Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences

Calcified macroalgae – critical to coastal ecosystems and vulnerable to change: a review

W. A. Nelson

National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Private Bag 14-901, Wellington 6241, New Zealand. Email:

Marine and Freshwater Research 60(8) 787-801
Submitted: 3 December 2008  Accepted: 8 February 2009   Published: 27 August 2009


Calcified macroalgae are distributed in marine habitats from polar to tropical latitudes and from intertidal shores to the deepest reaches of the euphotic zone. These algae play critical ecological roles including being key to a range of invertebrate recruitment processes, functioning as autogenic ecosystem engineers through provision of three-dimensional habitat structure, as well as contributing critical structural strength in coral reef ecosystems. Calcified macroalgae contribute significantly to the deposition of carbonates in coastal environments. These organisms are vulnerable to human-induced changes resulting from land and coastal development, such as altered patterns of sedimentation, nutrient enrichment through sewage and agricultural run-off, and are affected by coastal dredging and aquaculture. The consequences of increasing sea surface temperatures and fundamental changes in the carbon chemistry of seawater due to CO2 emissions from anthropogenic activities will have serious impacts on calcifying macroalgae. It is not yet understood how interactions between a range of variables acting at local and global scales will influence the viability of calcifying macroalgae and associated ecosystems. Research is urgently needed on all aspects of the taxonomy, biology and functional ecology of calcifying macroalgae. Without an understanding of the species present, measurement of change and understanding species-specific responses will not be possible.

Additional keywords: calcified green algae, carbonate deposition, Corallinales, ecosystem engineers, invertebrate recruitment, maerl, ocean acidification, rhodoliths.


Adey W. H.1998Coral reefs: Algal structured and mediated ecosystems in shallow, turbulent, alkaline waters.Journal of Phycology34393406doi:10.1046/J.1529-8817.1998.340393.X

Amado-Filho G. M.Maneveldt G.Manso R. C. C.Marins-Rosa B. V.Pacheco M. al.2007Structure of rhodolith beds from 4 to 55 meters deep along the southern coast of Espírito Santo State, Brazil.Ciencias Marinas33399410

Andersson A. J.Bates N. R.Mackenzie F. T.2007Dissolution of carbonate sediments under rising pCO2 and ocean acidification: observations from Devil’s Hole, Bermuda.Aquatic Geochemistry13237264

Anthony K. R. N.Kline D. I.Diaz-Pulido G.Dove S.Hoegh-Guldberg O.2008Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America1051744217446doi:10.1073/PNAS.0804478105

Barbera C.Bordehore C.Borg J. A.Glémarec M.Grall al.2003Conservation and management of northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean maerl beds.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems13S65S76doi:10.1002/AQC.569

Basso D.1998Deep rhodolith distribution in the Pontian Islands, Italy: a model for the paleoecology of a temperate sea.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology137173187doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(97)00099-0

Belliveau S. A.Paul V. J.2002Effects of herbivory and nutrients on the early colonization of crustose coralline and fleshy algae.Marine Ecology Progress Series232105114doi:10.3354/MEPS232105

Bjork M.Mohammed S.Bjorkland M.Semsi A.1995Coralline algae, important coral reef builders threatened by pollution.Ambio24502505

Blair S. M.Norris J. N.1988The deep-water species of Halimeda Lamouroux (Halimediaceae, Chlorophyta) from San Salvador Island, Bahamas: species composition, distribution and depth records.Coral Reefs6227236

Blake C.Maggs C. A.2003Comparative growth rates and internal banding periodicity of maerl species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from northern Europe.Phycologia42606612

Blake C.Maggs C.Reimer P.2007Use of radiocarbon dating to interpret past environments of maerl beds.Ciencias Marinas33385397

Blanchon P.Jones B.Kalbfleisch W.1997Anatomy of a fringing reef around Grand Cayman: storm rubble, not coral framework.Journal of Sedimentary Research67116

