Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
REVIEW

Observational methods used in marine spatial monitoring of fishes and associated habitats: a review

Hannah M. Murphy A B C D and Gregory P. Jenkins A B

A Marine and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute, Department of Primary Industries, Queenscliff, Vic. 3225, Australia.

B Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.

C Present address: Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: h.murphy@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research 61(2) 236-252 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF09068
Submitted: 27 March 2009  Accepted: 12 August 2009   Published: 25 February 2010

Abstract

Management areas are used in marine spatial planning to conserve biodiversity of marine ecosystems and to protect fish from fishing pressure. To evaluate the effectiveness of these protected areas, observational techniques are used to determine densities, sizes, biomass, habitat types and distribution of fish species in and around management areas. Two types of observational techniques are used in spatial monitoring: (1) fishery-independent techniques, which include underwater visual census (UVC), underwater video, remote sensing, acoustics, and experimental catch and effort data; and (2) fishery-dependent techniques, which include catch, effort and catch per unit effort data from commercial and recreational fisheries. This review summarises the applications, advantages, disadvantages and biases of each of these observational categories and highlights emerging technologies. The main finding from this review was that a combination of observational techniques, rather than a single method, was the most effective approach to marine spatial monitoring. For example, a combination of hydroacoustics for habitat mapping and UVC or video for fish surveys was one of the most cost-effective and efficient means of obtaining fish-habitat linkages and fish assemblage data. There are also emerging technologies that could increase the precision and efficiency of monitoring surveys. There is a need for continued development of non-intrusive technology for marine monitoring studies.

Additional keywords: fisheries-dependent surveys, fisheries-independent surveys, management areas, marine habitat.


References

Abesamis R. A.Russ G. R.2005Density-dependent spillover from a marine reserve: long-term evidence.Ecological Applications1517981812doi:10.1890/05-0174

Afonso P.Fontes J.Holland K. N.Santos R. S.2008Social status determines behaviour and habitat usage in a temperate parrotfish: implications for marine reserve design.Marine Ecology Progress Series359215227doi:10.3354/MEPS07272

Alcala A. C.Russ G. R.Maypa A. P.Calumpong H. P.2005A long-term, spatially replicated experimental test of the effect of marine reserves on local fish yields.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences6298108doi:10.1139/F04-176

Allen Y. C.Wilson C. A.Roberts D. H.Supan J.2005High resolution mapping and classification of oyster habitats in nearshore Louisiana using sidescan sonar.Estuaries28435446doi:10.1007/BF02693925

Anderson M. J.Millar R. B.2004Spatial variation and effects of habitat on temperate reef fish assemblages in northeastern New Zealand.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology305191221doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2003.12.011

Andrefouet S.Muller-Karger F. E.Hochberg E. J.Hu C. M.Carder K. L.2001Change detection in shallow coral reef environments using Landsat 7 ETM+ data.Remote Sensing of Environment78150162doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00256-5

Andrefouet S.Berkelmans R.Odriozola L.Done T.Oliver J.et al.2002Choosing the appropriate spatial resolution for monitoring coral bleaching events using remote sensing.Coral Reefs21147154

Andrefouet S.Kramer P.Torres-Pulliza D.Joyce K. E.Hochberg E. J.et al.2003Multi-site evaluation of IKONOS data for classification of tropical coral reef environments.Remote Sensing of Environment88128143
doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2003.04.005

Arreguin-Sanchez F.1996Catchability: A key parameter for fish stock assessment.Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries6221242doi:10.1007/BF00182344

Azzurro E.Pais A.Consoli P.Andaloro F.2007Evaluating day-night changes in shallow Mediterranean rocky reef fish assemblages by visual census.Marine Biology15122452253doi:10.1007/S00227-007-0661-9

Ball D., and Blake S. (2007). Shallow water habitat mapping at Victorian marine national parks and marine sanctuaries, Volume 1: Western Victoria. Parks Victoria Technical Series No. 36. Parks Victoria, Melbourne.

Baron R. M.Jordan L. K. B.Spieler R. E.2004Characterization of the marine fish assemblage associated with the nearshore hardbottom of Broward County, Florida, USA.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science60431443doi:10.1016/J.ECSS.2004.02.002

Beaman R. J.Daniell J. J.Harris P. T.2005Geology-benthos relationship on a temperate rocky bank, eastern Bass Strait, Australia.Marine and Freshwater Research56943958doi:10.1071/MF04306

Benfield S. L.Guzman H. M.Mair J. M.Young J. A. T.2007Mapping the distribution of coral reefs and associated sublittoral habitats in Pacific Panama: a comparison of optical satellite sensors and classification methodologies.International Journal of Remote Sensing2850475070doi:10.1080/01431160701258062

Berkelmans R.Oliver J. K.1999Large-scale bleaching of corals on the Great Barrier Reef.Coral Reefs185560doi:10.1007/S003380050154

Blyth-Skyrme R. E.Kaiser M. J.Hiddink J. G.Edwards-Jones G.Hart P. J. B.2006Conservation benefits of temperate marine protected areas: Variation among fish species.Conservation Biology20811820doi:10.1111/J.1523-1739.2006.00345.X

