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International Journal of Wildland Fire
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International Journal of Wildland Fire welcomes papers on basic and applied aspects of wildland fire science including, but not confined to, ecological impact, modelling fire and its effects, and management of fire. More

Editors in Chief: Susan G. Conard and Stefan Doerr


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Published online 14 October 2014
The role of defensible space for residential structure protection during wildfires 
Alexandra D. Syphard, Teresa J. Brennan and Jon E. Keeley

Defensible space provides significant home protection during wildfire, but more than 30 m (100 ft) provides no significant additional benefit, even on steep slopes. Vegetation reduction is most effective immediately adjacent to structures. The best long-term approach to structure protection will include land use planning in addition to defensible space.

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Published online 14 October 2014
Modelling and mapping dynamic variability in large fire probability in the lower Sonoran Desert of south-western Arizona 
Miranda E. Gray, Brett G. Dickson and Luke J. Zachmann

In the lower Sonoran Desert of south-western Arizona, climate change and non-native plant invasions may increase the frequency and size of uncommon wildfires. Our results contribute to an improved understanding of fuel and other landscape variables that increase large fire probability in this system, particularly maximum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, road density and elevation.

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Published online 21 July 2014
Social science research on Indigenous wildfire management in the 21st century and future research needs 
Amy Christianson

This article reviews social science research on Indigenous wildfire management in Australia, Canada and the United States after the year 2000 and explores future research needs in the field.

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Published online 29 May 2014
Exposing hidden-value trade-offs: sharing wildfire management responsibility between government and citizens 
Blythe McLennan and Michael Eburn

Using a conceptual framework we make explicit some of the necessary but often hidden trade-offs that are implicit in assessments of ‘shared responsibility’ for wildfire management. We compare and contrast potential legal and governance implications of four extreme positions on wildfire management to encourage stakeholders to acknowledge and debate the necessary value trade-offs.

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Published online 31 March 2014
Predicting delay in residents’ decisions on defending v. evacuating through antecedents of decision avoidance 
Ilona M. McNeill, Patrick D. Dunlop, Timothy C. Skinner and David L. Morrison

Many residents of at-risk areas delay committing to defence or evacuation as their response to wildfire threat. This study compared several plausible causes of decision delay and determined that householders’ delay was best predicted by the difference in perceived values of defending v. evacuating, resulting in decision delay when both options get closer in attractiveness.

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blank image International Journal of Wildland Fire
Volume 23 Number 7 2014

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Climate and very large wildland fires in the contiguous western USA 
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E. Natasha Stavros , John Abatzoglou , Narasimhan K. Larkin , Donald McKenzie and E. Ashley Steel
pp. 899-914

Very large wildfires have lasting ecological and social effects. They account for a substantial portion of annual area burned. Although relationships between climate and annual area burned have been studied, there remains a need to understand specifically how climate drives these individual events in order to manage for their effects.


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Managing burned landscapes: evaluating future management strategies for resilient forests under a warming climate 
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K. L. Shive , P. Z. Fulé , C. H. Sieg , B. A. Strom and M. E. Hunter
pp. 915-928

Simulation of future climate and forest management actions using the Climate–Forest Vegetation Simulator showed long-term effects of wildfire and management decisions. Severe climate change led to a transformation to pinyon–juniper woodlands, but ponderosa pine forests could persist through moderate climate scenarios under uneven-aged and prescribed fire management.


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A synthesis of post-fire Burned Area Reports from 1972 to 2009 for western US Forest Service lands: trends in wildfire characteristics and post-fire stabilisation treatments and expenditures 
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Peter R. Robichaud , Hakjun Rhee and Sarah A. Lewis
pp. 929-944

We examined post-fire assessment and treatment implementation reports from wildfires on National Forest lands in the western US that occurred between 1972 and 2009 to determine decadal changes in fire characteristics, types of post-fire treatments used and the justifications and expenditures for these treatments.

    | Supplementary Material (687 KB)

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Calibration of the Fire Weather Index over Mediterranean Europe based on fire activity retrieved from MSG satellite imagery 
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Carlos C. DaCamara , Teresa J. Calado , Sofia L. Ermida , Isabel F. Trigo , Malik Amraoui and Kamil F. Turkman
pp. 945-958

We present a procedure that allows calibrating the Fire Weather Index for fire danger rating over Mediterranean Europe. The procedure is based on probabilities of fire duration as estimated from generalised Pareto models resulting from integrated use of vegetation cover databases, weather data and fire activity as detected by remote sensing from space.


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Fine-scale factors influence fire regimes in mixed-conifer forests on three high mountains in Mexico 
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Larissa L. Yocom , Peter Z. Fulé , Donald A. Falk , Celia García-Domínguez , Eladio Cornejo-Oviedo , Peter M. Brown , José Villanueva-Díaz , Julián Cerano and Citlali Cortés Montaño
pp. 959-968

We investigated the influence of broad- v. fine-scale factors on fire on three parallel mountains in north-eastern Mexico. Despite similar fire regime attributes, we found low fire synchrony among mountains, suggesting strong fine-scale influence on fire occurrence. Our results highlight the importance of scale in describing fire regimes.

    | Supplementary Material (741 KB)

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A comparison of three approaches for simulating fine-scale surface winds in support of wildland fire management. Part I. Model formulation and comparison against measurements 
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Jason M. Forthofer , Bret W. Butler and Natalie S. Wagenbrenner
pp. 969-981

Two newly developed models for simulation of near surface wind are presented and compared against measurements of wind flow. The comparisons suggest that the more complex model best matches measurements; however, the less complex model runs much faster and in some cases may provide more rapid information to fire managers.


