A collaborative, integrated and electronic future for taxonomyNorman F. Johnson
Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA. Email: email@example.com
Invertebrate Systematics 25(5) 471-475 https://doi.org/10.1071/IS11052
Submitted: 21 December 2011 Accepted: 23 December 2011 Published: 14 February 2012
The Platygastroidea Planetary Biodiversity Inventory is a large-scale, multinational effort to significantly advance the taxonomy and systematics of one group of parasitoid wasps. Based on this effort, there are some clear steps that should be taken to increase the efficiency and throughput of the taxonomic process. Increased collaboration among taxonomic specialists can significantly shorten the timeline and add increased rigor to the development of hypotheses of characters and taxa. Species delimitations should make use of multiple data sources, thus providing more nearly independent tests of these hypotheses. Taxonomy should fully embrace electronic media and informatics tools. Particularly, this step requires the development and widespread implementation of community data standards. The barriers to progress in these areas are not technological, but are primarily social. The community needs to see clear evidence of the value added through these changes in procedures and insist upon their use as standard practice.
ReferencesClark, B. R., Godfray, H. C. J., Kitching, I. J., Mayo, S. J., and Scoble, M. J. (2009). Taxonomy as an eScience. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 367, 953–966.
| Taxonomy as an eScience.CrossRef |
Cui, H. (2010). Semantic annotation of morphological descriptions: an overall strategy. BMC Bioinformatics 11, 278.
| Semantic annotation of morphological descriptions: an overall strategy.CrossRef |
Cui, H. (2012). Fine-grained semantic annotation of taxonomic descriptions: unsupervised learning makes generic syntactic parser useful for biodiversity domains. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology , .
Godfray, H. C. J. (2002). Challenges for taxonomy. Nature 417, 17–19.
| Challenges for taxonomy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XjsFOgt78%3D&md5=1966ef8128b894d3e11256c8bf3f2d99CAS |
Gould, S. J., and Lewontin, R. C. (1979). The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 205, 581–598.
| The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL3c%2FnvFyrsw%3D%3D&md5=31fced13929127bad10fc43040a9966fCAS |
Hennig, W. (1966). ‘Phylogenetic Systematics.’ (University of Illinois Press: Urbana, IL.)
Horn, W. (1928). The future of insect taxonomy. In ‘Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Entomology, Ithaca, NY, August 1928’, Vol. 2. (Eds K. Jordan and W. Horn.) pp. 34–51. (G. Pätz: Naumburg, Germany.)
Johnson, N. F. (2007). Biodiversity informatics. Annual Review of Entomology 52, 421–438.
| Biodiversity informatics.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtFWms7k%3D&md5=9430506186bf91366dc2f97b304b47a2CAS |
Johnson, N. F. (2010). Future taxonomy today: new tools applied to accelerate the taxonomic process. In ‘Systema Naturae 250: The Linnaean Ark’. (Ed. A. Polaszek.) pp. 137–147. (CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group: London.)
La Salle, J., Wheeler, Q., Jackway, P., Winterton, S., Hobern, D., and Lovell, D. (2009). Accelerating taxonomic discovery through automated character extraction. Zootaxa 2217, 43–55.
Linnaeus, C. (1758). ‘Systema naturae. Regnum Animale.’ 10th edn. (W. Engelmann: Leipzig.)
Mayr, E. (1963). ‘Animal Species and Evolution.’ (Belknap Press of Harvard University: Cambridge, IL.)
Mayr, E. (1969). ‘Principles of Systematic Zoology.’ (McGraw-Hill: New York).
Padial, J. M., Miralles, A., De la Riva, I., and Vences, M. (2010). The integrative future of taxonomy. Frontiers in Zoology 7, 16.
| The integrative future of taxonomy.CrossRef |
Penev, L., Lyal, C., Weitzman, A., Morse, D., King, D., Sautter, G., Georgiev, T., Morris, R., Catapano, T., and Agosti, D. (2011). XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature. ZooKeys 150, 89–116.
| XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature.CrossRef |
Schlick-Steiner, B. C., Steiner, F. M., Seifert, B., Stauffer, C., Christian, E., and Crozier, R. H. (2010). Integrative taxonomy: a multisource approach to exploring biodiversity. Annual Review of Entomology 55, 421–438.
| Integrative taxonomy: a multisource approach to exploring biodiversity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXptVShtQ%3D%3D&md5=6a14d7e73e544ec18c61d2c423862d78CAS |
Smith, V., Rycroft, S., Brake, I., Scott, B., Baker, E., Livermore, L., Blagoderov, V., and Roberts, D. (2011). Scratchpads 2.0: a virtual research environment supporting scholarly collaboration, communication and data publication in biodiversity science. ZooKeys 150, 53–70.
| Scratchpads 2.0: a virtual research environment supporting scholarly collaboration, communication and data publication in biodiversity science.CrossRef |
Thessen, A. E., and Patterson, D. J. (2011). Data issues in the life sciences. ZooKeys 150, 15–51.
| Data issues in the life sciences.CrossRef |
Veijalainen, A., Broad, G., Wahlberg, N., Longino, J., and Sääksjärvi, I. (2011). DNA barcoding and morphology reveal two common species in one: Pimpla molesta stat. rev. separated from P. croceipes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). ZooKeys 124, 59–70.
| DNA barcoding and morphology reveal two common species in one: Pimpla molesta stat. rev. separated from P. croceipes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).CrossRef |
Wägele, H., Klussmann-Kolb, A., Kuhlmann, M., Haszprunar, G., Lindberg, D., Koch, A., and Wägele, J. W. (2011). The taxonomist – an endangered race. A practical proposal for its survival. Frontiers in Zoology 8, 25.
| The taxonomist – an endangered race. A practical proposal for its survival.CrossRef |
Will, K. W., Mishler, B. D., and Wheeler, Q. D. (2005). The perils of DNA barcoding and the need for integrative taxonomy. Systematic Biology 54, 844–851.
| The perils of DNA barcoding and the need for integrative taxonomy.CrossRef |
Winston, J. E. (1999). ‘Describing Species. Practical Taxonomic Procedure for Biologists.’ (Columbia University Press: New York.)