 perennial cereal rye.CrossRef | open url image1

Ahmad F, Comeau A (1991) A new intergeneric hybrid between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron fragile (Roth) Candargy: Variation in A. fragile for suppression of the wheat Ph-locus activity. Plant Breeding – Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenzuchtung 106, 275–283.
A new intergeneric hybrid between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron fragile (Roth) Candargy: Variation in A. fragile for suppression of the wheat Ph-locus activity.CrossRef | open url image1

Almouslem AB, Amleh N (1999) An intergeneric hybrid between durum wheat and diploid wheatgrass Lophopyrum elongatum (Host) A. Love. Kuwait Journal of Science & Engineering 26, 143–155.

Anon. (2002) Vera Fedorovna Lyubimova (1906–2002). Russian Journal of Genetics 38, 1217–1218.
Vera Fedorovna Lyubimova (1906–2002).CrossRef | open url image1

Anon. (2013) PlantNET New South Wales Flora Online Royal Botanical Gardens, Sydney. Available at: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au (accessed 20 January 2011).

Banks PM, Xu SJ, Wang RRC, Larkin PJ (1993) Varying chromosome composition of 56-chromosome wheat × Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploids. Genome 36, 207–215.
Varying chromosome composition of 56-chromosome wheat × Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploids.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1czgslOqtQ%3D%3D&md5=51a3b4621c6f620481a4b58220e8ebd6CAS | 18469982PubMed | open url image1

Barkworth ME, Cutler DR, Rollo JS, Jacobs SWL, Rashid A (2009) Morphological identification of genomic genera in the Triticeae. Breeding Science 59, 561–570.
Morphological identification of genomic genera in the Triticeae.CrossRef | open url image1

Bell LW, Byrne F, Ewing MA, Wade LJ (2008) A preliminary whole-farm economic analysis of perennial wheat in an Australian dryland farming system. Agricultural Systems 96, 166–174.
A preliminary whole-farm economic analysis of perennial wheat in an Australian dryland farming system.CrossRef | open url image1

Bell LW, Wade LJ, Ewing MA (2010) Perennial wheat: a review of environmental and agronomic prospects for development in Australia. Crop & Pasture Science 61, 679–690.
Perennial wheat: a review of environmental and agronomic prospects for development in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Berezhnoi P (1987) Development of the ideas of N. I. Vavilov on distant hybridization in wheat breeding. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo, Moscow 6, 49–52.

Bureau of Meteorology (2013) Bureau of Meteorology Climate data online. Available at: www.bom.gov.au/climate/data/ (accessed 29 November 2013)

Cai X, Jones SS, Murray TD (2001) Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Thinopyrum genomes conferring perennial growth habit in wheat–Thinopyrum amphiploids. Plant Breeding 120, 21–26.
Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Thinopyrum genomes conferring perennial growth habit in wheat–Thinopyrum amphiploids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXitleqsb8%3D&md5=1c338057061d90fc2c3065c15b65f335CAS | open url image1

Cauderon Y (1966) Cytogenic study of material resulting from a cross between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron intermedium. I. Creation of stable addition lines. Annales De L Amelioration Des Plantes 16, 43–70.

Chan KY, Bowman AM, Smith W, Ashley R (2001) Restoring soil fertility of degraded hardsetting soils in semi-arid areas with different pastures. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 507–514.
Restoring soil fertility of degraded hardsetting soils in semi-arid areas with different pastures.CrossRef | open url image1

Chen Q, Ahmad F, Collin J, Comeau A, Fedak G, St-Pierre C, Chen Q (1998) Genomic constitution of a partial amphiploid OK7211542 used as a source of immunity to barley yellow dwarf virus for bread wheat. Plant Breeding 117, 1–6.
Genomic constitution of a partial amphiploid OK7211542 used as a source of immunity to barley yellow dwarf virus for bread wheat.CrossRef | open url image1

