Too close for comfort: a fishway exit and a hydro-power station inlet
Ivor G. Stuart A B C , John D. Koehn A , Tim A. O’Brien A , John A. McKenzie A and Gerry P. Quinn B
A Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, PO Box 137, Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia.
B Present address: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Vic. 3280, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Marine and Freshwater Research 61(1) 23-33 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF08340
Submitted: 14 December 2008 Accepted: 3 June 2009 Published: 29 January 2010
A major environmental issue for hydro-electric power generation is passage of fish through turbines, or entrainment onto trash racks. At Yarrawonga Weir, on the upper Murray River in south-eastern Australia, the positioning of a fish lock resulted in the potential for upstream migrating fish to be swept back into the adjacent power station by cross flows. In 2004, a 4.5-m long steel extension flume was attached to the exit to alleviate this problem. To determine the fate of native fish after exiting the extension flume, 72 individuals (305–1015 mm long) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into the fish lock exit channel. In 2004 (power station inflows 10 300 ML day–1), the majority of fish exited successfully (44 of 45) and only a single fish (2%) was entrained into the power station. In 2005 (power station inflows 12 000 ML day–1), fish again exited successfully (26 of 27) but with a higher proportion entrained (5 of 27; 18%). This reduced success appeared to be related to strong transverse flows with high water velocities adjacent to the fish lock exit. The efficiency of fish passage at this site might be improved by altering water management strategies, integrating engineering and fish biology, and through field-testing of proposed solutions.
Additional keywords: Australia, fish lock, migration, Murray River, potamodromous.
Agostinho A. A.Gomes L. C.Fernandez D. R.Suzuki H. I.2002Efficiency of fish ladders for neotropical ichthyofauna.River Research and Applications18299306doi:10.1002/RRA.674
Barrett J.Mallen-Cooper M.2006The Murray River’s ‘Sea to Hume Dam’ fish passage program: progress to date and lessons learned.Ecological Management and Restoration7173183doi:10.1111/J.1442-8903.2006.00307.X
Baumgartner L. J.Harris J. H.2007Passage of non-salmonid fish through a Deelder lock on a lowland river.River Research and Applications2310581069doi:10.1002/RRA.1032
Baumgartner L. J., Reynoldson N., and Stanger J. (2006). Assessment of a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) for application in fish migration studies. NSW Department of Primary Industries Final Report No. 84. Narrandera, New South Wales.
Baumgartner L. J.Stuart I. G.Zampatti B. P.2008Determining diel variation in fish assemblages downstream of three weirs in a regulated lowland river.Journal of Fish Biology72218232
Boubee J. A. T.Williams E. K.2006Downstream passage of silver eels at a small hydro-electric facility.Fisheries Management and Ecology13165176doi:10.1111/J.1365-2400.2006.00489.X
Cada G. F. (1998). Fish passage mitigation at hydro-electric power projects in the United States. In ‘Fish Migration and Fish Bypasses’. (Eds M. Jungwirth, S. Schmutz and S. Weiss.) pp. 208–219. (Fishing News Books: Oxford.)
Cada G. F.2001The development of advanced hydro-electric turbines to improve fish passage survival.Fisheries261423doi:10.1577/1548-8446(2001)026<0014:TDOAHT>2.0.CO;2
Cada G.Loar J.Garrison L.Fisher R.Neitzel D.2006Efforts to reduce mortality to hydro-electric turbine-passed fish: locating and quantifying damaging shear stresses.Environmental Management37898906doi:10.1007/S00267-005-0061-1
Carr J. W.Whoriskey F. G.2008Migration of silver American eels past a hydroelectric dam and through a coastal zone.Fisheries Management and Ecology15393400
Clay C. H. (1995). ‘Design of Fishways and Other Fish Facilities.’ 2nd edn. (Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton.)
Cowx I. G. (1998). Fish passage facilities in the UK: issues and options for future development. In ‘Fish Migration and Fish Bypasses’. (Eds M. Jungwirth, S. Schmutz and S. Weiss.) pp. 220–235. (Fishing News Books: Oxford.)
Dudgeon D.2005River rehabilitation for conservation of fish biodiversity in monsoonal Asia.Ecology and Society1015
Ferguson J. W., Poe T. P., and Carlson T. J. (1998). Surface-oriented bypass systems for juvenile salmonids on the Columbia River, USA. In ‘Fish Migration and Fish Bypasses’. (Eds M. Jungwirth, S. Schmutz and S. Weiss.) pp. 281–299. (Fishing News Books: Oxford.)
Godinho A. L.Kynard B.2009Migratory fishes of Brazil: life history and fish passage needs.River Research and Applications25702712doi:10.1002/RRA.1180
Gosset C.Travade F.Durif C.Rives J.Elie P.2005Tests of two types of bypass for downstream migration of eels at a small hydro-electric power plant.River Research and Applications2110951105doi:10.1002/RRA.871
Jones M.Stuart I.2007Movements and habitat use of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) juveniles in a large lowland Australian river.Ecology of Freshwater Fish16210220
Koehn J. D. (2006). The ecology and conservation management of Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii. PhD Thesis, University of Melbourne.
