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International Journal of Wildland Fire
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International Journal of Wildland Fire welcomes papers on basic and applied aspects of wildland fire science including, but not confined to, ecological impact, modelling fire and its effects, and management of fire. More

Editors in Chief: Susan G. Conard and Stefan Doerr


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Published online 21 July 2017
The impact of traditional fire management on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a montane forest, southern Ethiopia 
Dong-Gill Kim, Habitamu Taddese, Abrham Belay and Randy Kolka

Traditional fire management has been used in African landscapes but there is uncertainty in our understanding of its impact on soil carbon and nitrogen. Our study shows that traditional fire management did not affect forest floor or mineral soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a montane forest in southern Ethiopia.

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Published online 21 July 2016
High-severity fire reduces early successional boreal larch forest aboveground productivity by shifting stand density in north-eastern China 
Wen H. Cai and Jian Yang

Fire severity affects Chinese boreal larch forest aboveground productivity (ANPP) through its influence on forest structure. Changes in recruitment composition or the increase of understorey ANPP cannot offset the decrease of sapling ANPP in high-severity burned areas where low stand density is a strong limiting factor.

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Published online 19 July 2016
Modelling fire probability in the Brazilian Amazon using the maximum entropy method 
Marisa G. Fonseca, Luiz Eduardo O. C. Aragão, André Lima, Yosio E. Shimabukuro, Egidio Arai and Liana O. Anderson

We use the Maximum Entropy method (MaxEnt) to model the probability of fire occurrence in the Brazilian Amazon during the 2008 and 2010 fire seasons and we conclude that MaxEnt may become an important tool to guide firefighting and fire-prevention programs to minimise forest degradation and carbon loss from fires in the Amazon.

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Published online 18 July 2016
Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA 
Douglas J. Shinneman and Susan K. McIlroy

To better understand post-fire recovery of big sagebrush ecosystems, we sampled and analysed data collected in and near 16 fires that burned between 5 and 28 years ago. Our results indicate that big sagebrush recovery is a highly variable but generally slow process that may require several decades on average.

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Published online 18 July 2016
Fire regime from 1973 to 2011 in north-western Patagonian grasslands 
Facundo José Oddi and Luciana Ghermandi

Studies about fire regimes in grasslands are lacking. We described the recent fire regime of north-western Patagonian grasslands using remote sensed data combined with fire statistics from an operational database. Our results contribute to general knowledge about fire in grasslands and provide useful information for sustainable management of these ecosystems.

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Published online 11 July 2016
The importance of the traditional fire knowledge system in a subtropical montane socio-ecosystem in a protected natural area 
H. Leonardo Martínez-Torres, Alicia Castillo, M. Isabel Ramírez and Diego R. Pérez-Salicrup

A traditional fire knowledge system exists in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico that is transmitted orally and through practice. It includes nine types of fire uses for agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry activities. We recommend that this knowledge should be incorporated into an integrated fire management plan.

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Published online 11 July 2016
Positive effects of fire on birds may appear only under narrow combinations of fire severity and time-since-fire 
Richard L. Hutto and David A. Patterson

We calculated occurrence rates of 50 bird species in a mixed-conifer forest for 10 years following fire and found that most species (60%) were more abundant in burned than unburned forest, but the positive response to fire was often apparent only under a specific combination of fire severity and time-since-fire parameters.

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Published online 11 July 2016
Response of soil seed bank to a prescribed burning in a subtropical pine–oak forest 
Susana Zuloaga-Aguilar, Alma Orozco-Segovia, Oscar Briones and Enrique Jardel Pelaez

This is the first study conducted on the effect of prescribed burning on the soil seed bank in a subtropical pine–oak forest. Our results show that the soil seed bank can promote revegetation, persistence and diversity of the pine–oak understorey vegetation following fire.

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    | Supplementary Material (98 KB)
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Published online 05 July 2016
Evaluation of the predictive capacity of dead fuel moisture models for Eastern Australia grasslands 
Miguel G. Cruz, Susan Kidnie, Stuart Matthews, Richard J. Hurley, Alen Slijepcevic, David Nichols and Jim S. Gould

We evaluated the predictive capacity of dead fuel moisture models for grassland fuels in Australia. We identified the most accurate models and the error associated with them. Results have direct operational application for fire behaviour prediction and fire danger rating, and to determine public warning levels.