Cole IA, Johnston WH (2006) Seed production of Australian native grass cultivars: an overview of current information and future research needs. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 46, 361–373.
Seed production of Australian native grass cultivars: an overview of current information and future research needs.CrossRef | open url image1

Cox CM, Murray TD, Jones SS (2002a) Perennial wheat germplasm lines resistant to eyespot, cephalosporium stripe, and wheat streak mosaic. Plant Disease 86, 1043–1048.
Perennial wheat germplasm lines resistant to eyespot, cephalosporium stripe, and wheat streak mosaic.CrossRef | open url image1

Cox TS, Bender M, Picone C, Van Tassel DL, Holland JB, Brummer EC, Zoeller BE, Paterson AH, Jackson W (2002b) Breeding perennial grain crops. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 21, 59–91.
Breeding perennial grain crops.CrossRef | open url image1

Cox CM, Garrett KA, Bockus WW (2005a) Meeting the challenge of disease management in perennial grain cropping systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 20, 15–24.
Meeting the challenge of disease management in perennial grain cropping systems.CrossRef | open url image1

Cox CM, Garrett KA, Cox TS, Bockus WW, Peters T (2005b) Reactions of perennial grain accessions to four major cereal pathogens of the great plains. Plant Disease 89, 1235–1240.
Reactions of perennial grain accessions to four major cereal pathogens of the great plains.CrossRef | open url image1

Cox TS, Van Tassel DL, Cox CM, Dehaan LR (2010) Progress in breeding perennial grains. Crop & Pasture Science 61, 513–521.
Progress in breeding perennial grains.CrossRef | open url image1

Culvenor RA (2009) Breeding and use of summer-dormant grasses in southern Australia, with special reference to phalaris. Crop Science 49, 2335–2346.
Breeding and use of summer-dormant grasses in southern Australia, with special reference to phalaris.CrossRef | open url image1

Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (1981) ‘Plants of western New South Wales.’ (Soil Conservation Service, NSW Department of Primary Industries: Sydney)

Davies CL, Waugh DL, Lefroy EC (2005) Variation in seed yield and its components in the Australian native grass Microlaena stipoides as a guide to its potential as a perennial grain crop. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56, 309–316.
Variation in seed yield and its components in the Australian native grass Microlaena stipoides as a guide to its potential as a perennial grain crop.CrossRef | open url image1

DeHaan LR, Van Tassel DL, Cox TS (2005) Perennial grain crops: A synthesis of ecology and plant breeding. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 20, 5–14.
Perennial grain crops: A synthesis of ecology and plant breeding.CrossRef | open url image1

Feldman M, Levy AA (2012) Genome evolution due to allopolyploidization in wheat. Genetics 192, 763–774.
Genome evolution due to allopolyploidization in wheat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXjslSiurc%3D&md5=75b574851bacc81988a90e0dfa34d3d3CAS | 23135324PubMed | open url image1

Füle L, Hodos-Kotvics G, Galli Z, Acs E, Heszky L (2005) Grain quality and baking value of perennial rye (cv. ‘Perenne’) of interspecific origin (Secale cereale × S. montanum). Cereal Research Communications 33, 809–816.
Grain quality and baking value of perennial rye (cv. ‘Perenne’) of interspecific origin (Secale cereale × S. montanum).CrossRef | open url image1

Garden DL, Waters CM, Smith AB, Norton MR, Auricht GC, Kobelt E (2005) Performance of native and introduced grasses for low-input pastures. 2. Herbage production. The Rangeland Journal 27, 41–53.
Performance of native and introduced grasses for low-input pastures. 2. Herbage production.CrossRef | open url image1

