Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 7 2017

CP17171Evaluation of spray nozzles for fungicidal control of tan spot in wheat

Juan J. Olivet, Juana Villalba and Jorge Volpi
pp. 591-598

Three nozzles with droplet size between c.a.180 to 500 μm were evaluated in the control of tan spot caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs. in three wheat cultivars. The use of drift reducing nozzles and a systemic fungicide led to satisfactory performance in the spray deposition, canopy penetration, yield grain, and control of the tan spot disease of wheat in the same way as could be expected from conventional nozzles.

CP17015Secondary traits explaining sorghum genotype by environment interactions for grain yield

Ana J. P. Carcedo, Pedro A. Pardo and Brenda L. Gambin
pp. 599-608

Large yield genotype by environment interactions generate uncertainty, complicating breeding selections. The identification of more heritable secondary traits offers opportunities for interpreting these interactions. We described specific traits relevant for assisting grain sorghum breeding selection on different temperate growth environments.

Using proteomics and bioinformatics tools, we investigated the response in root proteins under drought treatment in drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive soybeans. The drought-induced changes in root proteins were largely enriched in the biological function categories of defence response, protein synthesis, and energy, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The different patterns of change of these proteins reflected the different drought-tolerance capacity of the soybean types.

CP17229Row spacing is more important than seeding rate for increasing Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) control and grain yield in soybean (Glycine max)

Ghulam Rasool, Gulshan Mahajan, Rajpaul Yadav, Zarka Hanif and Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
pp. 620-624

Weeds are a problem in wide row spaced soybean. Results from field trials conducted over 2 years showed that weed biomass was less and soybean grain yield was more in the 25-cm soybean rows than the 75-cm rows. The results suggest that weeds can be better managed in soybean planted in narrow rows.

Seven QTLs associated with soybean seed oil content were detected based on a RIL population derived from a cross between parents with large phenotypic difference across ten environments. These QTLs behaved additive and/or additive × environment interaction effects, which could account for 2.24–17.54% of the phenotypic variation in the different environments. Five epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in different environments. These identified genetic information were valuable for marker-assisted breeding.

CP17154Growth responses of diploid and tetraploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) to soil-moisture deficit, defoliation and a root-feeding invertebrate

K. N. Tozer, K. Carswell, W. M. Griffiths, J. R. Crush, C. A. Cameron, D. F. Chapman, A. Popay and W. King
pp. 632-642

We investigated the growth response of a diploid and tetraploid cultivar of perennial ryegrass to moisture stress, severe defoliation and root-feeding invertebrates. Compensatory growth occurred after stress alleviation for both ploidies, although plant growth remained lower in previously stressed plants. The lower tiller density and total biomass of the tetraploid, in combination with greater allocation of resources to shoot growth and greater susceptibility to root-feeding invertebrates, may compromise its persistence in the field.

A model of tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa var. albomarginata), proposed as an alternative perennial forage legume to lucerne (Medicago sativa), was developed in APSIM and tested. The model can be used for assessing tedera production, agronomic management options in Mediterranean Australia. The preliminary study indicates that tedera is not as effective as lucerne for total biomass production, but it may provide useful feed in terms of the timing of feed availability.

Limited information is available about genetic diversity of seed yield and the potential of improve seed and forage yield, simultaneously. Thirty-six genotypes of orchardgrass were clonally propagated and evaluated in the field under two moisture environments during 3 years. The results of this study would be useful and important in improving cultivars which have both reasonable seed and forage yield.

CP16458Physiological and biochemical responses to water deficit in Lotus uliginosus × L. corniculatus hybrids

A. Castillo, M. Rebuffo, P. Díaz, C. García, J. Monza and O. Borsani
pp. 670-679

Response to water deficit stress of the parent species compared with interspecific hybrids of greater lotus × birdsfoot trefoil was analysed. Contrasting water-stress conditions were induced in vitro, in pots and under field conditions. Our results showed different responses in parental species for the particular traits evaluated, whereas hybrid progeny combined intermediate traits from parental species. Therefore, hybridisation seems a promising approach to create new variability between plants.

CP17009Embryological background of low seed set in distylous common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) with biased morph ratios, and biostimulant-induced improvement of it

Aneta Słomka, Klaudia Michno, Franciszek Dubert, Michał Dziurka, Przemysław Kopeć and Agnieszka Płażek
pp. 680-690

Yield of common buckwheat producing equal proportion of two flower morphs (isoplethy) is usually low due to several reasons. We have found that in semi-controlled conditions buckwheat plants may deviate from that equal proportion (anisoplethy) however without any consequences on seed set being similarly as in isoplethy state low due to the high frequency of abortive embryo sacs. Tested widely available plant biostimulants can be useful in increasing seed set via decreasing embryo abortions frequency contributing to yield improvement.

Leaf water relations and anatomy of three vetches (Vicia narbonensis, V. sativa and V. villosa) are compared under water stress conditions to explain the superiority of the first species in terms of growth and productivity. Species reacted differently to maintain cells turgor; but V. narbonensis was distinguished by a more equilibrate water status through better osmotic adjustment and cell walls elasticity.

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