Bortone S. A.Martin T.1991Visual census of reef fish assemblages: a comparison of slate, audio, and video recording devices.Northeast Gulf Shelf121723

Boswell K. M.Wilson M. P.Wilson C. A.2007Hydroacoustics as a tool for assessing fish biomass and size distribution associated with discrete shallow water estuarine habitats in Louisiana.Estuaries and Coasts30607617


Brown C. J.Cooper K. M.Meadows W. J.Limpenny D. S.Rees H. L.2002Small-scale mapping of sea-bed assemblages in the Eastern English Channel using sidescan sonar and remote sampling techniques.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science54263278
doi:10.1006/ECSS.2001.0841

Brown C. J.Mitchell A.Limpenny D. S.Robertson M. R.Service M.Golding N.2005Mapping seabed habitats in the Firth of Lorn off the west coast of Scotland: evaluation and comparison of habitat maps produced using the acoustic ground-discrimination system, RoxAnn, and sidescan sonar.ICES Journal of Marine Science62790802doi:10.1016/J.ICESJMS.2004.10.008

Buxton C. D.Smale M. J.1989Abundance and distribution patterns of three temperate marine reef fish (Teleostei: Sparidae) in exploited and unexploited areas off the southern Cape coast.Journal of Applied Ecology26441451doi:10.2307/2404072

Cappo M., Harvey E., Malcolm H., and Speare P. (2003). Potential of video techniques to monitor diversity, abundance and size of fish in studies of Marine Protected Areas. In ‘Aquatic Protected Areas – What Works Best and How Do We Know?’ (Eds J. P. Beumer, A. Grant and D. C. Smith.) pp. 455–464. (World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas Proceedings: Cairns, Australia.)

Cappo M.Speare P.De’ath G.2004Comparison of baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) and prawn (shrimp) trawls for assessment of fish biodiversity in interreefal areas of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology302123152doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2003.10.006

Cappo M.De’ath G.Speare P.2007aInter-reef vertebrate communities of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park determined by baited remote underwater video stations.Marine Ecology Progress Series350209221doi:10.3354/MEPS07189

Cappo M., Harvey E., and Shortis M. (2007b) Counting and measuring fish with baited video techniques – an overview. In ‘Proceedings of the 2006 Australian Society of Fish Biology Conference and Workshop Cutting-edge Technologies in Fish and Fisheries Science, Hobart, August 2006’. (Eds J. M. Lyle, D. M. Furlani and C. D. Buxton.) pp. 101–114. (ASFB: Hobart.)

Carbines G.Cole R. G.2009Using a remote drift underwater video (DUV) to examine dredge impacts on demersal fishes and benthic habitat complexity in Foveaux Strait, Southern New Zealand.Fisheries Research96230237doi:10.1016/J.FISHRES.2008.11.007

Celliers L.Schleyer M. H.2002Coral bleaching on high-latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa.Marine Pollution Bulletin4413801387doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00302-8

Chapman M. R.Kramer D. L.1999Gradients in coral reef density and size across the Barbados Marine Reserve boundary: effects of reserve protection and habitat characteristics.Marine Ecology Progress Series1818196doi:10.3354/MEPS181081

Chapman M. R.Kramer D. L.2000Movements of fishes within and among fringing coral reefs in Barbados.Environmental Biology of Fishes571124doi:10.1023/A:1004545724503

Cheal A. J.Delean S.Sweatman H.Thompson A. A.2007Spatial synchrony in coral reef fish populations and the influence of climate.Ecology88158169doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[158:SSICRF]2.0.CO;2

Choat J. H.Ayling A. M.1987The relationship between habitat structure and fish fauna on New Zealand reefs.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology110257284doi:10.1016/0022-0981(87)90005-0

Clark C. D.Mumby P. J.Chisholm J. R. M.Jaubert J.Andrefouet S.2000Spectral discrimination of coral mortality states following a severe bleaching event.International Journal of Remote Sensing2123212327doi:10.1080/01431160050029602

Cochrane G.Lafferty K. D.2002Use of acoustic classification of sidescan sonar data for mapping benthic habitat in the Northern Channel Islands, California.Continental Shelf Research22683690doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(01)00089-9

Cole R. G.Villouta E.Davidson R. J.2000Direct evidence of limited dispersal of the reef fish Parapercis colias (Pinguipedidae) within a marine reserve and adjacent fished areas.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems10421436doi:10.1002/1099-0755(200011/12)10:6<421::AID-AQC423>3.0.CO;2-E

Collier J. S.Humber S. R.2007Time-lapse side-scan sonar imaging of bleached coral reefs: A case study from the Seychelles.Remote Sensing of Environment108339356doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2006.11.029

Colvocoresses J.Acosta A.2007A large-scale field comparison of strip transect and stationary point count methods for conducting length-based underwater visual surveys of reef fish populations.Fisheries Research85130141doi:10.1016/J.FISHRES.2007.01.012

Committee on Fish Stock Assessment Methods (1998). ‘Improving Fish Stock Assessments.’ (National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.)