Bohm L.Schramm W.Rabsch U.1978Ecological and physiological aspects of some coralline algae from the Western Baltic. Calcium uptake and skeleton formation in Phymatolithon calcareum.Kieler Meeresforschungen4282288

Bordehore C.Ramos-Esplá A. A.Riosmena-Rodríguez R.2003Comparative study of two maerl beds with different otter trawling history, southeast Iberian Peninsula.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems13S43S54

Bosence D. W. J.1983Coralline algal reef frameworks.Journal of the Geological Society140365376doi:10.1144/GSJGS.140.3.0365

Bosence D.Wilson J.2003Maerl growth, carbonate production rates and accumulation rates in the northeast Atlantic.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems13S21S31doi:10.1002/AQC.565

Bosence D. W. J.Rowlands R.Quine M. J.1985Sedimentology and budget of a recent carbonate mound, Florida Keys.Sedimentology32317343doi:10.1111/J.1365-3091.1985.TB00515.X

Briand X. (1991). Seaweed harvesting in Europe. In ‘Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential’. (Eds M. D. Guiry and G. Blunden.) pp. 293–308. (Wiley: London.)

Broom J. E. S.Hart D. R.Farr T. J.Nelson W. A.Neill K. al.2008Utility of psbA and nSSU for phylogenetic reconstruction in the Corallinales based on New Zealand taxa.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution46958973doi:10.1016/J.YMPEV.2007.12.016

Brown P. J.Taylor R. B.1999Effects of trampling by humans on animals inhabiting coralline algal turf in the rocky intertidal.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology2354553doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(98)00186-5

Cabioch J.1969Les fonds de maërl de la baie de Morlaix et leur peuplement végétal.Cahiers de Biologie Marine10139161

Carannante G.Esteban M.Milliman J. D.Simone L.1988Carbonate lithofacies as paleolatitude indicators: problems and limitations.Sedimentary Geology60333346

Chapman M. G.People J.Blockley D.2005Intertidal assemblages associated with natural Corallina turf and invasive mussel beds.Biodiversity and Conservation1417611776doi:10.1007/S10531-004-0698-8

Chave K.Wheeler B. D.1965Mineralogic changes during growth in the red alga, Clathromorphum compactum.Science147621doi:10.1126/SCIENCE.147.3658.621

Chisholm J. R. M.2003Primary productivity of reef-building crustose coralline algae.Limnology and Oceanography4813761387

Chittaro P. M.2004Fish-habitat associations across multiple spatial scales.Coral Reefs23235244

Cintra-Buenrostro C. E.Foster M. S.Meldahl K. H.2002Response of nearshore marine assemblages to global change: a comparison of molluscan assemblages in Pleistocene and modern rhodolith beds in the southwestern Gulf of California, México.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology183299320doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(02)00248-1

Daleo P.Escapa M.Alberti J.Iribarne O.2006Negative effects of an autogenic ecosystem engineer: interactions between coralline turf and an ephemeral green alga.Marine Ecology Progress Series3156773doi:10.3354/MEPS315067

Daume S.Brand-Gardner S.Woelkerling W. J.1999Settlement of abalone larvae (Haliotis laevigata Donovan) in response to nongeniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology234125143doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(98)00143-9

Davies P. J.Braga J. C.Lund M.Webster J. M.2004Holocene deep water algal buildups on the Eastern Australian shelf.Palaios19598609doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2004)019<0598:HDWABO>2.0.CO;2

De Grave S., Fazakerley H., Kelly L., Guiry M. D., Ryan M., et al. (2000). A study of selected maërl beds in Irish waters and their potential for sustainable extraction. Marine Institute Report IR.95.MR.019 of the Marine Research Measure, Ireland.

Diaz-Pulido G., McCook L. J., Larkum A. W. D., Lotze H. K., Raven J. A., et al. (2007). Vulnerability of macroalgae of the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In ‘Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef: A Vulnerability Assessment’. (Eds J. Johnson and P. Marshall), pp. 151–192. (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Australian Greenhouse Office: Townsville.)

