DMS and DMSP in mucus ropes, coral mucus, surface films and sediment pore waters from coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef
Andrew D. Broadbent A and Graham B. Jones A B C
A Marine Chemistry Group, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.
B Centre for Coastal Management, School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Marine and Freshwater Research 55(8) 849-855 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF04114
Submitted: 9 June 2004 Accepted: 27 October 2004 Published: 16 November 2004
Concentrations of dimethylsulphide (DMS) and its precursor compound dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), two sulphur compounds that are involved in the formation of clouds, were measured for mucus ropes, coral mucus, surface films and sediment pore waters collected from three coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The concentrations of DMS (61–18 665 nm) and DMSP (1978–54 381 nm) measured in mucus rope samples are the highest yet reported in the marine environment. The values exceed concentrations of DMS and DMSP reported from highly productive polar waters and sea ice algal communities. Concentrations of DMSP in coral mucus ranged from 1226 to 25 443 nm, with mucus from Acropora formosa containing the highest levels of DMSP. Dimethylsulphide and DMSP in surface microlayer samples from three coral reefs were two to four times subsurface (0.5 m) concentrations. In coral-reef sediment pore waters, concentrations of DMS and DMSP were substantially higher than water-column concentrations, suggesting that coral sediments may be a significant source of these two compounds to reef waters. Overall, the results strongly suggest that coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef are significant sources of these two sulphur substances.
Extra keywords: dimethylsulphide, dimethylsulphoniopropionate.
Andreae M. O.1985Dimethylsulphide in the water column and the sediment pore waters of the Peru upwelling area.Limnology and Oceanography3012081218
Bates T. S.Huebert B. J.Gras J. L.Griffiths F. B.Durkee P. A.1998International global atmospheric chemistry (IGAC) project’s first aerosol characterisation experiment (ACE 1): overview.Journal of Geophysical Research103D131629716318doi:10.1029/97JD03741
Broadbent A. D. (1997). Dimethylsulphide (DMS) in the Great Barrier Reef: an assessment of the factors regulating its production in reef waters. Ph.D. thesis, James Cook University, Townsville.
Broadbent A. D.Jones G. B.Jones R. J.2002DMSP in corals and benthic algae from the Great Barrier Reef.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science55547555doi:10.1006/ECSS.2002.1021
Capone D. G.Dunham S. E.Horrigan S. G.Duguay L. E.1992Microbial nitrogen transformations in unconsolidated coral reef sediments.Marine Ecology Progress Series807588
Charlson R. J.Lovelock J. E.Andrea M. O.Warren S. G.1987Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate.Nature326655661doi:10.1038/326655A0
Coffroth M. A.1990Mucus sheet formation on poritid corals: an evaluation of coral mucus as a nutrient source on reefs.Marine Biology1053949
Crossland C. J.1987In situ release of mucus and DOC-lipid from the corals Acropora variablis and Stylophora pistillata in different light regimes.Coral Reefs63542doi:10.1007/BF00302210
Crossland C. J.Barnes D. J.Borowitzka M. A.1980Diurnal lipid and mucus production in the staghorn coral Acropora acuminata.Marine Biology608190
Curran M.A.J.Jones G.B.2000Dimethylsulphide in the Southern Ocean: seasonality and flux.Journal of Geophysical Research105D162045120462
Curran M. A. J.Jones G. B.Burton H.1998Spatial distribution of dimethylsulphide and dimethylsulphoniopropionate in the Australasian sector of the Southern Ocean.Journal of Geophysical Research103D131667716689doi:10.1029/97JD03453
Davies P. S.1984The role of zooxanthellae in the nutritional energy requirements of Pocillopora eydouxi.Coral Reefs2181186
Edmunds P. J.Davies P. S.1986An energy budget for Porites porites (Scleratinia).Marine Biology92339347
Fogelqvist E.1991Dimethylsulphide (DMS) in the Weddell Sea Surface and Bottom Water.Marine Chemistry35169177
Frew N. M.Goldman J. C.Dennett M. R.Sherwood Johnson A.1990Impact of phytoplankton-generated surfactants on air-sea gas exchange.Journal of Geophysical Research9533373352
Hansen J. A.Klump D. W.Alongi D. M.Dayton P. K.Riddle M. J.1992Detrital pathways in a coral reef lagoon.Marine Biology113363372doi:10.1007/BF00349160
Hatcher A. I.Frith C. A.1985The control of nitrate and ammonium concentrations in a coral reef lagoon.Coral Reefs4101110doi:10.1007/BF00300868
Hoegh-Guldberg O.Smith G. J.1989aThe effects of sudden changes in light, temperature and salinity on the population density and export of zooxanthellae from the reef corals Seriatopera hysterix and Styllophora pistillata.Marine Ecology Progress Series129279303
Hoegh-Guldberg O.Smith G. J.1989bInfluence of the population density of zoothanthellae and supply of ammonium on the biomass and metabolic characteristics of the reef corals Seriatopera hysterix and Styllophora pistillata.Marine Ecology Progress Series57173186
Johnstone R. W.Koop K.Larkum A. W. D.1990Physical aspects of coral reef lagoon sediments in relation to detritus processing and primary production.Marine Ecology Progress Series66273283
Jones G. B.Trevena A. J.2005The influence of coral reefs on atmospheric dimethylsulphide in the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, Gulf of Papua, Solomon and Bismarck Seas.Marine and Freshwater Researchin press.