Consoli P.Azzurro E.Sara G.Ferraro M.Andaloro F.2007Fish diversity associated with gas platforms: Evaluation of two underwater visual census techniques.Ciencias Marinas33121132

Costa C.Loy A.Cataudella S.Davis D.Scardi M.2006Extracting fish size using dual underwater cameras.Aquacultural Engineering35218227
doi:10.1016/J.AQUAENG.2006.02.003

Cote I. M., and Perrow M. R. (2006). Fish. In ‘Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook’. (Ed. W. J. Sutherland.) pp. 250–277. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.)

Dayton P. K.Sala E.Tegner M. J.Thrush S.2000Marine reserves: Parks, baselines, and fishery enhancement.Bulletin of Marine Science66617634

Dekker A. G.Brando V. E.Anstee J. M.2005Retrospective seagrass change detection in a shallow coastal tidal Australian lake.Remote Sensing of Environment97415433
doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2005.02.017

DeMartini E. E.Roberts D.1982An empirical test of biases in the rapid visual technique for species-time censuses of reef fish assemblages.Marine Biology70129134doi:10.1007/BF00397676

Denny C. M.Willis T. J.Babcock R. C.2004Rapid recolonisation of snapper Pagrus auratus: Sparidae within an offshore island marine reserve after implementation of no-take status.Marine Ecology Progress Series272183190doi:10.3354/MEPS272183

Dethier M. N.Graham E. S.Cohen S.Tear L. M.1993Visual versus random-point percent cover estimations – objective is not always better.Marine Ecology Progress Series9693100doi:10.3354/MEPS096093

Edgar G. J.Barrett N. S.1997Short term monitoring of biotic changes in Tasmanian marine reserves.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology213261279doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(96)02769-4

Edgar G. J.Barrett N. S.Morton A. J.2004Biases associated with the use of underwater visual census techniques to quantify the density and size-structure of fish populations.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology308269290doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2004.03.004

Edwards A. J. (Ed.) (2000). ‘Remote Sensing Handbook for Tropical Coastal Management.’ (UNESCO: Paris.)

Egli D. P.Babcock R. C.2004Ultrasonic tracking reveals multiple behavioural modes of snapper (Pagrus auratus) in a temperate no-take marine reserve.ICES Journal of Marine Science6111371143doi:10.1016/J.ICESJMS.2004.07.004

Ehrhold A.Hamon D.Guillaumont B.2006The REBENT monitoring network, a spatially integrated, acoustic approach to surveying nearshore macrobenthic habitats: application to the Bay of Concarneau (South Brittany, France).ICES Journal of Marine Science6316041615doi:10.1016/J.ICESJMS.2006.06.010

Ellis D. M.DeMartini E. E.1995Evaluation of a video camera technique for indexing abundances of juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, and other Hawaiian insular shelf fishes.Fishery Bulletin936777

Eristhee N.Oxenford H. A.2001Home range size and use of space by Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (L.) in two marine reserves in the Soufriere Marine Management Area, St Lucia, West Indies.Journal of Fish Biology59129151


Ferguson R. L.Korfmacher K.1997Remote sensing and GIS analysis of seagrass meadows in North Carolina, USA.Aquatic Botany58241258
doi:10.1016/S0304-3770(97)00038-7

Ferraris J.Pelletier D.Kulbicki M.Chauvet C.2005Assessing the impact of removing reserve status on the Abore Reef fish assemblage in New Caledonia.Marine Ecology Progress Series292271286doi:10.3354/MEPS292271

Ferwerda J. G.de Leeuw J.Atzberger C.Vekerdy Z.2007Satellite-based monitoring of tropical seagrass vegetation: current techniques and future developments.Hydrobiologia5915971doi:10.1007/S10750-007-0784-5

Foster-Smith R. L.Brown C. J.Meadows W. J.White W. H.Limpenny D. S.2004Mapping seabed biotopes at two spatial scales in the eastern English Channel. Part 2. Comparison of two acoustic ground discrimination systems.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom84489500doi:10.1017/S0025315404009506H

Freeman S.Mackinson S.Flatt R.2004Diel patterns in the habitat utilisation of sandeels revealed using integrated acoustic surveys.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology305141154doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2003.12.016

Freitas R.Silva S.Quintino V.Rodrigues A. M.Rhynas K.Collins W. T.2003Acoustic seabed classification of marine habitats: studies in the western coastal-shelf area of Portugal.ICES Journal of Marine Science60599608doi:10.1016/S1054-3139(03)00061-4

Fyfe S. K.2003Spatial and temporal variation in spectral reflectance: are seagrass species spectrally distinct?Limnology and Oceanography48464479

Garla R. C.Chapman D. D.Wetherbee B. M.Shivji M.2006Movement patterns of young Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil: the potential of marine protected areas for conservation of a nursery ground.Marine Biology149189199
doi:10.1007/S00227-005-0201-4

Gilbert M.Rasmussen J. B.Kramer D. L.2005Estimating the density and biomass of moray eels (Muraenidae) using a modified visual census method for hole-dwelling reef fauna.Environmental Biology of Fishes73415426doi:10.1007/S10641-005-2228-2

Gleason A. C. R., Eklund A., Reid R. P., and Koch V. (2006). Acoustic signatures of the seafloor: tools for predicting grouper habitat. In ‘Emerging Technologies for Reef Fisheries Research and Management. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 5’. (Ed. J. C. Taylor.) pp. 38–47. (Scientific Publications Office: Seattle, WA, USA.)

