Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Demography and elasticity of the diamond stingray, Dasyatis dipterura: parameter uncertainty and resilience to fishing pressure

Wade D. Smith A B D , Gregor M. Cailliet A and Enric Cortés C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Pacific Shark Research Center, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA.

B Oregon State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 104 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

C National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Panama City Laboratory, 3500 Delwood Beach Road, Panama City, FL 32408, USA.

D Corresponding author. Email: wade.smith@oregonstate.edu

Marine and Freshwater Research 59(7) 575-586 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF07020
Submitted: 2 February 2007  Accepted: 11 May 2008   Published: 27 July 2008

Abstract

Despite their abundance in near-shore tropical and subtropical marine environments, which support much of the world’s elasmobranch fisheries, population dynamics and impacts of fisheries on stingrays are poorly documented. Age-structured demographic models were developed using empirical estimates of fecundity, longevity and maturity to project population growth parameters and potential responses to fishing mortality of Dasyatis dipterura from the Bahía Magdalena lagoon complex, México. Monte Carlo simulation was incorporated to include uncertainty in life history parameters into model projections. Six models were developed using deterministic and probabilistic approaches under unexploited and exploited (fishing mortality = 0.05 year–1) conditions. Mean annual population growth rates (λ) of 1.05–1.06 (5–6% increase), net reproductive rates of 2.3–2.4 and generation times of 14.9–16.5 years were projected from simulations. The introduction of a low fishing mortality into probabilistic models produced λ of 1.01 year–1. Elasticity analysis indicated that population growth rates for D. dipterura are more strongly influenced by the survival of juvenile and adult stages than by survival of neonates or changes in fecundity. Demographic analyses indicated that D. dipterura has a low intrinsic growth potential and limited resilience to fishing pressure. Localised depletion or population collapses are therefore likely to occur through unrestricted, unmonitored fishing effort.

Additional keywords: age-based models, Dasyatidae, demography, fisheries management, Mexico, population biology.


Acknowledgements

This study was made possible, in part, by funding provided from the California Sea Grant College System (R/F-29PD), Homeland Foundation, Earl H. and Ethel M. Myers Oceanographic and Marine Biological Trust, National Marine Fisheries Service via the National Shark Research Consortium and Pacific Shark Research Center, PADI Foundation, PADI Project AWARE, San Francisco State University Student Project Fund and the Packard Foundation Scholarship. We are grateful to fishermen throughout the Bahía Magdalena lagoon complex for their cooperation with this project, particularly those of Puerto Viejo, who offered patience and unrestricted access to their landings. We also thank Joseph Bizzarro, Jason Cope, Chris Rinewalt and Rhea Sanders for input and assistance over the course of this project as well as the editor and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the resulting manuscript.


References

Beerkircher, L. , Shivji, M. , and Cortés, E. (2003). A Monte Carlo demographic analysis of the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis): implications of gear selectivity. Fishery Bulletin 101, 168–174.


Beukema, J. J. (1989). Bias in estimates of maximum life span, with an example of the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 39(1–2), 79–85.
CrossRef |

Bigelow H. B., and Schroeder W. C. (1953). ‘Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Part 2: Sawfishes, Guitarfishes, Skates, Rays, and Chimaeroids.’ Memoir of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research. (Eds J. Tee-Van, C. M. Breder, A. E. Pair, W. C. Schroeder and L. P. Schultz.) (Yale University Press: New Haven, CT.)

Bizzarro, J. J. , Smith, W. D. , Márquez-Farías, J. F. , and Hueter, R. E. (2007). Artisanal fisheries and reproductive biology of the golden cownose ray, Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann and Jenkins, 1891, in the northern Mexican Pacific. Fisheries Research 84, 137–146.
CrossRef |

Bonfil R. (1994). Overview of world elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 341.

Brander, K. (1981). Disappearance of common skate Raja batis from the Irish Sea. Nature 290, 48–49.
CrossRef |

Cailliet, G. M. (1992). Demography of the central California population of the leopard shark (Triakis semifasicata). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43, 183–189.
CrossRef |

Campana S., Marks L., Joyce W., and Harley S. (2001). Analytical assessment of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus) population in the Northwest Atlantic, with estimates of long-term sustainable yield. Canadian Stock Assessment Research Document 2001/067, Ottowa, ON.