Doney S. C.Fabry V. J.Feely R. A.Kleypas J. A.2009Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem.Annual Review of Materials Science2009169192

Drew E. A.Abel K. M.1988Studies on Halimeda I. The distribution and species composition of Halimeda meadows throughout the Great Barrier Reef Province.Coral Reefs6195205

Engel J.Kvitek R.1998Effects of otter trawling on a benthic community in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.Conservation Biology1212041214

Felício-Fernandes G.Laranjeira M. C. M.2000Calcium phosphate biomaterials from marine algae. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation.Quimica Nova23441446doi:10.1590/S0100-40422000000400002

Figueiredo M. A. de-O.Santos-de Menezes K.Costa-Paiva E. M.Paiva P. C.Ventura C. R. R.2007Experimental evaluation of rhodoliths as living substrata for infauna at the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.Ciencias Marinas33427440

Flügel E.1988Halimeda: paleontological record and paleoenvironmental significance.Coral Reefs6123130

Foster M. S.2001Rhodoliths: between rocks and soft places.Journal of Phycology37659667doi:10.1046/J.1529-8817.2001.00195.X

Foster M. S.Riosmena-Rodríguez R.Steller D. L.Woelkerling W. J.1997Living rhodolith beds in the Gulf of California and their implications for paleoenvironmental interpretation.Geological Society of America Bulletin318127139

Foster M. S.McConnico L. M.Lundsten L.Wadsworth T.Kimball al.2007Diversity and natural history of a Lithothamnion muelleriSargassum horridum community in the Gulf of California.Ciencias Marinas33367384

Frantz B. R.Kashgarian M.Coale K. H.Foster M. S.2000Growth rate and potential climate record from a rhodolith using 14C accelerator mass spectrometry.Limnology and Oceanography4517731777

Frantz B. R.Foster M. S.Riosmena-Rodríguez R.2005Clathromorphum nereostratum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): the oldest alga?Journal of Phycology41770773

Freiwald A.1998Modern nearshore cold-temperate calcareous sediments in the Troms districts, northern Norway.Journal of Sedimentary Research68763776

Freiwald A.Henrich R.Schafer P.Willkomm H.1991The significance of high boreal to subarctic maerl deposits in northern Norway to reconstruct Holocene climatic changes and sea level oscillations.Facies25315339

Gao K.Aruga Y.Asada K.Ishihara T.Akano T.Kiyohara M.1993Calcification in the articulated coralline alga Corallina pilulifera, with special reference to the effect of elevated CO2 concentration.Marine Biology117129132doi:10.1007/BF00346434

Goldberg N.2006Age estimates and description of rhodoliths from Esperance Bay, Western Australia.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom8612911296doi:10.1017/S0025315406014317

Grall J.Glemarec M.1997Biodiversity of maerl beds in Brittany: Functional approach and anthropogenic impact.Vie et Milieu47339349

Grall J.Hall-Spencer J. M.2003Problems facing maerl conservation in Brittany.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems13S55S64

Grall J.Le Loc’h F.Guyonnet B.Riera P.2006Community structure and food web based on stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) analyses of a North Eastern Atlantic maerl bed.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology338115doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2006.06.013

Guiry M. D., and Guiry G. M. (2008). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Available at [Accessed 24 November 2008].

Halfar J.Zack T.Kronz A.Zachos J. C.2000Growth and high-resolution paleoenvironmental signals of rhodoliths (coralline red algae): a new biogenic archive.Journal of Geophysical Research1052210722116doi:10.1029/1999JC000128

Halfar J.Godinez-Orta L.Mutti M.Valdez-Holguin J. E.Borges J. M.2006Carbonates calibrated against oceanographic parameters along a latitudinal transect in the Gulf of California, México.Sedimentology53297320doi:10.1111/J.1365-3091.2005.00766.X

Halfar J.Steneck R.Schone B. R.Moore G. W. K.Joachimski M. al.2007Coralline alga reveals first marine record of subarctic North Pacific climate change.Geophysical Research Letters34L07702doi:10.1029/2006GL028811