Glover JD, Reganold JP, Bell LW, Borevitz J, Brummer EC, Buckler ES, Cox CM, Cox TS, Crews TE, Culman SW, DeHaan LR, Eriksson D, Gill BS, Holland J, Hu F, Hulke BS, Ibrahim AMH, Jackson W, Jones SS, Murray SC, Paterson AH, Ploschuk E, Sacks EJ, Snapp S, Tao D, Van Tassel DL, Wade LJ, Wyse DL, Xu Y (2010a) Increased food and ecosystem security via perennial grains. Science 328, 1638–1639.
Increased food and ecosystem security via perennial grains.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXot1Oqsbw%3D&md5=f4dd38f693957a0bf9d1aec9d663aca4CAS | 20576874PubMed | open url image1

Glover JD, Reganold JP, Bell LW, Borevitz J, Brummer EC, Buckler ES, Cox CM, Cox TS, Crews TE, Culman SW, Dehaan LR, Eriksson D, Gill BS, Holland J, Hu F, Hulke BS, Ibrahim AMH, Jackson W, Jones SS, Murray SC, Paterson AH, Ploschuk E, Sacks EJ, Snapp S, Tao D, Van Tassel DL, Wade LJ, Wyse DL, Xu Y (2010b) Perennial questions of hydrology and climate response. Science 330, 33–34.
Perennial questions of hydrology and climate response.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXht1OntbnP&md5=46e197e6fca6a025136ba54a71dc46b7CAS | open url image1

Han FP, Liu B, Fedak G, Liu ZH (2004) Genomic constitution and variation in five partial amphiploids of wheat–Thinopyrum intermedium as revealed by GISH, multicolor GISH and seed storage protein analysis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 109, 1070–1076.
Genomic constitution and variation in five partial amphiploids of wheat–Thinopyrum intermedium as revealed by GISH, multicolor GISH and seed storage protein analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXotlKqt7c%3D&md5=4920f1847008f7a505ad32899d2adcb9CAS | open url image1

Hayes RC, Dear BS, Li GD, Virgona JM, Conyers MK, Hackney BF, Tidd J (2010) Perennial pastures for recharge control in temperate drought-prone environments. Part 1: productivity, persistence and herbage quality of key species. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 53, 283–302.

Hayes RC, Newell MT, DeHaan LR, Murphy KM, Crane S, Norton MR, Wade LJ, Newberry M, Fahim M, Jones SS, Cox TS, Larkin PJ (2012) Perennial cereal crops: an initial evaluation of wheat derivatives. Field Crops Research 133, 68–89.
Perennial cereal crops: an initial evaluation of wheat derivatives.CrossRef | open url image1

Hu L-J, Liu C, Zeng Z-X, Li G-R, Song X-J, Yang Z-J (2012) Genomic rearrangement between wheat and Thinopyrum elongatum revealed by mapped functional molecular markers. Genes & Genomics 34, 67–75.
Genomic rearrangement between wheat and Thinopyrum elongatum revealed by mapped functional molecular markers.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xjt1Ckurk%3D&md5=2316306014cf4bfc1d19abc4952b5ff0CAS | open url image1

Jaikumar NS, Snapp SS, Murphy K, Jones SS (2012) Agronomic assessment of perennial wheat and perennial rye as cereal crops. Agronomy Journal 104, 1716–1726.
Agronomic assessment of perennial wheat and perennial rye as cereal crops.CrossRef | open url image1

Jenkins B, Mochizuki A (1957) A new amphiploid from a cross between Triticum durum and Agropyron elongatum (2n = 14). Wheat Information Service 5, 15–15.

Jones TA, Zhang XY, Wang RRC (1999) Genome characterization of MT-2 perennial and OK-906 annual wheat × intermediate wheatgrass hybrids. Crop Science 39, 1041–1043.
Genome characterization of MT-2 perennial and OK-906 annual wheat × intermediate wheatgrass hybrids.CrossRef | open url image1

Kotvics G, Krisztian J, Heszky L (2001) Perennial rye: A new forage crop for the world, registered in Hungary. Hungarian Agricultural Research 10, 4–5.