Guidetti P.2006Marine reserves reestablish lost predatory interactions and cause community changes in rocky reefs.Ecological Applications16963976doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[0963:MRRLPI]2.0.CO;2

Gullstrom M.Lunden B.Bodin M.Kangwe J.Ohman M. C.Mtolera M. S. P.Björk M.2006Assessment of changes in the seagrass-dominated submerged vegetation of Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar) using satellite remote sensing.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science67399408doi:10.1016/J.ECSS.2005.11.020

Harborne A. R.Mumby P. J.Kappel C. V.Dahlgren C. P.Micheli F.Holmes K. E.Sanchirico J. N.Broad K.Elliott I. A.Brumbaugh D. R.2008Reserve effects and natural variation in coral reef communities.Journal of Applied Ecology4510101018doi:10.1111/J.1365-2664.2008.01490.X

Harvey E.Fletcher D.Shortis M.2001Improving the statistical power of length estimates of reef fish: a comparison of estimates determined visually by divers with estimates produced by a stereo-video system.Fishery Bulletin997280

Harvey E.Shortis M.Stadler M.Cappo M.2002A comparison of the accuracy and precision of measurements from single and stereo-video systems.Marine Technology Society Journal363849
doi:10.4031/002533202787914106

Harvey E.Fletcher D.Shortis M. R.Kendrick G. A.2004A comparison of underwater visual distance estimates made by scuba divers and a stereo-video system: implications for underwater visual census of reef fish abundance.Marine and Freshwater Research55573580doi:10.1071/MF03130

Harvey E.Cappo M.Butler J.Hall N.Kendrick G. A.2007Bait attraction affects the performance of remote underwater video stations in assessment of demersal fish community structure.Marine Ecology Progress Series350245254doi:10.3354/MEPS07192

Hawkins J. P.Roberts C. M.Dytham C.Schelten C.Nugues M. M.2006Effects of habitat characteristics and sedimentation on performance of marine reserves in St. Lucia.Biological Conservation127487499doi:10.1016/J.BIOCON.2005.09.008

Heagney E. C.Lynch T. P.Babcock R. C.Suthers I. M.2007Pelagic fish assemblages assessed using mid-water baited video: standardising fish counts using bait plume size.Marine Ecology Progress Series350255266doi:10.3354/MEPS07193

Hernandez-Cruz L. R.Purkis S. J.Riegl B.2006Documenting decadal spatial changes in seagrass and Acropora palmata cover by aerial photography analysis in Vieques, Puerto Rico: 1937–2000.Bulletin of Marine Science79401414

Hetzinger S.Halfar J.Riegl B.Godinez-Orta L.2006Sedimentology and acoustic mapping of modern rhodolith facies on a non-tropical carbonate shelf (Gulf of California, Mexico).Journal of Sedimentary Research76670682
doi:10.2110/JSR.2006.053

Heupel M. R.Semmens J. M.Hobday A. J.2006Automated acoustic tracking of aquatic animals: scales, design and deployment of listening station arrays.Marine and Freshwater Research57113doi:10.1071/MF05091

Hewitt J. E.Thrush S. E.Legendre P.Funnell G. A.Ellis J.Morrison M2004Mapping of marine soft-sediment communities: Integrated sampling for ecological interpretation.Ecological Applications1412031216doi:10.1890/03-5177

Hochberg E. J.Atkinson M. J.Andrefouet S.2003Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing.Remote Sensing of Environment85159173doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00201-8

Holmes J. A.Cronkite G. M. W.Enzenhofer J.Mulligan T. J.2006Accuracy and precision of fish-count data from a “dual-frequency identification sonar” (DIDSON) imaging system.ICES Journal of Marine Science63543555doi:10.1016/J.ICESJMS.2005.08.015

Holmes K. W.Van Niel K. P.Kendrick G. A.Radford B.2007Probabilistic large-area mapping of seagrass species distributions.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems17385407doi:10.1002/AQC.772

Jackson J. B. C.Kirby M. X.Berger W. H.Bjorndal K. A.Botsford L. W.et al.2001Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems.Science293629637doi:10.1126/SCIENCE.1059199

Jan R. Q.Shao Y. T.Lin F. P.Fan T. Y.Tu Y. Y.et al.2007An underwater camera system for real-time coral reef fish monitoring.The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology14273279

Jennings S.2009The role of marine protected areas in environmental management.ICES Journal of Marine Science661621
doi:10.1093/ICESJMS/FSN163

Jennings S.Polunin N. V. C.1996Effects of fishing effort and catch rate upon the structure and biomass of Fijian reef fish communities.Journal of Applied Ecology33400412doi:10.2307/2404761

Johnston S. V., Rivera J. A., Rosario A., Timko M. A., Nealson P. A., et al. (2006). Hydroacoustic evaluation of spawning red hind (Epinephelus guttatus) aggregations along the coast of Puerto Rico in 2002 and 2003. In ‘Emerging Technologies for Reef Fisheries Research and Management. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 5’. (Ed. J. C. Taylor.) pp. 10–17. (Scientific Publications Office: Seattle, WA, USA.)