Halfar J.Steneck R. S.Joachimski M.Kronz A.Wanamaker A. D.2008Coralline red algae as high-resolution climate recorders.Geology36463466doi:10.1130/G24635A.1

Hall-Spencer J.Moore P. G.2000Scallop dredging has profound, long-term impacts on maerl habitats.ICES Journal of Marine Science5714071415doi:10.1006/JMSC.2000.0918

Hall-Spencer J.Grall J.Moore P. G.Atkinson R. J. A.2003Bivalve fishing and maërl-bed conservation in France and the UK – retrospect and prospect.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems133341doi:10.1002/AQC.566

Hall-Spencer J.White N.Gillespie E.Gillham K.Foggo A.2006Impact of fish farms on maerl beds in strongly tidal areas.Marine Ecology Progress Series32619doi:10.3354/MEPS326001

Hall-Spencer J., Kelly J., and Maggs C. A. (2008a). Assessment of maerl beds in the OSPAR area and the development of a monitoring program. (Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government: Ireland.)

Hall-Spencer J. M.Rodolfo-Metalpa R.Martin S.Ransome E.Fine al.2008bVolcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.Nature4549699doi:10.1038/NATURE07051

Harrington L.Fabricius K.De’ath D.Negri A.2004Recognition and selection of settlement substrata determine post-settlement survival in corals.Ecology8534283437doi:10.1890/04-0298

Hart D. E.Kench P. S.2007Carbonate production of an emergent reef platform, Warraber Island, Torres Strait, Australia.Coral Reefs265368doi:10.1007/S00338-006-0168-8

Harvey A. S.Bird F. L.2008Community structure of a rhodolith bed from cold temperate waters (southern Australia).Australian Journal of Botany56437450doi:10.1071/BT07186

Harvey A. S., Woelkerling W. J., Farr T. J., Neill K. F. and Nelson W. A. (2005). Coralline algae of central New Zealand: An identification guide to common ‘crustose’ species. In ‘NIWA Information Series Vol. 57’. (Wellington: New Zealand.)

Hetzinger S.Halfar J.Riegl B.Godinez-Orta L.2006Sedimentology and acoustic mapping of modern rhodolith facies on a non-tropical carbonate shelf (Gulf of California, Mexico).Journal of Sedimentary Research76670682doi:10.2110/JSR.2006.053

Heyward A. J.Negri A. P.1999Natural inducers for coral larval metamorphosis.Coral Reefs18273279doi:10.1007/S003380050193

Hicks G. R. F.1971Check list and ecological notes on the fauna associated with some littoral corallinaceae algae.Bulletin of Natural Science24758

Hicks G. R. F. (1986). Meiofauna associated with rocky shore algae. In ‘The Ecology of Rocky Coasts’. (Eds P. G. Moore and R. Seed) pp. 36–56. (Hodder and Stoughton: London.)

Hinojosa-Arango G.Riosmena-Rodríguez R.2004Influence of rhodolith forming species and growth-form on associated fauna of rhodolith beds in the Central-West Gulf of California, México.Marine Ecology (Berlin)25109127

Iryu Y.Nakamori T.Matsuda S.Abe O.1995Distribution of marine organisms and its geological significance in the modern reef complex of the Ryukyu Islands.Sedimentary Geology99243258doi:10.1016/0037-0738(95)00047-C

Jackson J. B. C.2008Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America1051145811465doi:10.1073/PNAS.0802812105

Jokiel P. L.Rodgers K. S.Kuffner I. B.Andersson A. J.Cox E. F.Mackenzie F. T.2008Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: a mesocosm investigation.Coral Reefs27473483doi:10.1007/S00338-008-0380-9

Jones C. G.Lawton J. H.Shachak M.1994Organisms as ecosystem engineers.Oikos69373386doi:10.2307/3545850

Kamenos N. A.Moore P. G.Hall-Spencer J. M.2003Substratum heterogeneity of dredged vs un-dredged maerl grounds.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom83411413doi:10.1017/S0025315403007264H

