Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

A field and experimental study on the tolerances of fish to Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate and low dissolved oxygen concentrations

Damien McMaster A B and Nick Bond A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: damien.mcmaster@sci.monash.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research 59(2) 177-185 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF07140
Submitted: 3 August 2007  Accepted: 26 January 2008   Published: 27 February 2008

Abstract

In intermittent streams, deteriorating water quality during drying influences fish survival but the specific effects of individual variables and their interactions are poorly known. During summer 2002 and 2004, fish were surveyed in isolated pools of two lowland intermittent streams in south-east Australia. Despite a low dissolved oxygen (DO, range = 0.4–6.8 mg L–1) and high dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 16–50 mg L–1) concentrations, assemblage composition and abundance of native fish appeared unaffected. In subsequent laboratory experiments, concentrations of DO and DOC were independently manipulated to identify better the tolerance of these species to extremes in environmental conditions. At low DOC concentrations (20 mg L–1), no significant effects were observed. At high DOC concentrations (50, 70 and 80 mg L–1), an interaction was observed between DOC and DO, with significant reductions in resistance (decreased time to loss of buoyancy). At extreme DOC concentrations (99 mg L–1), the effect of DO appeared to have been overridden by a strong effect from DOC (rapid loss of equilibrium). The thresholds observed suggest these species have a high resistance to ‘blackwater events’ caused by leaching of DOC from terrestrial leaf litter. Our findings are consistent with the observed tolerances of fish occupying habitats, both in Australia and elsewhere in the world, where extreme physicochemical conditions are a regular and predictable occurrence.

Additional keywords: blackwater events, Galaxis olidus, Hypseleotris klunzingeri, intermittent streams, Nannoperca australis.


Acknowledgements

Many thanks go to Amanda Lee, Paul Reich, Mike Grace, Matthew Johnson, Sam Lake, Slobodanka Stojkovic-Tadic, Darren Baldwin and David Reid for help in the laboratory and comments on the manuscript. We also thank Andrew Boulton and four anonymous reviewers whose constructive comments significantly improved the manuscript. Nick Bond thanks the eWater CRC for funding support. This research was completed with the permission of the Monash University Animal Ethics Committee.


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