Lammer D, Cai X, Arterburn M, Chatelain J, Murray T, Jones S (2004) A single chromosome addition from Thinopyrum elongatum confers a polycarpic, perennial habit to annual wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 55, 1715–1720.
A single chromosome addition from Thinopyrum elongatum confers a polycarpic, perennial habit to annual wheat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXntValt7w%3D&md5=750c055edbecd02712de99e7fb627b56CAS | 15234999PubMed | open url image1

Li GD, Lodge GM, Moore GA, Craig AD, Dear BS, Boschma SP, Albertsen TO, Miller SM, Harden S, Hayes RC, Hughes SJ, Snowball R, Smith AB, Cullis BC (2008) Evaluation of perennial pasture legumes and herbs to identify species with high herbage production and persistence in mixed farming zones in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 449–466.
Evaluation of perennial pasture legumes and herbs to identify species with high herbage production and persistence in mixed farming zones in southern Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Liu SB, Wang HG, Zhang XY, Li XF, Li DY, Duan XY, Zhou YL (2005) Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat–Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & Dr Dewey partial amphiploid resistant to powdery mildew. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 47, 726–733.
Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat–Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & Dr Dewey partial amphiploid resistant to powdery mildew.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xpt1yqtw%3D%3D&md5=5aa253f9cde33388c54c216ef80c6cb3CAS | open url image1

Ma X-F, Gustafson JP (2008) Allopolyploidization-accommodated genomic sequence changes in triticale. Annals of Botany 101, 825–832.
Allopolyploidization-accommodated genomic sequence changes in triticale.CrossRef | 18252766PubMed | open url image1

McMullen KG, Virgona JM (2009) Dry matter production and grain yield from grazed wheat in southern New South Wales. Animal Production Science 49, 769–776.
Dry matter production and grain yield from grazed wheat in southern New South Wales.CrossRef | open url image1

Mitchell ML, Koen TB, Johnston WH, Waterhouse DB (2001) LIGULE: An evaluation of indigenous perennial grasses for dryland salinity management in south-eastern Australia. 2. Field performance and the selection of promising ecotypes. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 351–365.
LIGULE: An evaluation of indigenous perennial grasses for dryland salinity management in south-eastern Australia. 2. Field performance and the selection of promising ecotypes.CrossRef | open url image1

Mujeeb-Kazi A, Hettel GP (1995) Utilizing wild grass biodiversity in wheat improvement: 15 years of wide cross research at CIMMYT. CIMMYT Research Report xxiv. CIMMYT, Mexico DF.

Mujeeb-Kazi A, Cortes A, Gul A, Farooq M, Majeed F, Ahmad I, Bux H, William M, Rosas V, Delgad R (2008) Production and cytogenetics of a new Thinopyrum elongatum/Triticum aestivum hybrid, its amphiploid and backcross derivatives. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40, 565–579.

Murphy KM, Carter A, Zernetra RS, Jones SS (2007) Karyotype and ideogram analyses of four wheatgrass cultivars for use in perennial wheat breeding. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 31, 137–149.
Karyotype and ideogram analyses of four wheatgrass cultivars for use in perennial wheat breeding.CrossRef | open url image1

Murphy KM, Hoagland LA, Reeves PG, Baik BK, Jones SS (2009) Nutritional and quality characteristics expressed in 31 perennial wheat breeding lines. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 24, 285–292.
Nutritional and quality characteristics expressed in 31 perennial wheat breeding lines.CrossRef | open url image1

Murphy KM, Lyon SR, Balow KA, Jones SS (2010) Post-sexual cycle regrowth and grain yield in Thinopyrum elongatum × Triticum aestivum amphiploids. Plant Breeding 129, 480–483.