Kamenos N. A.Moore G. P.Hall-Spencer J. M.2004aSmall-scale distribution of juvenile gadoids in shallow inshore waters; what role does maerl play?ICES Journal of Marine Science61422429doi:10.1016/J.ICESJMS.2004.02.004

Kamenos N. A.Moore G. P.Hall-Spencer J. M.2004bNursery-area function of maerl grounds for juvenile queen scallops Aequipecten opercularis and other invertebrates.Marine Ecology Progress Series274183189doi:10.3354/MEPS274183

Kamenos N. A.Cusack M.Moore P. G.2008Coralline algae are global palaeothermometers with bi-weekly resolution.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta72771779doi:10.1016/J.GCA.2007.11.019

Kao S.Scott D.2007A review of bone substitutes.Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America19513521doi:10.1016/J.COMS.2007.06.002

Kasperk C.Ewers R.Simons B.Kasperk R.1988Algae-derived (phycogene) hydrocylapatite: a comparative histological study.International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery17319324

Keegan B. F.1974The macrofauna of maerl substrates on the west coast of Ireland.Cahiers de Biologie Marine15513530

Kelaher B. P.2002Influence of physical characteristics of coralline turf on associated macrofaunal assemblages.Marine Ecology Progress Series232141148

Kelaher B. P.Castilla J. C.Seed R.2004Intercontinental test of generality for spatial patterns among diverse molluscan assemblages in coralline algal turf.Marine Ecology Progress Series271221231doi:10.3354/MEPS271221

Kempf M.1970Notes of the benthic bionomy of the N-NE Brazilian shelf.Marine Biology5213224doi:10.1007/BF00346909

Konar B.Riosmena-Rodriguez R.Iken K.2006Rhodolith bed: a newly discovered habitat in the North Pacific Ocean.Botanica Marina49355359doi:10.1515/BOT.2006.044

Kuffner I. B.Andersson A. J.Jokiel P. L.Rodgers K. S.Mackenzie F. T.2007Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification.Nature Geoscience1114117doi:10.1038/NGEO100

Langdon C.2002Review of experimental evidence for effects of CO2 on calcification of reef-builders.Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium210911098doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00258-8

Lee D.Carpenter S. J.2001Isotopic disequilibrium in marine calcareous algae.Chemical Geology172307329doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00258-8

Littler M. M.1973The population and community structure of Hawaiian fringing-reef crustose Corallinaceae (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales).Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology11103120doi:10.1016/0022-0981(73)90050-6

Littler M. M., and Littler D. S. (1984). Models of tropical reef biogenesis: the contribution of algae. In ‘Progress in Phycological Research, Vol. 3’. (Eds F. E. Round and D. J. Chapman.) pp. 323–364. (Biopress: Bristol.)

Littler M. M.Littler D.2007Assessment of coral reefs using herbivory/nutrient assays and indicator groups of benthic primary producers: a critical synthesis, proposed protocols, and a critique of management strategies.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems17195215doi:10.1002/AQC.790

Littler M. M.Littler D. S.Blair S. M.Norris J. N.1985Deepest known plant life discovered on an uncharted seamount.Science2275759doi:10.1126/SCIENCE.227.4682.57

Littler M. M.Littler D.Hanisak M. D.1991Deep-water rhodolith distribution, productivity, and growth history at sites of formation and subsequent degradation.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology150163182doi:10.1016/0022-0981(91)90066-6

Liuzzi M. G.Gappa J. L.2008Macrofaunal assemblages associated with coralline turf: species turnover and changes in structure at different spatial scales.Marine Ecology Progress Series363147156doi:10.3354/MEPS07449

Lobban C., and Harrison P. J. (1994). ‘Seaweed Ecology and Physiology’. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.)