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Published online 05 July 2016
A power series formulation for two-dimensional wildfire shapes 
J. E. Hilton, C. Miller and A. L. Sullivan

How a fire develops into a certain shape is still an open area of research. We provide a method to mathematically describe the growth of a fire perimeter and use this method to produce shapes described in the literature and matched to experimental fires. The method could be used for flexible fire shape templates in computational systems or to build two-dimensional rate of spread models for fire prediction.

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Published online 05 July 2016
Places where wildfire potential and social vulnerability coincide in the coterminous United States 
Gabriel Wigtil, Roger B. Hammer, Jeffrey D. Kline, Miranda H. Mockrin, Susan I. Stewart, Daniel Roper and Volker C. Radeloff

We identified places in the US that are vulnerable to wildfire hazards. We combined data describing wildfire potential and social vulnerability. We mapped and compared wildfire potential and social vulnerability across wildland–urban interface categories. Our analysis supports evaluating priorities in wildfire hazard prevention and mitigation efforts.

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Published online 05 July 2016
The impact of aging on laboratory fire behaviour in masticated shrub fuelbeds of California and Oregon, USA 
Jesse K. Kreye, J. Morgan Varner, Jeffrey M. Kane, Eric E. Knapp and Warren P. Reed

Through laboratory-scale burning experiments, we determined that fire intensity in masticated fuels declined with fuelbed age and older fuels smouldered for a longer duration.

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Published online 23 June 2016
Chaparral growth-ring analysis as an indicator of stand biomass development 
Kellie A. Uyeda, Douglas A. Stow, John F. O'Leary, Christina Tague and Philip J. Riggan

We investigated the utility of using shrub growth-ring measurements to estimate annual biomass accumulation in a stand of southern California chaparral from 4 to 11 years after burning. The pattern of biomass accumulation tracked closely with precipitation.

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    | Supplementary Material (364 KB)
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Published online 16 June 2016
Fire spread in chaparral – a comparison of laboratory data and model predictions in burning live fuels 
David R. Weise, Eunmo Koo, Xiangyang Zhou, Shankar Mahalingam, Frédéric Morandini and Jacques-Henri Balbi

Prescribed burning in chaparral occurs under marginal burning conditions that are often difficult to predict. This paper compares the ability of several models to predict fire spread success and fire rate of spread with observed rate of spread from laboratory fires in fuel beds composed of only live chaparral shrubs.

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Published online 25 May 2016
Fire effects on pollination in a sexually deceptive orchid 
Julian Brown, Alan York and Fiona Christie

We observed pollinator visitation to flowers of sexually deceptive Caladenia tentaculata and related it to post-fire age class at multiple spatial scales. Visitation was highest when the sample location was recently burnt and there was long-unburnt vegetation in the surrounding landscape.

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Published online 05 April 2016
Targeting forest management through fire and erosion modelling 
William J. Elliot, Mary Ellen Miller and Nic Enstice

Fire intensity and soil erosion models were used on a 1500-km2 forested watershed to aid in targeting areas that would most benefit from forest management to reduce fire risk. Soil erosion following wildfire was estimated to be reduced by 56 percent if areas most susceptible to fire and erosion were thinned.

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Published online 02 February 2016
How drought-induced forest die-off alters microclimate and increases fuel loadings and fire potentials 
Katinka X. Ruthrof, Joseph B. Fontaine, George Matusick, David D. Breshears, Darin J. Law, Sarah Powell and Giles Hardy

Drought-induced forest die-offs are expected to change fuels and microclimate and likely influence fire behaviour. Fuel loading and microclimate measurements following die-off in south-western Australia showed that die-off plots had 20% higher quantities of 1-h fuels and elevated temperature and wind, which when combined, predicted a 30% higher rate of fire spread.

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Published online 02 February 2016
Regional aspects of modelling burned areas in Europe 
Andrey Krasovskii, Nikolay Khabarov, Mirco Migliavacca, Florian Kraxner and Michael Obersteiner

This paper presents a series of improvements to the quantitative modelling of burned areas in Europe under historical climate. Our analysis is carried out for 2000–2008 for 17 European countries. The annual burned areas modelled by an improved version of the Standalone Fire Model (SFM) are in good agreement with historical observations.