Carlson, J. K. , and Baremore, I. E. (2003). Changes in biological parameters of Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae in the Gulf of Mexico: evidence for density-dependent growth and maturity? Marine and Freshwater Research 54, 227–234.
CrossRef |

Carlson, J. K. , Cortés, E. , and Bethea, D. M. (2003). Life history and population dynamics of the finetooth shark (Carcharhinus isodon) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Bulletin 101, 281–292.


Castillo-Géniz, J. L. , Márquez-Farías, J. F. , Rodriquez de la Cruz, M. C. , Cortés, E. , and Cid del Prado, A. (1998). The Mexican artisanal shark fishery in the Gulf of Mexico: towards a regulated fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, 611–620.
CrossRef |

Caswell H. (2001). ‘Matrix Population Models: Construction, Analysis, and Interpretation.’ 2nd edn. (Sinauer Associates Inc.: Sunderland, MA.)

Chen, S. , and Watanabe, S. (1989). Age dependence of natural mortality coefficient in fish population dynamics. Nippon Suisan Gakkai Shi 55(2), 205–208.


Compagno, L. J. (1990). Alternative life-history styles of cartilaginous fishes in time and space. Environmental Biology of Fishes 28, 33–75.
CrossRef |

Cortés, E. (1998). Demographic analysis as an aid in shark stock assessment and management. Fisheries Research 39, 199–208.
CrossRef |

Cortés, E. (2002). Incorporating uncertainty into demographic modeling: application to shark populations and their conservation. Conservation Biology 16(4), 1048–1062.
CrossRef |

Cortés E. (2004). Life history patterns, demography, and population dynamics. In ‘Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives’. (Eds J. C. Carrier, J. A. Musick and M. R. Heithaus.) pp. 449–469. (CRC Press: New York.)

Cortés, E. (2007). Chondrichthyan demographic modeling: an essay on its use, abuse, and future. Marine and Freshwater Research 58, 4–6.
CrossRef |

Cortés, E. , and Parsons, G. R. (1996). Comparative demography of two populations of the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53, 709–718.
CrossRef |

de Kroon, H. , Plaisier, A. , van Groenendael, J. , and Caswell, H. (1986). Elasticity: the relative contribution of demographic parameters to population growth rate. Ecology 67(5), 1427–1431.
CrossRef |

de Kroon, H. , van Groenendael, J. , and Ehrlén, J. (2000). Elasticities: a review of methods and model limitations. Ecology 81(3), 607–618.


Dulvy, N. K. , Metcalfe, J. D. , Flanville, J. , Pawson, M. G. , and Reynolds, J. D. (2000). Fishery stability, local extinctions, and shifts in community structure in skates. Conservation Biology 14(1), 283–293.
CrossRef |

Ebert T. A. (1999). ‘Plant and Animal Populations: Lessons in Demography.’ (Academic Press: San Diego, CA.)

Ehrlén, J. , van Groenendael, J. , and de Kroon, H. (2001). Reliability of elasticity analysis: reply to Mills et al. Conservation Biology 15(1), 278–280.
CrossRef |

Fisher, R. , Sogard, S. M. , and Berkeley, S. A. (2007). Trade-offs between size and energy reserves reflect alternative strategies for optimizing larval survival potential in rockfish. Marine Ecology Progress Series 344, 257–270.
CrossRef |

Flores, J. O. , Rodriguez, M. , Shimizu, M. , and Machii, T. (1995). Evaluation of demersal fishery resources of the Gulf of California using Mexican shrimp trawlers. Journal of the National Fisheries University 44(1), 9–19.