Jones G. B., Curran M. A. J., and Broadbent A. D. (1994). Dimethylsulphide in the South Pacific. In ‘Recent Advances in Marine Science & Technology 94. Proceedings of the 6th Pacific Congress on Marine Science & Technology. Townsville, July 1994’. (Eds O. Bellwood, H. Choat and N. Saxena.) pp. 183–190. (James Cook University Press: Townsville.)
Jones G. B.Curran M. A. J.Swan H.Greene R.Griffiths F. B.Clementson L. A.1998Influence of different water masses and biological activity on dimethylsulphide and dimethylsulphoniopropionate in the subantarctic zone of the Southern Ocean during ACE 1.Journal of Geophysical Research103D131669116701doi:10.1029/98JD01200
Kinsey D. W. (1985a). Metabolism, calcification and carbon production 1: systems levels studies. In ‘Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Coral Reefs, Tahiti 4’. pp. 505–526. (Eds C. Gabrié and M. Harmelin Vivien.) (Antenne Museum-EPHE: Moorea, French Polynesia.)
Kinsey D. W. (1985b). The functional role of back-reef and lagoonal systems in the central Great Barrier Reef. In ‘Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Coral Reefs, Tahiti 4’.pp. 223–228. (Eds C. Gabrié and M. Harmelin Vivien.) (Antenne Museum-EPHE: Moorea, French Polynesia.)
Kinsey D. W.Davies P. J.1979Effects of elevated nitrogen and phosphorus on a coral reef.Limnology and Oceanography24935940
Kirst G. O.Thiel C.Wolff H.Nothnagel J.Wanzek M.Ulmke R.1991DMSP in ice algae and its possible role.Marine Chemistry35381388
Krupp D. A.1984Mucus production by corals exposed during an extremely low tide.Pacific Science38111
Krupp D. A.1985An immunochemical study of the mucus from the solitary coral Fungia scutaria (Scleractinia: Fungiidae).Bulletin of Marine Science36163176
Levasseur M.Gosselin M.Michaud S.1994A new source of dimethylsulphide (DMS) for the Arctic atmosphere: ice diatoms.Marine Biology121381387doi:10.1007/BF00346748
Malin G., Liss P. S., and Turner S. M. (1994). Dimethylsulphide: production and atmospheric consequences. In ‘The Haptophyte Algae, Systematics Association Special Volume 51’. (Eds J. C. Green and B. S. C. Leadbeater.) (Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK.)
Muscatine L.Falkowski P. G.Dubinsky Z.Porter J. W.1984Fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon in light- and shade-adapted colonies of the symbiotic coral Styllophora pistillata.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences222181202
Muslim A.Jones G. B.2003The seasonal variation of dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll a and suspended sediments at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science57445455doi:10.1016/S0272-7714(02)00373-6
Nedwell D. B.Shabbeer M. T.Harrison R. M.1994Dimethylsulphide in the North Sea waters and sediments.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science39209217doi:10.1006/ECSS.1994.1059
Nguyen B. G.Belviso S.Mihalopoulos N.Gostan J.Nival P.1988Dimethylsulphide production during natural phytoplankton blooms.Marine Chemistry24133141doi:10.1016/0304-4203(88)90044-8
Sournia A.1976Primary production of sands in the lagoon of an atoll and the role of foraminiferan symbionts.Marine Biology372932
Szmant-Frolich A., Hoehn J. T., Battey J., Smith G. J., Fleischmann E., Porter J., and Dallmeyer D. (1981). The physiological effects of oil-drilling muds on the Caribbean coral Montastrea anularis. In ‘Proceedings of the 4th International Coral Reef Symposium, Manilla’. Volume 1. pp. 163–168.
Thompson J. H., Shinn E. A., and Bright T. J. (1980). Effects of drilling mud on seven species of reef-building corals as measured in the field and laboratory. In ‘Marine Environmental Pollution: Hydrocarbons’. (Ed. R. A. Geyer.) p. 27. (Elsevier Oceanography Series: New York.)
Trevena A. J.Jones G. B.Wright S. W.Van den Enden R. L.2000Profiles of DMSP, algal pigments, nutrients and salinity in pack ice from eastern Antarctica.Journal of Sea Research43265273doi:10.1016/S1385-1101(00)00012-5
Trevena A.J.Jones G.B.Wright S.W.Van den Enden R. L.2003Profiles of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), algal pigments, nutrients, and salinity in the fast ice of Prydz Bay, Antarctica.Journal of Geophysical Research108C531453156
Turner S. M.Liss P. S.1989A cryogenic technique for sampling the sea surface microlayer for trace gases.Chemical Oceanography10379392
Twomey S.1974Pollution and the planetary albedo.Atmospheric Environment812511256doi:10.1016/0004-6981(74)90004-3
Twomey S.1976Computations of the absorption of solar radiation by clouds.Journal of Atmospheric Sciences3310871091doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<1087:COTAOS>2.0.CO;2
Udy J. W., and Dennison W. C. (1996) Estimating nutrient availability in seagrass sediments. In ‘Seagrass Biology: Proceedings of An International Workshop’. (Eds J. Kuo, R. C. Phillips, D. I. Walker and H. Kirkman.) pp. 163–172.
Vacelet E.Thomassin B.1991Microbial utilisation of coral mucus in long term in situ incubation over a coral reef.Hydrobiologia2111932
Wild C.Klueter A.Kremb S. G.Rasheed M. J. M.Jorgensen B. B.2004Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem.Nature4286670doi:10.1038/NATURE02344