Jones R. S.Thompson M. J.1978Comparison of Florida reef fish assemblages using a rapid visual technique.Bulletin of Marine Science28159172

Jordan A.Lawler M.Halley V.Barrett N.2005Seabed habitat mapping in the Kent Group of islands and its role in marine protected area planning.Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems155170
doi:10.1002/AQC.657

Jorgensen S. J.Kaplan D. M.Klimley A. P.Morgan S. G.O’Farrell M. R.Botsford L. W.2006Limited movement in blue rockfish Sebastes mystinus: internal structure of home range.Marine Ecology Progress Series327157170doi:10.3354/MEPS327157

Kaunda-Arara B.Rose G. A.2004Out-migration of tagged fishes from marine reef national parks to fisheries in coastal Kenya.Environmental Biology of Fishes70363372doi:10.1023/B:EBFI.0000035428.59802.AF

Kendrick G. A.Hegge B. J.Wyllie A.Davidson A.Lord D. A.2000Changes in seagrass cover on Success and Parmelia Banks, Western Australia between 1965 and 1995.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science50341353doi:10.1006/ECSS.1999.0569

Kendrick G. A.Aylward M. J.Hegge B. J.Cambridge M. L.Hillman K.Wyllie A.Lord D. A.2002Changes in seagrass coverage in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia between 1967 and 1999.Aquatic Botany737587doi:10.1016/S0304-3770(02)00005-0

Kenny A. J.Cato I.Desprez M.Fader G.Schuttenhelm R. T. E.Side J.2003An overview of seabed-mapping technologies in the context of marine habitat classification.ICES Journal of Marine Science60411418doi:10.1016/S1054-3139(03)00006-7

Kleczkowski M.Babcock R. C.Clapin G.2008Density and size of reef fishes in and around a temperate marine reserve.Marine and Freshwater Research59165176doi:10.1071/MF07093

Krumme U.Saint-Paul U.2003Observations of fish migration in a macrotidal mangrove channel in Northern Brazil using a 200-kHz split-beam sonar.Aquatic Living Resources16175184doi:10.1016/S0990-7440(03)00046-9

Kulbicki M.Sarramegna S.1999Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae.Aquatic Living Resources12315325doi:10.1016/S0990-7440(99)00116-3

Kutser T.Jupp D. L. B.2006On the possibility of mapping living corals to the species level based on their optical signatures.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science69607614doi:10.1016/J.ECSS.2006.05.026

Kutser T.Miller I.Jupp D. L. B.2006Mapping coral reef benthic substrates using hyperspectral space-borne images and spectral libraries.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science70449460doi:10.1016/J.ECSS.2006.06.026

Leriche A.Pasqualini V.Boudouresque C. F.Bernard G.Bonhomme P.Clabaut P.Denis J.2006Spatial, temporal and structural variations of a Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow facing human activities.Aquatic Botany84287293doi:10.1016/J.AQUABOT.2005.10.001

Lerodiaconou D.Burq S.Reston M.Laurenson L.2007Marine benthic habitat mapping using multibeam data, georeferenced video and image classification techniques in Victoria, Australia.Journal of Spatial Science5293104

Leujak W.Ormond R. F. G.2007Comparative accuracy and efficiency of six coral community survey methods.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology351168187
doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2007.06.028

Lewis J. B.2002Evidence from aerial photography of structural loss of coral reefs at Barbados, West Indies.Coral Reefs214956

Lincoln Smith M. P.1988Effects of observer swimming speeds on sample counts of temperate rocky reef fish assemblages.Marine Ecology Progress Series43223231
doi:10.3354/MEPS043223

Lincoln Smith M. P.1989Improving multispecies rocky reef fish censuses by counting different groups of species using different procedures.Environmental Biology of Fishes262937doi:10.1007/BF00002473

Lowe C. G.Topping D. T.Cartamil D. P.Papastamatiou Y. P.2003Movement patterns, home range, and habitat utilization of adult kelp bass Paralabrax clathratus in a temperate no-take marine reserve.Marine Ecology Progress Series256205216doi:10.3354/MEPS256205

Lynch T. P.2006Incorporation of recreational fishing effort into design of marine protected areas.Conservation Biology2014661476doi:10.1111/J.1523-1739.2006.00509.X

MacNeil M. A.Tyler E. H. M.Fonnesbeck C. J.Rushton S. P.Polunin N. V. C.Conroy M. J.2008Accounting for detectability in reef-fish biodiversity estimates.Marine Ecology Progress Series367249260doi:10.3354/MEPS07580

Malcolm H.Gladstone W.Lindfield S.Wraith J.Lynch T. P.2007Spatial and temporal variation in reef fish assemblages of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia-baited video observations.Marine Ecology Progress Series350277290doi:10.3354/MEPS07195