Koehn J. D.Harrington D. J.2005Collection and distribution of the early life stages of Murray cod (Maccullochella peellii peellii) in a regulated river.Australian Journal of Zoology53137144doi:10.1071/ZO04086
Koehn J. D., Stuart I. G., and Crook D. A. (2003). Linking the ecological importance of downstream fish movements to management of Murray-Darling Basin fishes. In ‘Downstream movement of fish in the Murray-Darling Basin’. (Eds M. Lintermans and B. Phillips.) pp. 67–78. (Murray-Darling Basin Commission: Canberra.)
Koehn J. D.Nicol S. J.Leischke J. A.Lyon J. P.Pomorin K.2008Spatial ecology of an endangered native Australian Percichthyid fish, the trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis.Endangered Species Research4219225doi:10.3354/ESR00075
Larinier M.Travade F.Porcher J. P.2002Fishways: biological basis, design criteria and monitoring.Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture364102118
Lawson and Treloar Pty Ltd (2001). Yarrawonga fishway modelling. Report for Goulburn-Murray Water. Notting Hill, Victoria.
Lintermans M. (2007). ‘Fishes of the Murray-Darling Basin: An Introductory Guide’. (Murray-Darling Basin Commission: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.)
Lucas M. C., and Baras E. (2001). ‘Migration of Freshwater Fishes.’ (Blackwell Science: Oxford.)
Mallen-Cooper M. (1999). Developing fishways for non-salmonid fishes; a case study from the Murray River in Australia. In ‘Innovations in Fish Passage Technology’. (Ed. M. Odeh.) pp. 173–195. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD.)
Nicol S. J.Lieschke J. A.Lyon J. P.Koehn J. D.2004Observations on the distribution and abundance of common carp and native fish, and their response to a habitat restoration trial in the Murray River, Australia.New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research38541552
Northcote T. G. (1998). Migratory behaviour of fish and its significance to movement through riverine passage facilities. In ‘Fish Migration and Fish Bypasses’. (Eds M. Jungwirth, S. Schmutz and S. Weiss.) pp. 3–18. (Fishing News Books: Oxford, UK.)
O’Connor J. P.O’Mahony D. J.O’Mahony J. M.2005Movements of Macquaria ambigua, in the Murray River, south-eastern Australia.Journal of Fish Biology66392403doi:10.1111/J.0022-1112.2005.00604.X
O’Connor J. P.O’Mahony D. J.O’Mahony J. M.Glenane T. J.2006Some impacts of low and medium head weirs on downstream fish movements in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.Ecology of Freshwater Fish15419427doi:10.1111/J.1600-0633.2006.00162.X
Oldani N. O.Baigun C. R.Nestler J. M.Goodwin R. A.2007Is fish passage technology saving fish resources in the lower La Plata River basin?Neotropical Ichthyology589102doi:10.1590/S1679-62252007000200002
Santos J. M.Ferreira M. T.Pinheiro A. N.Bochechas J. H.2006Effects of small hydropower plants on fish assemblages in medium-sized streams in central and northern Portugal.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems16373388doi:10.1002/AQC.735
Sheaves M.Huu Duc N.Xuan Khoa N.2008Ecological attributes of a tropical river basin vulnerable to the impacts of clustered hydropower developments.Marine and Freshwater Research59971986doi:10.1071/MF08029
Stokesbury K. E. D.Dadswell M. J.1991Mortality of juvenile clupeids during passage through a tidal, low-head hydro-electric turbine at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia.North American Journal of Fisheries Management11149154doi:10.1577/1548-8675(1991)011<0149:MOJCDP>2.3.CO;2
Stuart I. G.Berghuis A. P.Long P. E.Mallen-Cooper M.2007Do fish locks have potential in tropical rivers?River Research and Applications23269286doi:10.1002/RRA.979
Stuart I.Baumgartner L.Zampatti B.2008Can a low slope fishway provide passage for a lowland river fish community?Marine and Freshwater Research59332346doi:10.1071/MF07141
Thorncraft G. A., and Harris J. H. (1997). Rock-ramp and lock fishways as tools for solving fish passage problems in New South Wales, Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the Second National Fishway Technical Workshop’. (Eds A. P. Berghuis, P. Long and I. G. Stuart.) pp. 203–226. (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane.)
Walker K. F. (1992). The River Murray, Australia: A semiarid lowland river. In ‘The Rivers Handbook’. (Eds P. Calow and G. E. Petts.) pp. 472–492. (Blackwell Scientific: Oxford, UK.)
White L., and Keller R. J. (2001). Response of fish to hydraulic stimuli within Yarrawonga fishway. In ‘Proceedings of the Third Australian Technical Workshop on Fishways’. (Eds R. J. Keller and C. Peterken.) pp. 127–135. (Queensland: Australia.)
Williams J. G. (1998). Fish passage in the Columbia River, USA and its tributaries: problems and solutions. In ‘Fish Migration and Fish Bypasses’. (Eds M. Jungwirth, S. Schmutz and S. Weiss.) pp. 180–191. (Fishing News Books: Oxford.)
Winter H. V.Jansen H. M.Brujis M. C. M.2006Assessing the impact of hydropower and fisheries on downstream migrating silver eel, Anguilla anguilla, by telemetry in the River Meuse.Ecology of Freshwater Fish15221228doi:10.1111/J.1600-0633.2006.00154.X