Fowler, C. W. (1988). Population dynamics as related to rate of increase per generation. Evolutionary Ecology 2, 197–204.
CrossRef |

Frisk, M. G. , Miller, T. J. , and Fogarty, M. J. (2002). The population dynamics of the little skate Leucoraja erinacea, winter skate Leucoraja ocellata, and barndoor skate Dipturus laevis: predicting exploitation limits using matrix analyses. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59, 576–586.
CrossRef |

Goldman K. J. (2002). Aspects of the age, growth, demographics and thermal biology of two lamniform shark species. Ph.D. Thesis, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.

Gruber, S. H. , de Marignac, J. R. C. , and Hoenig, J. M. (2001). Survival of juvenile lemon sharks at Bimini, Bahamas, estimated by mark-depletion experiments. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130, 376–384.
CrossRef |

Haddon M. (2001). ‘Modelling and Quantitative Methods in Fisheries.’ (Chapman and Hall/CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.)

Heppell S. S., Crowder L. B., and Menzel T. R. (1999). Life table analysis of long-lived marine species with implications for conservation and management. In ‘Life in the Slow Lane: Ecology and Conservation of Long-lived Marine Animals. Proceedings of American Fisheries Society Symposium 23, Bethesda, MD’. (Ed. J. A. Musick.) pp. 137–148.

Heppell, S. S. , Caswell, H. , and Crowder, L. B. (2000). Life histories and elasticity patterns: perturbation analysis for species with minimal demographic data. Ecology 81(3), 654–665.


Heupel, M. R. , and Simpfendorfer, C. A. (2002). Estimation of mortality of juvenile blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, within a nursery area using telemetry data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, 624–632.
CrossRef |

Hoenig, J. M. (1983). Empirical use of longevity data to estimate mortality rates. Fishery Bulletin 82(1), 898–903.


Hoenig J. M., and Gruber S. H. (1990). Life-history patterns in the elasmobranchs: implications for fisheries management. In ‘Elasmobranchs as Living Resources: Advances in the Biology, Ecology, Systematics, and the Status of the Fisheries’. (Eds H. L. Pratt, S. H. Gruber and T. Taniuchi.) pp. 828–903. NOAA Technical Report 90. (National Marine Fisheries Service: Washington, DC.)

Holden, M. J. (1973). Are long-term sustainable fisheries for elasmobranchs possible? Journal du Conseil International pour L’Exploration de la Mer 164, 360–367.


Jensen, A. L. (1996). Beverton and Holt life history invariants result from optimal trade-off of reproduction and survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53, 820–822.
CrossRef |

Krebs C. J. (2001). ‘Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance.’ 5th edn. (Benjamin Cummings: San Francisco, CA.)

Lorenzen, K. (1996). The relationship between body weight and natural mortality in juvenile and adult fish: a comparison of natural ecosystems and aquaculture. Journal of Fish Biology 49, 627–647.
CrossRef |

Manly B. F. J. (1997). ‘Randomization, Bootstrap, and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology.’ 2nd edn. (Chapman and Hall: London.)

Márquez-Farías, F. J. (2002). The artisanal ray fishery in the Gulf of California: development, fisheries research, and management issues. IUCN/SSC Shark Specialist Group Shark News 14, 1–5.


Márquez-Farías, J. F. , and Castillo-Géniz, J. L. (1998). Fishery biology and demography of the Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Fisheries Research 39, 183–198.
CrossRef |

McAuley, R. B. , Simpfendorfer, C. A. , and Hall, N. G. (2007). A method for evaluating the impacts of fishing mortality and stochastic influences on the demography of two long-lived shark stocks. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64, 1710–1722.
CrossRef |

Mertz D. B. (1970). Notes on methods used in life-history studies. In ‘Readings in Ecology and Ecological Genetics’. (Eds J. H. Connell, D. B. Mertz and W. W. Murdoch.) pp. 4–17. (Harper and Row: New York.)

Mollet, H. F. , and Cailliet, G. M. (2002). Comparative demography of elasmobranchs using life history tables, Leslie matrices and stage-based matrix models. Marine and Freshwater Research 53, 503–516.
CrossRef |

Musick J. A. (1999). Ecology and conservation of long-lived marine animals. In ‘Life in the Slow Lane: Ecology and Conservation of Long-lived Marine Animals. Proceedings of American Fisheries Society Symposium 23, Bethesda, MD’. (Ed. J. A. Musick.) pp. 1–10.