Mangi S. C.Roberts C. M.2007Factors influencing fish catch levels on Kenya’s coral reefs.Fisheries Management and Ecology14245253doi:10.1111/J.1365-2400.2007.00549.X

McClanahan T. R.Kaunda-Arara B.1996Fishery recovery in a coral-reef marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery.Conservation Biology1011871199doi:10.1046/J.1523-1739.1996.10041187.X

McClanahan T. R.Mangi S.2000Spillover of exploitable fishes from a marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery.Ecological Applications1017921805doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1792:SOEFFA]2.0.CO;2

McClanahan T. R.Graham N. A. J.Calnan J. M.MacNeil M. A.2007Toward pristine biomass: Reef fish recovery in coral reef marine protected areas in Kenya.Ecological Applications1710551067doi:10.1890/06-1450

McShane P. E.Broadhurst M. K.Williams A.2007Keeping watch on the unwatchable: technological solutions for the problems generated by ecosystem-based management.Fish and Fisheries8153161doi:10.1111/J.1467-2679.2007.00242.X

Meyer C. G.Holland K. N.2005Movement patterns, home range size and habitat utilization of the bluespine unicornfish, Naso unicornis (Acanthuridae) in a Hawaiian marine reserve.Environmental Biology of Fishes73201210doi:10.1007/S10641-005-0559-7

Meyer C. G.Papastamatiou Y. P.Holland K. N.2007Seasonal, diel, and tidal movements of green jobfish (Aprion virescens, Lutjanidae) at remote Hawaiian atolls: implications for marine protected area design.Marine Biology15121332143doi:10.1007/S00227-007-0647-7

Milazzo M.Badalamenti F.Fernandez T. V.Chemello R.2005Effects of fish feeding by snorkellers on the density and size distribution of fishes in a Mediterranean marine protected area.Marine Biology14612131222doi:10.1007/S00227-004-1527-Z

Millar R. B.Fryer R. J.1999Estimating the size-selection curves of towed gears, traps, nets and hooks.Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries989116doi:10.1023/A:1008838220001

Mishra D.Narumalani S.Rundquist D.Lawson M.2006Benthic habitat mapping in tropical marine environments using QuickBird multispectral data.Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing7210371048

Morrison M.Carbines G.2006Estimating the abundance and size structure of an estuarine population of the sparid Pagrus auratus, using a towed camera during nocturnal periods of inactivity, and comparisons with conventional sampling techniques.Fisheries Research82150161
doi:10.1016/J.FISHRES.2006.06.024

Moursund R. A.Carlson T. J.Peters R. D.2003A fisheries application of a dual-frequency identification sonar acoustic camera.ICES Journal of Marine Science60678683doi:10.1016/S1054-3139(03)00036-5

Mumby P. J., and Green E. (2000). Mapping seagrass beds. In ‘Remote Sensing Handbook for Tropical Coastal Management’. (Ed. A. J. Edwards.) pp. 175–182. (UNESCO: Paris.)

Mumby P. J.Green E. P.Edwards A. J.Clark C. D.1999The cost-effectiveness of remote sensing for tropical coastal resources assessment and management.Journal of Environmental Management55157166doi:10.1006/JEMA.1998.0255

Mumby P. J.Skirving W.Strong A. E.Hardy J. T.LeDrew E. F.Hochberg E. J.Stumpf R. P.David L. T.2004Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment.Marine Pollution Bulletin48219228doi:10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2003.10.031

Nadon M. O.Stirling G.2006Field and simulation analyses of visual methods for sampling coral cover.Coral Reefs25177185doi:10.1007/S00338-005-0074-5

Nezlin N. P.Kamer K.Stein E. D.2007Application of color infrared aerial photography to assess macroalgal distribution in an eutrophic estuary, upper Newport Bay, California.Estuaries and Coasts30855868

Obura D. O.Wells S.Church J.Horrill C.2002Monitoring of fish and fish catches by local fishermen in Kenya and Tanzania.Marine and Freshwater Research53215222
doi:10.1071/MF01151

Palandro D. A.Andrefouet S.Hu C.Hallock P.Muller-Karger F. E.Dustan P.Callahan M. K.Kranenburg C.Beaver C. R.2008Quantification of two decades of shallow-water coral reef habitat decline in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary using Landsat data (1984–2002).Remote Sensing of Environment11233883399doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2008.02.015

Pennington M.Stromme T.1998Surveys as a research tool for managing dynamic stocks.Fisheries Research3797106doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(98)00129-5

Pet J. S.Mous P. J.Muljadi A. H.Sadovy Y. J.Squire L.2005Aggregations of Plectropomus areolatus and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (groupers, Serranidae) in the Komodo National Park, Indonesia: monitoring and implications for management.Environmental Biology of Fishes74209218doi:10.1007/S10641-005-8528-8

Phinn S.Roelfsema C.Dekker A.Brando V.Anstee J.2008Mapping seagrass species, cover and biomass in shallow waters: An assessment of satellite multi-spectral and airborne hyper-spectral imaging systems in Moreton Bay (Australia).Remote Sensing of Environment11234133425doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2007.09.017