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Published online 01 October 2015
Lack of soil seedbank change with time since fire: relevance to seed supply after prescribed burns 
Matthew P. Chick, Janet S. Cohn, Craig R. Nitschke and Alan York

Environmental variability, geographic variability and time since disturbance influence plant diversity in soil seedbanks. Knowledge around the relative importance of each of these factors is lacking. This research examined the influence of environmental, geographical and temporal variability on species richness and composition in the soil seedbank within a fire-prone heathy-woodland.

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Published online 14 September 2015
Too much, too soon? A review of the effects of increasing wildfire frequency on tree mortality and regeneration in temperate eucalypt forests 
Thomas A. Fairman, Craig R. Nitschke and Lauren T. Bennett

We use south-eastern Australia as a case study to review effects of increasingly frequent and severe wildfires on tree mortality and regeneration in temperate eucalypt forests. We propose conceptual models to articulate these changes and highlight knowledge gaps in our understanding of alternative stable states in these forests.

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blank image International Journal of Wildland Fire
Volume 25 Number 7 2016

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Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011–60 
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Jeffrey P. Prestemon , Uma Shankar , Aijun Xiu , K. Talgo , D. Yang , Ernest Dixon , Donald McKenzie and Karen L. Abt
pp. 715-729

Climate and society are changing and these changes are likely to affect factors important to overall wildfire activity, including aggregate fuels distributions, ignition sources and rates, fire spread and suppression. We evaluated how these changes, occurring from 2011 to 2060, could affect wildfire area burned in the south-eastern US.

    | Supplementary Material (6.2 MB)

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Modelling spatiotemporal variability in fires in semiarid savannas: a satellite-based assessment around Africa’s largest protected area 
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Niti B. Mishra , Kumar P. Mainali and Kelley A. Crews
pp. 730-741

We show that various drivers impact spatiotemporal differences in burned area and fire frequency in African savanna. Precipitation amount positively influences the burned area in the following dry season. At finer spatial scales, human-made structures such as boreholes and fences strongly affect heterogeneity in fire event distribution. Vegetation morphology and land use are significant predictors of fire events. Use of spatial models that account for spatial autocorrelation dramatically improve model fit to data.


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Shifting fire regimes from late to early dry-season fires to abate greenhouse emissions does not completely equate with terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity co-benefits on Cape York Peninsula, Australia 
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Justin J. Perry , Eric P. Vanderduys and Alex S. Kutt
pp. 742-752

Fire regimes that reduce greenhouse gas emissions provide economic benefit to land owners through carbon markets and quantifying ancillary biodiversity benefit will provide added value through voluntary markets. This study finds that more research is required to quantify the co-benefits for terrestrial fauna in northern Australia.


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Dispersal-limited detritivores in fire-prone environments: persistence and population structure of terrestrial amphipods (Talitridae) 
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L. Menz , H. Gibb and N. P. Murphy
pp. 753-761

Knowledge of invertebrate responses to fire is often hampered by taxonomic resolution. We used DNA to examine the impact of fire severity on terrestrial amphipod assemblages. The diversity of these important detritivores has been underestimated, but populations of common species have recovered 3 years following severe bushfire, despite limited dispersal capabilities.

    | Supplementary Material (106 KB)

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Predicting post-fire canopy mortality in the boreal forest from dNBR derived from time series of Landsat data 
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Ignacio San-Miguel , David W. Andison , Nicholas C. Coops and Gregory J. M. Rickbeil
pp. 762-774

We assessed the degree to which Landsat-derived spectral indices and additional ancillary data can be used to classify canopy mortality when compared with aerial-photographic interpretation for 10 fires in Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. The results suggest that models based on three and two mortality classes can be used to map historical fire patterns in a cost-effective manner to support management decisions.


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The formation of charcoal reflectance and its potential use in post-fire assessments 
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Claire M. Belcher and Victoria A. Hudspith
pp. 775-779

When studied using reflectance microscopy, charcoals are capable of reflecting variable amounts of light from their surface. We show that the most reflective charcoals form as fires transition from flaming to smouldering. Reflectance may therefore have the potential to provide quantitative information relating to surface heating following wildfire events.

   | Supplementary Material (157 KB)  |        Open Access Article

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Fine woody fuel particle diameters for improved planar intersect fuel loading estimates in Southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine forests 
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Emma Vakili , Chad M. Hoffman and Robert E. Keane
pp. 780-784

This study provides mean squared diameter estimates for fine woody fuels in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado and New Mexico under different management scenarios for use in fuel load estimation with the planar intersect technique. Analysis showed that similarly accurate estimates could be produced from as few as 35 samples.