Lund M.Davies P. J.Braga J. C.2000Coralline algal nodules off Fraser Island, eastern Australia.Facies422534doi:10.1007/BF02562564

Maliao R. J.Turingan R. G.Lin J.2008Phase-shift in coral reef communities in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), USA.Marine Biology154841853doi:10.1007/S00227-008-0977-0

Marrack E. C.1999The relationship between water motion and living rhodolith beds in the southwestern Gulf of California, Mexico.Palaios14159171doi:10.2307/3515371

Marshall J. F.Davies P. J.1988Halimeda bioherms of the northern Great Barrier Reef.Coral Reefs6139148doi:10.1007/BF00302010

McConnaughey T.1998Acid secretion, calcification, and photosynthetic carbon concentrating mechanisms.Canadian Journal of Botany7611191126doi:10.1139/CJB-76-6-1119

McConnaughey T. A.Whelan J. F.1997Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake.Earth-Science Reviews4295117doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(96)00036-0

Milliman J. D. (1977). Role of calcareous algae in Atlantic continental margin sedimentation. In ‘Fossil Algae: Recent Results and Developments’. (Ed. E. Flugel) pp. 232–247. (Springer Verlag: Berlin.)

Morse A. N. C.1991How do planktonic larvae know where to settle?American Scientist79154167

Morse D. E.Morse A. N. C.1991Enzymatic characterisation of the morphogen recognized by Agaricia humilis (scleratinian coral) larvae.The Biological Bulletin181104122

Morse A. N. C.Iwao K.Baba M.Shimoike K.Hayashibara T.Omori M.1996An ancient chemosensory mechanism brings new life to coral reefs.The Biological Bulletin191149154doi:10.2307/1542917

Morse J. W.Andersson A. J.Mackenzie F. T.2006Initial responses of carbonate-rich shelf sediments to rising atmospheric pCO2 and ocean acidification: role of high Mg-calcites.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta7058145830doi:10.1016/J.GCA.2006.08.017

Moss G. A.1999Factors affecting settlement and early post-settlement survival of the New Zealand abalone Haliotis iris.New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research33271278

Nalin R.Nelson C. S.Basso D.Massari F.2008Rhodolith-bearing limestones as transgressive marker beds: fossil and modern examples from North Island, New Zealand.Sedimentology55249274

Nebelsick J. H.Bassi D.2000Diversity, growth forms and taphonomy: key factors controlling the fabric of coralline algae dominated shelf carbonates.Geological Society of London17889107doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2000.178.01.07

Nelson C. S.1988An introductory perspective on non-tropical shelf carbonates.Sedimentary Geology60312doi:10.1016/0037-0738(88)90108-X

Oliveira J. M.Grech J. M. R.Leonor I. B.Mano J. F.Reis R. L.2007Calcium-phosphate derived from mineralized algae for bone tissue engineering applications.Materials Letters6134953499doi:10.1016/J.MATLET.2006.11.099

Payri C. E.1988Halimeda contribution to organic and inorganic production in a Tahitian reef system.Coral Reefs6251262doi:10.1007/BF00302021

Payri C. E.1997Hydrolithon reinboldii rhodolith distribution, growth and carbon production of a French Polynesian reef.Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium1755760doi:10.1007/BF00302021

Payri C. E.Cabioch G.2004The systematics and significance of coralline red algae in the rhodolith sequence of the Amédée 4 drill core (Southwest New Caledonia).Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology204187208doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00720-X

Pedley M.Carannante G.2006Cool-water carbonate ramps: a review.Geological Society of London. Special Publications25519doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.255.01.01

Peña V.Bárbara I.2008Maërl community in the north-western Iberian Peninsula: a review of floristic studies and long term changes.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems18339366doi:10.1002/AQC.847

Potin P.Floc’h J. Y.Augris C.Cabioch J.1990Annual growth rate of the calcareous red alga Lithothamnion coralloides (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in the Bay of Brest, France.Hydrobiologia204–205263267doi:10.1007/BF00040243

Raimondi P. T.Morse A. N. C.2000The consequences of complex larval behaviour in a coral.Ecology8131933211