Nations C. S., and Boyce M. S. (1997). Stochastic demography for conservation biology. In ‘Structured-Population Models in Marine, Terrestrial, and Freshwater Systems’. (Eds S. Tuljapurkar and H. Caswell.) pp. 451–469. (Chapman and Hall: New York.)

Peterson, I. , and Wrobleski, J. S. (1984). Mortality of fishes in the pelagic ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41, 1117–1120.


Probert, P. K. (1984). Disturbance, sediment stability, and trophic structure of soft-bottom communities. Journal of Marine Research 42, 893–921.


Rose, K. A. , Cowan, J. H. , Winemiller, K. O. , Meyers, R. A. , and Hilborn, R. (2001). Compensatory density dependence in fish populations: importance, controversy, understanding and prognosis. Fish and Fisheries 2, 293–327.
CrossRef |

Siegfried K. I. (2006). Fishery management in data-limited situations: applications to stock assessment, marine reserve design, and fish bycatch policy. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA.

Simpfendorfer, C. A. (1999a). Mortality estimates and demographic analysis for the Australian sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon taylori, from northern Australia. Fishery Bulletin 97, 978–986.


Simpfendorfer C. A. (1999b). Demographic analysis of the dusky shark fishery in southwestern Australia. In ‘Life in the Slow Lane: Ecology and Conservation of Long-lived Marine Animals. Proceedings of American Fisheries Society Symposium 23, Bethesda, MD’. (Ed. J. A. Musick.) pp. 149–160.

Simpfendorfer, C. A. (2000). Predicting population recovery rates for endangered western Atlantic sawfishes using demographic analysis. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58, 371–377.
CrossRef |

Sminkey, T. R. , and Musick, J. A. (1996). Demographic analysis of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in the western North Atlantic. Fishery Bulletin 94, 341–347.


Smith, S. E. , Au, D. W. , and Show, C. (1998). Intrinsic rebound potentials of 26 species of Pacific sharks. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, 663–678.
CrossRef |

Smith W. D. (2005). Life history aspects and population dynamics of a commercially exploited stingray, Dasyatis dipterura. M.Sc. Thesis, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA.

Smith, W. D. , Cailliet, G. M. , and Mariano-Melendez, E. (2007). Maturity and growth characteristics of a commercially exploited stingray, Dasyatis dipterura. Marine and Freshwater Research 58, 54–66.
CrossRef |

Stevens, J. D. , Bonfil, R. , Dulvy, N. K. , and Walker, P. A. (2000). The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57, 476–494.
CrossRef |

Thrush, S. F. , Pridmore, R. D. , Hewitt, J. E. , and Cummings, V. J. (1991). Impact of ray feeding disturbances on sandflat macrobenthos: do communities dominated by polychaetes or shellfish respond differently? Marine Ecology Progress Series 69, 245–252.
CrossRef |

Tsehaye, I. , Machiels, M. A. M. , and Nagelkerke, L. A. J. (2007). Rapid shifts in catch composition in the artisanal Red Sea reef fisheries of Eritrea. Fisheries Research 86, 56–68.
CrossRef |

Vannuccini S. (1999). Shark utilization, marketing, and trade. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 389.

Vetter, E. F. (1988). Estimation of natural mortality in fish stocks: a review. Fishery Bulletin 86, 25–43.


Villavicencio-Garayzar, C. J. (1995). Distribución temporal y condición reproductive de las rayas (Pisces: Batoidei), capturadas commercialmente en Bahía Almejas, B.C.S., México. Revista de Investigación Científica 6(1–2), 1–12.


Walker, P. A. , and Hislop, J. R. G. (1998). Sensitive skates or resilient rays? Spatial and temporal shifts in ray species composition in the central and north-western North Sea between 1930 and the present day. ICES Journal of Marine Science 55, 392–402.
CrossRef |

Walker, T. I. (1998). Can shark resources be harvested sustainably? A question revisited with a review of shark fisheries. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, 553–572.
CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (19)