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Modelling the spatial patterns of ignition causes and fire regime features in southern France: implications for fire prevention policy 
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Thomas Curt , Thibaut Fréjaville and Sébastien Lahaye
pp. 785-796

The causes of wildfire ignitions vary regionally and seasonally in southern France. Ignitions resulting from negligence and accidents are more frequent in urban areas and during summer, intentional ignitions are more frequent in pastures and ignitions resulting from professional negligence are more frequent in hinterlands from autumn to spring.

    | Supplementary Material (703 KB)

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Analysis of forest fire fatalities in Greece: 1977–2013 
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Michalis Diakakis , Gavriil Xanthopoulos and Leontios Gregos
pp. 797-809

Protection of people from forest fires demands a thorough understanding of the dangerous situations faced during emergencies. This study sheds light on these situations by analysing the circumstances under which 208 forest fire-related deaths occurred in Greece. Findings identified specific factors and conditions that can increase the risk of fatalities during a forest fire in the country.


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Firestick Ecology: Fairdinkum Science in Plain English 
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Reviewed by Neil Burrows
pp. 810-810
   | Book Review (35 KB)

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    WF16016  Accepted 26 July 2016
    Soil heating during the complete combustion of mega-logs and broadcast burning in central Oregon USA pumice soils
    Jane Smith, Ariel Cowan, Stephen Fitzgerald

    WF15150  Accepted 26 July 2016
    Faster prediction of wildfire behaviour by physical models through application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition
    Elisa Guelpa, Adriano Sciacovelli, Vittorio Verda, Davide Ascoli

    WF16020  Accepted 22 July 2016
    Recovery and adaptation after wildfire on the Colorado Front Range (2010-2012).
    Miranda Mockrin, Susan Stewart, Volker Radeloff, Roger Hammer

    WF15162  Accepted 19 July 2016
    Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Remediation: Linking Remote Sensing and Process-based Hydrological Models
    Mary Miller, William Elliot, Michael Billmire, Peter Robichaud, K. Arthur Endsley

    WF15164  Accepted 19 July 2016
    Acceptability of fuel management in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding region
    Melinda Mylek, Jacki Schirmer

    WF16031  Accepted 14 July 2016
    Short-term fire front spread prediction using inverse modelling and airborne infrared images
    Oriol Rios, Elsa Pastor, Mario Valero, Eulalia Planas

    WF16007  Accepted 27 June 2016
    Laboratory experiments to estimate interception of infrared radiation by tree canopies
    Bill Mathews, Eva Strand, Alistair Smith, Andrew Hudak, Matthew Dickinson, Robert Kremens

    WF15171  Accepted 21 June 2016
    The role of weather, past fire and topography in crown fire occurrence in eastern Australia
    Michael Storey, Owen Price, Elizabeth Tasker

    WF15081  Accepted 10 June 2016
    Predicting wildfire spread and behavior in Mediterranean landscapes
    Michele Salis, Bachisio Arca, Fermin Alcasena, Margarita Arianoutsou, Valentina Bacciu, Pierpaolo Duce, Beatriz Duguy, Nikos Koutsias, Giorgos Mallinis, Ioannis Mitsopoulos, Jose Moreno, José Perez, Itziar Rodriguez, Fotios Xystrakis, Gonzalo Zavala, Donatella Spano

    WF13206  Accepted 20 March 2014
    An accuracy assessment of the MTBS burned area product for shrub-steppe fires in the northern Great Basin, United States
    Aaron Sparks, Luigi Boschetti, Wade Tinkham, Alistair Smith, Karen Lannom, Beth Newingham


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 15 October 2015
Climate change presents increased potential for very large fires in the contiguous United States

R. Barbero, J. T. Abatzoglou, N. K. Larkin, C. A. Kolden and B. Stocks

2. Published 1 December 2015
Wildfire smoke and public health risk

Fabienne Reisen, Sandra M. Duran, Mike Flannigan, Catherine Elliott and Karen Rideout

