Invertebrate Systematics Invertebrate Systematics Society
Systematics, phylogeny and biogeography
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Phylogenetic relationships within the Terebellidae (Polychaeta : Terebellida) based on morphological characters

André R. S. Garraffoni A B C and Paulo C. Lana A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Av. Beira Mar s/n, CP 50002, Pontal do Paraná, PR 83255-000, Brazil.

B Present address: Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Campus II, Rodovia BR-367, CEP: 39.100-000, Diamantina, MG, Brazil.

C Corresponding author. Email: garrafoni@gmail.com

Invertebrate Systematics 22(6) 605-626 https://doi.org/10.1071/IS07006
Submitted: 16 March 2007  Accepted: 17 October 2008   Published: 22 December 2008

Abstract

Most of the recognised genera in Terebellidae lack phylogenetic support because their current diagnoses are based on homoplastic or plesiomorphic features. To address this problem, the phylogenetic relationships of terebellid genera were studied using a morphology-based parsimony analysis of 94 species, with members of the Ampharetidae and Alvinellidae as outgroups. The monophyly of the Terebellidae is supported by the presence of a prostomium shaped as a dorsal ridge-like structure, the prostomial buccal tentacles not retractable into the mouth and the ventral glandular areas having distinct pads. The subfamilies Polycirrinae, Terebellinae and Trichobranchinae are monophyletic. Species of Trichobranchinae form a clade within the Terebellidae, which provides further evidence to support its subfamily status. The lack of evidence to support Thelepodinae reinforces previous statements that this group is not monophyletic.


Acknowledgements

We thank many colleagues who provided generous help and access to museum collections and facilities: Penny Berents and Pat Hutchings (Australian Museum), Dieter Fiege (Senckenberg Museum), Leslie H. Harris (Los Angeles County Museum), Andrew Mackie (Museum of Wales), Emma Sherlock (British Museum), Paulo Paiva (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro), Nicolas Rozbaczylo (Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile), Kristian Fauchald (Smithsonian Institution), Angelika Brandt (Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum der Universität), Cecilia Amaral (Museu de História Natural de Campinas), Mario H. Londoño-Mesa (ECOSUR). Cinthya Santos, Walter Boeger, Gabriel Mello, Cecília Amaral, João Nogueira, Anete Lourenço, three anonymous referees and Camilla Myers are gratefully acknowledged for offering suggestions that greatly improved the paper. Pedro Martínez provided working facilities to the first author at the Senckenberg Institute (Wilhelmshaven, Germany), where part of the material used in the present study was examined. Dieter Fiege helped us with the partial translation of Grube’s papers. This research was supported by a grant provided to the first author by the Brazilian funding agencies CAPES, FAPESP (05-59809-7), and the Germany agency DAAD.


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Appendix 1.  Currently recognised terebellid genera and number of valid species
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Appendix 2.  Examined species, listed by date of description
Abbreviations indicate deposit places: AM – Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia; LACM-AHF – Los Angeles County Museum, Alan Hancock Foundation, Los Angeles, USA; MCEM – Museu do Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Pontal do Paraná, Brazil; IBUFRJ – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; SMF – Senckenberg Museum of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; NMWZ – National Museums and Galleries Wales, Cardiff, Wales; SSUC – Sala de Sistemática, Departamento de Ecologia, Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; BMNH – The Natural History Museum (formerly British Museum (Natural History), ( London, England; USNM – National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA; ZMH – Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum der Universität, Hamburg, Germany; MHN – Museu de História Natural de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; ECOSUR – Colección de Referencia, Chetumal, Mexico
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Appendix 3.  Matrix used in the cladistic analysis of Terebellidae
0–5 = characters states; ‘?’ = missing information; ‘–’ inapplicable information. Polymorphisms: A = 0/1; B = 1/2; C = 0/2; D = 0/3
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