Retained fishing gear and associated injuries in the east Australian grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus): implications for population recovery
C. S. Bansemer A B and M. B. Bennett A
Marine and Freshwater Research 61(1) 97-103 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF08362
Submitted: 27 December 2008 Accepted: 11 June 2009 Published: 29 January 2010
Incidental hooking of Carcharias taurus is a threat to their populations’ recovery on the east coast of Australia. Photo-identification techniques were used to investigate the frequency of hooking at 25 aggregation sites along the east coast of Australia between 2006 and 2008. Of the 673 sharks identified, 113 sharks were identified with signs of 119 incidences of hooking. For sharks with both their left and right flank photographed during a single survey day, up to 29% of females and 52% of males were identified with retained fishing gear or an attributed jaw injury. The largest number of sharks identified (222) were from a year-round aggregation of immature and mature sharks at Fish Rock, New South Wales, Australia. Forty-eight per cent of all sharks identified with retained fishing gear were first identified at this site. Fish Rock, a designated critical habitat for C. taurus, allows most forms of line fishing except fishing with bait or wire trace while anchored or moored. As interactions with fishing gear can result in debilitating disease, morbidity and death, the high incidence of hooked individual C. taurus is considered a key threatening process that is likely to reduce this shark population’s ability to recover.
Bansemer C. S.Bennett M. B.2008Multi-year validation of photographic identification of grey nurse sharks, Carcharias taurus, and applications for non-invasive conservation research.Marine and Freshwater Research59322331doi:10.1071/MF07184
Bansemer C. S.Bennett M. B.2009Reproductive periodicity, localised movements and behavioural segregation of pregnant Carcharias taurus at Wolf Rock, southeast Queensland, Australia.Marine Ecology Progress Series374215227doi:10.3354/MEPS07741
Baum J. K.Kehler K.Myers R. A.2005Robust estimates of decline for pelagic shark populations in the northwest Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.Fisheries302729
Bennett M. B., and Bansemer C. S. (2004). Investigations of grey nurse shark in Queensland to fulfil actions under the Recovery Plan for grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) in Australia regarding impact of divers, and establishment of a photographic database to improve knowledge of migratory movements, localised site movements and estimation of bycatch. Environment Australia, Canberra. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/grey-nurse-shark-project.html [Accessed 6 May 2009].
Borucinska J.Martin J.Skomal G.2001Peritonitis and pericarditis associated with gastric perforation by a retained fishing hook in a blue shark.Journal of Aquatic Animal Health13347354doi:10.1577/1548-8667(2001)013<0347:PAPAWG>2.0.CO;2
Borucinska J.Kohler N.Natanson L.Skomal G.2002Pathology associated with retained fishing hooks in blue sharks, Prionace glauca (L.), with implications for their conservation.Journal of Fish Diseases25515521doi:10.1046/J.1365-2761.2002.00396.X
Campana S. E.Marks L.Joyce W.Kohler N. E.2006Effects of recreational and commercial fishing on blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in Atlantic Canada, with inferences on the North Atlantic population.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences63670682doi:10.1139/F05-251
Department of the Environment and Heritage (2003). Review of Grey Nurse Shark Tagging Research. DEH, Canberra, ACT. Available at www.environment.gov.au/coasts/species/sharks/greynurse/tagging.html [Accessed 6 May 2009].
Dicken M. L.Booth A. J.Smale M. J.2007Spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of juvenile and adult raggedtooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) tagged off the east coast of South Africa.Marine and Freshwater Research58127134doi:10.1071/MF06018
Donaldson M. R.Arlinghaus R.Hanson K. C.Cooke S. J.2008Enhancing catch-and-release science with biotelemetry.Fish and Fisheries979105doi:10.1111/J.1467-2979.2007.00265.X
Dulvy N. K.Baum J. K.Clarke S.Compagno L. J. V.Cortés E.et al.2008You can swim but you can’t hide: the global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems18459482doi:10.1002/AQC.975
Environment Australia (2002). Recovery plan for the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) in Australia. (Environment Australia: Canberra, ACT.) Available at www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/grey-nurse-plan/index.html [Accessed 6 May 2009].
Ferretti F.Myers R. A.Serena F.Lotze H. K.2008Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea.Conservation Biology22952964doi:10.1111/J.1523-1739.2008.00938.X
Gurshin C. W. D.Szedlmayer S. T.2004Short-term survival and movements of Atlantic sharpnose sharks captured by hook-and-line in the north-east Gulf of Mexico.Journal of Fish Biology65973986doi:10.1111/J.0022-1112.2004.00501.X
Hight B. V.Holts D.Graham J. B.Kennedy B. P.Taylor V.Sepulveda C. A.Bernal D.Ramon D.Rasmussen R.Lai N. C.2007Plasma catecholamine levels as indicators of the post-release survivorship of juvenile pelagic sharks caught on experimental drift longlines in the Southern California Bight.Marine and Freshwater Research58145151doi:10.1071/MF05260
IUCN (2009). 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission Red List Programme Office, Cambridge, UK. Available at http://www.iucnredlist.org [Accessed 17 June 2009].
Lucifora L. O.Menni R. C.Escalante A. H.2002Reproductive ecology and abundance of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, from the southwestern Atlantic.ICES Journal of Marine Science59553561doi:10.1006/JMSC.2002.1183
Moyes C. D.Fragoso N.Musyl M. K.Brill R. W.2006Predicting postrelease survival in large pelagic fish.Transactions of the American Fisheries Society13513891397doi:10.1577/T05-224.1
Myers R. A.Baum J. K.Shepherd T. D.Powers S. P.Peterson C. H.2007Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal ocean.Science31518461850
NSW Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2007). Grey nurse shark protection areas. NSW Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Cronulla, NSW. Available at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fisheries/species-protection/species-conservation/what/register-of-critical-habitat/grey-nurse-shark-critical-habitat [Accessed 6 May 2009].
Otway N. M., and Burke A. L. (2004). Mark–recapture population estimate and movements of grey nurse sharks. Final Report to Environment Australia. Project No. 30786/87, New South Wales Fisheries Final Report Series No. 63, New South Wales Fisheries, Sydney. Available at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file/0003/1377032/output-433.pdf [Accessed 6 May 2009].
Otway N. M.Bradshaw C. J. A.Harcourt R. G.2004Estimating the rate of quasi-extinction of the Australian grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) population using deterministic age-and stage-classified models.Biological Conservation119341350doi:10.1016/J.BIOCON.2003.11.017
Robbins W. D.Hisano M.Connolly S. R.Choat J. H.2006Ongoing collapse of coral-reef shark populations.Current Biology1623142319doi:10.1016/J.CUB.2006.09.044
Shark Assessment Group (2001). Australian shark assessment report for the Australian national plan of action for the conservation and management of sharks. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, ACT. Available at http://www.daff.gov.au/fisheries/environment/bycatch/sharkplan [Accessed 6 May 2009].
Smale M. J.2002Occurrence of Carcharias taurus in nursery areas of the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa.Marine and Freshwater Research53551556