3. Published 1 December 2015
Spatial patterns of wildfire ignitions in south-eastern Australia

Kathryn M. Collins, Owen F. Price and Trent D. Penman

4. Published 28 August 2015
Operational wildfire suppression modelling: a review evaluating development, state of the art and future directions

Thomas J. Duff and Kevin G. Tolhurst

5. Published 27 July 2015
An empirical wildfire risk analysis: the probability of a fire spreading to the urban interface in Sydney, Australia

Owen Price, Rittick Borah, Ross Bradstock and Trent Penman

6. Published 4 April 2016
Wildfire survival plans in theory and practice

Christine Eriksen, Trent Penman, Bronwyn Horsey and Ross Bradstock

7. Too much, too soon? A review of the effects of increasing wildfire frequency on tree mortality and regeneration in temperate eucalypt forests

Thomas A. Fairman, Craig R. Nitschke and Lauren T. Bennett

8. Published 27 July 2015
Small mammals decline with increasing fire extent in northern Australia: evidence from long-term monitoring in Kakadu National Park

Michael J. Lawes, Brett P. Murphy, Alaric Fisher, John C. Z. Woinarski, Andrew C. Edwards and Jeremy Russell-Smith

9. Published 15 October 2015
Limitations and utilisation of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity products for assessing wildfire severity in the USA

Crystal A. Kolden, Alistair M. S. Smith and John T. Abatzoglou

10. Published 4 April 2016
1984–2010 trends in fire burn severity and area for the conterminous US

Joshua J. Picotte, Birgit Peterson, Gretchen Meier and Stephen M. Howard

11. Published 4 February 2016
Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

Sean A. Parks, Carol Miller, Lisa M. Holsinger, L. Scott Baggett and Benjamin J. Bird

12. Published 3 March 2016
Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

John A. Moody, Brian A. Ebel, Petter Nyman, Deborah A. Martin, Cathelijne Stoof and Randy McKinley

13. Published 1 December 2015
Long-distance spotting potential of bark strips of a ribbon gum (Eucalyptus viminalis)

James Hall, Peter F. Ellis, Geoffrey J. Cary, Glenys Bishop and Andrew L. Sullivan

14. Published 7 January 2016
Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption – RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

Andrew T. Hudak, Matthew B. Dickinson, Benjamin C. Bright, Robert L. Kremens, E. Louise Loudermilk, Joseph J. O'Brien, Benjamin S. Hornsby and Roger D. Ottmar

15. Published 27 July 2015
Bird diversity increases after patchy prescribed fire: implications from a before–after control–impact study

Holly Sitters, Julian Di Stefano, Fiona J. Christie, Paul Sunnucks and Alan York

16. Published 7 January 2016
High-resolution infrared thermography for capturing wildland fire behaviour: RxCADRE 2012

Joseph J. O'Brien, E. Louise Loudermilk, Benjamin Hornsby, Andrew T. Hudak, Benjamin C. Bright, Matthew B. Dickinson, J. Kevin Hiers, Casey Teske and Roger D. Ottmar

17. Published 4 May 2016
Structure-level fuel load assessment in the wildland–urban interface: a fusion of airborne laser scanning and spectral remote-sensing methodologies

Nicholas S. Skowronski, Scott Haag, Jim Trimble, Kenneth L. Clark, Michael R. Gallagher and Richard G. Lathrop

18. Published 15 October 2015
Sources and implications of bias and uncertainty in a century of US wildfire activity data

Karen C. Short

19. Published 28 August 2015
Effects of curing on grassfires: II. Effect of grass senescence on the rate of fire spread

Miguel G. Cruz, Jim S. Gould, Susan Kidnie, Rachel Bessell, David Nichols and Alen Slijepcevic

20. Published 4 February 2016
Towards a new paradigm in fire severity research using dose–response experiments

Alistair M. S. Smith, Aaron M. Sparks, Crystal A. Kolden, John T. Abatzoglou, Alan F. Talhelm, Daniel M. Johnson, Luigi Boschetti, James A. Lutz, Kent G. Apostol, Kara M. Yedinak, Wade T. Tinkham and Robert J. Kremens

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