Newell M, Hayes R, Larkin P (2013a) Perennial cereals: A novel source of feed for grazing livestock. In ‘Revitalising grasslands to sustain our communities. Proceedings 22nd International Grasslands Congress’. 15–19 September 2013, Sydney. (International Grasslands Congress)

Newell M, Hayes R, Virgona J, Larkin P (2013b) Potential of common wheatgrass, Elymus scaber, to hybridise with wheat and produce a perennial cereal species. In ‘Perennial grasses in pasture production systems. Proceedings Australian Grasslands Symposium’. 15–16 May 2013, Canberra. (Ed. C Harris) (Australian Grasslands Association: Melbourne)

Newell M, Hayes R, Virgona J, Larkin P (2013c) Summer dormancy expression in the Australian native grass Elymus scaber. In ‘Revitalising grasslands to sustain our communities. Proceedings 22nd International Grasslands Congress:’. 15–19 September 2013, Sydney. (International Grasslands Congress)

Norton MR, Lelievre F, Volaire F (2012) Summer dormancy in Phalaris aquatica L., the influence of season of sowing and summer moisture regime on two contrasting cultivars. Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 198, 1–13.
Summer dormancy in Phalaris aquatica L., the influence of season of sowing and summer moisture regime on two contrasting cultivars.CrossRef | open url image1

Oram RN (1996) Secale montanum—A wider role in Australasia? New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 39, 629–633.
Secale montanum—A wider role in Australasia?CrossRef | open url image1

Oram RN, Ferreira V, Culvenor RA, Hopkins AA, Stewart A (2009) The first century of Phalaris aquatica L. cultivation and genetic improvement: a review. Crop & Pasture Science 60, 1–15.
The first century of Phalaris aquatica L. cultivation and genetic improvement: a review.CrossRef | open url image1

Ozkan H, Feldman M (2009) Rapid cytological diploidization in newly formed allopolyploids of the wheat (Aegilops–Triticum) group. Genome 52, 926–934.
Rapid cytological diploidization in newly formed allopolyploids of the wheat (Aegilops–Triticum) group.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsVeqsbrK&md5=2c107670a467c1246eebbf21d6e5cde7CAS | 19935917PubMed | open url image1

Qi B, Zhong X, Zhu B, Zhao N, Xu L, Zhang H, Yu X, Liu B (2010) Generality and characteristics of genetic and epigenetic changes in newly synthesized allotetraploid wheat lines. Journal of Genetics and Genomics 37, 737–748.
Generality and characteristics of genetic and epigenetic changes in newly synthesized allotetraploid wheat lines.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1Kgtg%3D%3D&md5=e53769535b8de95c3870466ea06253b0CAS | 21115168PubMed | open url image1

Reeling CJ, Weir AE, Swinton SM, Hayes RC (2012). A comparative breakeven net return threshold to guide development of conservation technologies with application to perennial wheat. In ‘Agriculture & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting’. 12–14 August 2012. (Agriculture & Applied Economics Association: Milwaukee, WI)

Reimann-Philipp R (1995) Breeding perennial rye. Plant Breeding Reviews 13, 265–292.

Rommel R, Jenkins BC (1959) Amphiploids in Triticinae produced at the University of Manitoba from March 1958 to December 1959. Wheat Information Service, No. 9–10, p. 23. Available at: www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/wheat/wis/No9-10/9-10.html

Sando WJ (1935) Hybrids of wheat, rye, Aegilops and Haynaldia – A series of 122 intra- and inter-generic hybrids shows wide variations in fertility. Journal of Heredity 26, 229–232.

Schlegel R (1980) Amphidiploid hybrids from crosses of hexaploid wheat with several species of rye and the relationship between the amount of heterochromatin and meiotic chromosome pairing. Aklimatyzacja i Nasiennictwo 24, 307–314.