Riosmena-Rodríguez R.Woelkerling W.Foster M. S.1999Taxonomic reassessment of rhodolith-forming species of Lithophyllum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in the Gulf of California, México.Phycologia38401417

Riul P.Targino C. H.Da Nóbrega Farias J.Visscher P. T.Horta P. A.2008Decrease in Lithothamnion sp. (Rhodophyta) primary production due to the deposition of a thin sediment layer.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom881719

Roberts R.2001A review of settlement cues for larval abalone (Haliotis spp.).Journal of Shellfish Research20571586

Roberts R. D.Kühl M.Glud R. N.Rysgaard S.2002Primary production of crustose coralline red algae in a high Arctic fjord.Journal of Phycology38273283

Ruiz-Zárate M. A.Espinoza-Avalos J.Carricart-Ganivet J. P.Fragoso D.2000Relationships between Manicina areolata (Cnidaria: Scleractinia), Thalassia testudinum (Anthophyta) and Neogoniolithon sp. (Rhodophyta).Marine Ecology Progress Series206135146doi:10.3354/MEPS206135

Schwarz A.-M.Hawes I.Andrew N.Mercer S.Cummings al.2005Primary production potential of non-geniculate coralline algae at Cape Evans, Ross Sea, Antarctica.Marine Ecology Progress Series294131140doi:10.3354/MEPS294131

Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Alley R. B., Berntsen T., et al. (2007). Technical Summary. In ‘Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’. (Eds S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis et al.) (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.)

Spalding H.Foster M. S.Heine J. N.2003Composition, distribution, and abundance of deepwater (>30 m) macroalgae in central California.Journal of Phycology39273284

Steller D. L.Foster M. S.1995Environmental factors influencing distribution and morphology of rhodoliths on Bahía Concepción, B.C.S., México.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology194201212

Steller D. L.Riosmena-Rodríguez R.Foster M. S.Roberts C. A.2003Rhodolith bed diversity in the Gulf of California: the importance of rhodolith structure and consequences of disturbance.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems13S5S20doi:10.1002/AQC.564

Steller D. L.Hernández-Ayón J. M.Riosmena-Rodríguez R.Cabello-Pasini A.2007Effect of temperature on photosynthesis, growth and calcification rates of the free-living coralline alga Lithophyllum margaritae.Ciencias Marinas33441456

Steneck R. S.Macintyre I. G.Reid R. P.1997A unique ridge system in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas.Coral Reefs162937

Stewart J. G.1982Anchor species and epiphytes in intertidal algal turf.Pacific Science364559

Testa V.Bosence D. W. J.1999Physical and biological controls on the formation of carbonate and siliciclastic bedforms on the north-east Brazilian shelf.Sedimentology46279301

Tsuji Y.1993Tide influenced high energy environments and rhodolith-associated carbonate deposition on the outer shelf and slope off the Miyako Islands, southern Ryukyu Island Arc, Japan.Marine Geology113255271doi:10.1016/0025-3227(93)90021-M

Wilson S.Blake C.Berges J. A.Maggs C. A.2004Environmental tolerances of free-living coralline algae (maerl): implications for European marine conservation.Biological Conservation120279289doi:10.1016/J.BIOCON.2004.03.001

Woelkerling W. J. (1988). ‘The Coralline Red Algae: An Analysis of the Genera and Subfamilies of Nongeniculate Corallinaceae’. (British Museum (Natural History) and Oxford University Press: London and Oxford.)

Woelkerling W. J.Irvine L. M.Harvey A. S.1993Growth forms in non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).Australian Systematic Botany6277293doi:10.1071/SB9930277

Yabur-Pacheco R.Riosmena-Rodríguez R.2006Rhodolith bed composition in the southwestern Gulf of California, Mexico.The Nagisa World Congress13747

Zaneveld J. S.Sanford R. B.1980Crustose corallinaceous algae (Rhodophyta) of the New Zealand and United States Scientific Expedition to the Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, and Macquarie Ridge, 1965.Blumea26205231

Rent Article Export Citation Cited By (118)