Pink M.Pratt T. C.Fox M. G.2007Use of underwater visual distance sampling for estimating habitat-specific population density.North American Journal of Fisheries Management27246255doi:10.1577/M06-004.1

Priede I. G.Merrett N. R.1996Estimation of abundance of abyssal demersal fishes; a comparison of data from trawls and baited cameras.Journal of Fish Biology49207216doi:10.1111/J.1095-8649.1996.TB06077.X

Rand P. S., Taylor J. C., and Eggleston D. B. (2006). A video method for quantifying size distribution, density, and three-dimensional spatial structure of reef fish spawning aggregations. In ‘Emerging Technologies for Reef Fisheries Research and Management. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 5’. (Ed. J. C. Taylor.) pp. 4–9. (Scientific Publications Office: Seattle, WA, USA.)

Riegl B. M.Purkis S. J.2005Detection of shallow subtidal corals from IKONOS satellite and QTC View (50, 200 kHz) single-beam sonar data (Arabian Gulf; Dubai, UAE).Remote Sensing of Environment9596114doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2004.11.016

Rivera J. A., Prada M. C., Arsenault J., Moody G., and Benoit N. (2006). Detecting fish aggregations from reef habitats mapped with high resolution side scan sonar imagery. In ‘Emerging Technologies for Reef Fisheries Research and Management. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 5’. (Ed. J. C. Taylor.) pp. 88–104. (Scientific Publications Office: Seattle, WA, USA.)

Rooper C. N.Zimmermann M.2007A bottom-up methodology for integrating underwater video and acoustic mapping for seafloor substrate classification.Continental Shelf Research27947957doi:10.1016/J.CSR.2006.12.006

Rose C. S.Stoner A. W.Matteson K.2005Use of high-frequency imaging sonar to observe fish behaviour near baited fishing gears.Fisheries Research76291304doi:10.1016/J.FISHRES.2005.07.015

Russ G. R.Alcala A. C.1996Do marine reserves export adult fish biomass? Evidence from Apo Island, central Philippines.Marine Ecology Progress Series13219doi:10.3354/MEPS132001

Russ G. R.Alcala A. C.1998Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983–1993: roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responses.Coral Reefs17399416doi:10.1007/S003380050146

Russ G. R.Alcala A. C.2004Marine reserves: long-term protection is required for full recovery of predatory fish populations.Conservation Ecology138622627

Russ G. R.Stockwell B.Alcala A. C.2005Inferring versus measuring rates of recovery in no-take marine reserves.Marine Ecology Progress Series292112
doi:10.3354/MEPS292001

Ryan D. A.Brooke B. P.Collins L. B.Kendrick G. A.Baxter K. J.Bickers A. N.Siwabessy P. J. W.Pattiaratchi C. B.2007The influence of geomorphology and sedimentary processes on shallow-water benthic habitat distribution: Esperance Bay, Western Australia.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science72379386doi:10.1016/J.ECSS.2006.10.008

Sale P. F.Douglas W. A.1981Precision and accuracy of visual census technique for fish assemblages on coral patch reefs.Environmental Biology of Fishes6333339doi:10.1007/BF00005761

Sale P. F.Sharp B. J.1983Corrections for bias in visual censuses of coral reef fishes.Coral Reefs23742doi:10.1007/BF00304730

Samoilys M. A.Carlos G.2000Determining methods of underwater visual census for estimating the abundance of coral reef fishes.Environmental Biology of Fishes57289304doi:10.1023/A:1007679109359

Schmitt E. F.Sluka R. D.Sullivan-Sealey K. M.2002Evaluating the use of roving diver and transect surveys to assess the coral reef fish assemblage off southeastern Hispaniola.Coral Reefs21216223

Shortis M., Harvey E., and Seager J. (2007). A review of the status and trends in underwater videometric measurement. Invited paper, SPIE Conference 6491, Videometrics IX, IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging.

Soto I.Andrefouet S.Hu C.Muller-Karger F. E.Wall C. C.Sheng J.Hatcher B. G.2009Physical connectivity in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System inferred from 9 years of ocean color observations.Coral Reefs28415425
doi:10.1007/S00338-009-0465-0

Starr R. M.O’Connell V.Ralston S.Breaker L.2005Use of acoustic tags to estimate natural mortality, spillover, and movements of Lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) in a marine reserve.Marine Technology Society Journal391930doi:10.4031/002533205787521677

Stewart B. D.Beukers J. S.2000Baited technique improves censuses of cryptic fish in complex habitats.Marine Ecology Progress Series197259272doi:10.3354/MEPS197259

Stobart B.Garcia-Charton J. A.Espejo C.Rochel E.Goni R.et al.2007A baited underwater video technique to assess shallow-water Mediterranean fish assemblages: Methodological evaluation.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology345158174doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2007.02.009

Stoner A. W.Spencer M. L.Ryer C. H.2007Flatfish-habitat associations in Alaska nursery grounds: Use of continuous video records for multi-scale spatial analysis.Journal of Sea Research57137150doi:10.1016/J.SEARES.2006.08.005