Sipos T, Halasz E (2007) The role of perennial rye (Secale cereale × S. montanum) in sustainable agriculture. Cereal Research Communications 35, 1073–1075.
The role of perennial rye (Secale cereale × S. montanum) in sustainable agriculture.CrossRef | open url image1

Soussana J-F, Graux A-I, Tubiello FN (2010) Improving the use of modelling for projections of climate change impacts on crops and pastures. Journal of Experimental Botany 61, 2217–2228.
Improving the use of modelling for projections of climate change impacts on crops and pastures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmsVGgu7Y%3D&md5=92419b7303b6b8dc3822ce95cdb3ba8dCAS | 20410317PubMed | open url image1

Sun S (1981) The approach and methods of breeding new varieties and new species from Agrotriticum hybrids. Acta Agronomica Sinica 7, 51–57.

Tang ZX, Fu SL, Ren ZL, Zhou JP, Yan BJ, Zhang HQ (2008) Variations of tandem repeat, regulatory element, and promoter regions revealed by wheat–rye amphiploids. Genome 51, 399–408.
Variations of tandem repeat, regulatory element, and promoter regions revealed by wheat–rye amphiploids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmsVOju78%3D&md5=daaf3d59509fb874af860e9ad045274aCAS | 18521118PubMed | open url image1

Thomas J, Kaltsikes P (1974) Possible effect of heterochromatin on chromosome pairing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 71, 2787–2790.
Possible effect of heterochromatin on chromosome pairing.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE2c3pslGlsQ%3D%3D&md5=25286bff5e6949f2591443fabe595318CAS | 4527611PubMed | open url image1

Torabinejad J, Mueller RJ (1993) Genome analysis of intergeneric hybrids of apomictic and sexual Australian Elymus species with wheat, barley and rye: implication for the transfer of apomixis to cereals. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 86, 288–294.

Tsitsin NV, Lyubimova VF (1959) New species and forms of cereals derived from hybridization between wheat and couch grass. American Naturalist 93, 181–191.
New species and forms of cereals derived from hybridization between wheat and couch grass.CrossRef | open url image1

Volaire F, Norton M (2006) Summer dormancy in perennial temperate grasses. Annals of Botany 98, 927–933.
Summer dormancy in perennial temperate grasses.CrossRef | 17028299PubMed | open url image1

Volaire F, Conejero G, Lelievre F (2001) Drought survival and dehydration tolerance in Dactylis glomerata and Poa bulbosa. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 28, 743–754.

Wheeler DJB, Jacobs SWL, Norton BE (1990) ‘Grasses of New South Wales.’ 2nd edn. (University of New England: NSW)

Young RR, Wilson B, Harden S, Bernardi A (2009) Accumulation of soil carbon under zero tillage cropping and perennial vegetation on the Liverpool Plains, eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 47, 273–285.
Accumulation of soil carbon under zero tillage cropping and perennial vegetation on the Liverpool Plains, eastern Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXmtlWrtbY%3D&md5=f6f375fcaafdb603fc6bdee9231becd7CAS | open url image1

Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14, 415–421.
A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals.CrossRef | open url image1

Zhang X, Dong Y, Wang RR-C (1996) Characterization of genomes and chromosomes in partial amphiploids of the hybrid Triticum aestivum × Thinopyrum ponticum by in situ hybridization, isozyme analysis, and RAPD. Genome 39, 1062–1071.
Characterization of genomes and chromosomes in partial amphiploids of the hybrid Triticum aestivum × Thinopyrum ponticum by in situ hybridization, isozyme analysis, and RAPD.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXlt1Wjuw%3D%3D&md5=80df65e0a86a7f80b06760d4e4a5f802CAS | 18469955PubMed | open url image1

Zhao X, Zhang T, Huang L, Wu H, Hu F, Zhang F, Zhu L, Fu B (2012) Comparative metabolite profiling and hormone analysis of perennial and annual rice. Journal of Plant Biology 55, 73–80.
Comparative metabolite profiling and hormone analysis of perennial and annual rice.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XlvVartw%3D%3D&md5=2ea19fb9b749e34301fcfd665991ed3cCAS | open url image1



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (9)