Stumpf R. P.Feldman G. C.Kuring N.Franz B.Green E.et al.1999SeaWiFS spies reefs.Reef Encounter262930

Suursaar U.Kutser T.Aps R.Kullas T.Vahtmae E.et al.2009Hydrodynamically induced or modified patterns derived from satellite images in the coastal waters of Estonia.Journal of Coastal Research216021606


Syms C.1995Multiscale analysis of habitat association in a guild of blennioid fishes.Marine Ecology Progress Series1253143
doi:10.3354/MEPS125031

Taylor J. C., Eggleston D. B., and Rand P. S. (2006). Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) spawning aggregations: hydroacoustic surveys and geostatistical analysis. In ‘Emerging Technologies for Reef Fisheries Research and Management. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 5’. (Ed. J. C. Taylor.) pp. 18–25. (Scientific Publications Office: Seattle, WA, USA.)

Thresher R. E.Gunn J. S.1986Comparative analysis of visual census techniques for highly mobile, reef-associated piscivores (Carangidae).Environmental Biology of Fishes1793116doi:10.1007/BF00001740

Vanderstraete T.Goossens R.Ghabour T. K.2006The use of multi-temporal Landsat images for the change detection of the coastal zone near Hurghada, Egypt.International Journal of Remote Sensing2736453655doi:10.1080/01431160500500342

Wabnitz C. C.Andrefouet S.Torres-Pulliza D.Muller-Karger F. E.Kramer P. A.2008Regional-scale seagrass habitat mapping in the wider Caribbean region using Landsat sensors: Applications to conservation and ecology.Remote Sensing of Environment11234553467doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2008.01.020

Watson D. L.Harvey E. S.2007Behaviour of temperate and sub-tropical reef fishes towards a stationary SCUBA diver.Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology4085103doi:10.1080/10236240701393263

Watson D. L.Harvey E. S.Anderson M. J.Kendrick G. A.2005A comparison of temperate reef fish assemblages recorded by three underwater stereo-video techniques.Marine Biology148415425doi:10.1007/S00227-005-0090-6

Watson D. L.Harvey E. S.Kendrick G. A.Nardi K.Anderson M. J.2007Protection from fishing alters the species composition of fish assemblages in a temperate-tropical transition zone.Marine Biology15211971206doi:10.1007/S00227-007-0767-0

Wells R. J. D.Boswell K. A.Cowan J. H.Patterson W. F.2008Size selectivity of sampling gears targeting red snapper in the northern Gulf of Mexico.Fisheries Research89294299doi:10.1016/J.FISHRES.2007.10.010

Wetherbee B. M.Holland K. N.Meyer C. G.Lowe C. G.2004Use of a marine reserve in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii by the giant trevally, Caranx ignobilis.Fisheries Research67253263doi:10.1016/J.FISHRES.2003.11.004

White W. H.Harborne A. R.Sotheran I. S.Walton R.Foster-Smith R. L.2003Using acoustic ground discrimination system to map coral reef benthic classes.International Journal of Remote Sensing2426412660doi:10.1080/0143116031000066981

Whitfield P. E.Hare J. A.David A. W.Harter S. L.Munoz R. C.Addison C. M.2007Abundance estimates of the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans/miles complex in the Western North Atlantic.Biological Invasions95364doi:10.1007/S10530-006-9005-9

Willis T. J.Babcock R. C.2000A baited underwater video system for the determination of relative density of carnivorous reef fish.Marine and Freshwater Research51755763doi:10.1071/MF00010

Willis T. J.Millar R. B.Babcock R. C.2000Detection of spatial variability in relative density of fishes: comparison of visual census, angling, and baited underwater video.Marine Ecology Progress Series198249260doi:10.3354/MEPS198249

Willis T. J.Millar R. B.Babcock R. C.2003Protection of exploited fish in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves.Journal of Applied Ecology40214227

Willis T. J.Badalamenti F.Milazzo M.2006Diel variability in counts of reef fishes and its implications for monitoring.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology331108120
doi:10.1016/J.JEMBE.2005.10.003

Yamano H.Tamura M.2004Detection limits of coral reef bleaching by satellite remote sensing: Simulation and data analysis.Remote Sensing of Environment9086103doi:10.1016/J.RSE.2003.12.005

Yang D. T.Yang C. Y.2009Detection of seagrass distribution changes from 1991 to 2006 in Xincun Bay, Hainan, with satellite remote sensing.Sensors9830844doi:10.3390/S90200830

Zeller D.1998Spawning aggregations: patterns of movement of the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) as determined by ultrasonic telemetry.Marine Ecology Progress Series162253263doi:10.3354/MEPS162253

Zeller D.1999Ultrasonic telemetry: its application to coral reef fisheries research.Fishery Bulletin9710581065

Zeller D.Russ G.1998Marine reserves: patterns of adult movement of the coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae)).Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences55917924
doi:10.1139/CJFAS-55-4-917

Zeller D.Stoute S. L.Russ G. R.2003Movements of reef fishes across marine reserve boundaries: effects of manipulating a density gradient.Marine Ecology Progress Series254269280doi:10.3354/MEPS254269



Export Citation