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A comparison of three approaches for simulating fine-scale surface winds in support of wildland fire management. Part II. An exploratory study of the effect of simulated winds on fire growth simulations 
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Jason M. Forthofer , Bret W. Butler , Charles W. McHugh , Mark A. Finney , Larry S. Bradshaw , Richard D. Stratton , Kyle S. Shannon and Natalie S. Wagenbrenner
pp. 982-994

This work explores how three different methods for producing high resolution wind information affects fire spread simulations. The results indicate that a momentum based wind model that accounts for turbulence provides the most accurate fire growth simulations. However, fire growth based on a simpler mass based conservation model is much better than no fine scale wind model at all.


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Mathematical model and sensor development for measuring energy transfer from wildland fires 
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Erik A. Sullivan and André G. McDonald
pp. 995-1004

A one-dimensional, finite-length scale, transient heat conduction model was developed and combined with an inexpensive, thermocouple-based aluminium sensor to create a rapidly deployable, non-cooled sensor for measuring incident heat flux from wildland fires.


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Successional stage after land abandonment modulates fire severity and post-fire recovery in a Mediterranean mountain landscape 
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Rosario López-Poma , Barron J. Orr and Susana Bautista
pp. 1005-1015

The effect of ecosystem stage after land abandonment on post-fire plant recovery was evaluated in a Mediterranean mountain terraced landscape. The studied successional stages (dry grassland, dense shrubland and pine stands) significantly influenced fire severity and post-fire vegetation recovery. The pine stands showed the greatest vulnerability to fire.

    | Supplementary Material (330 KB)

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High-resolution observations of combustion in heterogeneous surface fuels 
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E. Louise Loudermilk , Gary L. Achtemeier , Joseph J. O’Brien , J. Kevin Hiers and Benjamin S. Hornsby
pp. 1016-1026

We analysed the applicability of using high-resolution photographs of understorey vegetation to characterise fuel types (e.g. grasses, pine litter), and how these fuel types and their relative biomass related to thermal imagery of fire. We illustrated how fuel and fire variability at sub-metre scales are important in frequently burned ecosystems.


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Pyrogenic carbon: the influence of particle size and chemical composition on soil carbon release 
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Meaghan E. Jenkins , Tina L. Bell , Jaymie Norris and Mark A. Adams
pp. 1027-1033

Pyrogenic carbon deposited as a by-product of prescribed fire is a complex substrate when added to soil. Interactions between pyrogenic carbon and soil microbial processes are complex and associated with changes in both carbon and nutrient availability, and associated shifts in pH.


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Effect of fire on small mammals: a systematic review 
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Anthony D. Griffiths and Barry W. Brook
pp. 1034-1043

We conducted a systematic review of the effect of fire on 122 small mammal species. We found that survey design and statistical analysis was often inadequate and therefore limited inference. The overall effect size between unburnt and burnt sites was relatively small but was influenced by body size and habitat preference of species.

    | Supplementary Material (700 KB)

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    WF14040  Accepted 27 October 2014
    Predictive modeling of fire occurrences from different fire spread patterns in Mediterranean landscapes
    Andrea Duane, Míriam Piqué, Marc Castellnou, Lluís Brotons

    WF13211  Accepted 28 October 2014
    A Wildfire-Relevant Climatology of the Convective Environment of the United States
    Brian Potter, Matthew Anaya

    WF14082  Accepted 23 October 2014
    Fuel accumulation and forest structure change following hazardous fuel reduction treatments throughout California
    Nicole Vaillant, Erin Noonan-Wright, Alicia Reiner, Carol Ewell, Benjamin Rau, Jo Ann Fites-Kaufman, Scott Dailey

    WF13071  Accepted 23 October 2014
    Fire Emission Uncertainties and their Impact on Smoke Dispersion Predictions: a Case Study at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA
    Aika Davis, Roger Ottmar, Yongqiang Liu, Scott Goodrick, Gary Achtemeier, Brian Gullett, Johanna Aurell, William Stevens, Roby Greenwald, Yongtao Hu, Armistead Russell, John Hiers, Mehmet Odman

    WF14034  Accepted 17 October 2014
    Global patterns in fire leverage: the response of annual area burnt to previous fire.
    Owen Price, Juli Pausas, Navashni Govender, Mike Flannigan, Paulo Fernandes, Matthew Brooks, Rebecca Bliege Bird

    WF13099  Accepted 17 October 2014
    Live fuel moisture content and leaf ignition of forest species in Andean Patagonia, Argentina
    Lucas Bianchi, Guillermo Defossé

    WF14054  Accepted 15 October 2014
    Fuel flammability and fire responses of juvenile canopy species in a temperate rainforest ecosystem
    Heidi Zimmer, Tony Auld, Lesley Hughes, Catherine Offord, Patrick Baker

    WF13200  Accepted 15 October 2014
    Pedro Canales Mengod, Jose Torrent Bravo, Maria Lopez Sarda

    WF13128  Accepted 15 October 2014
    Vegetation and topography interact with weather to drive the spatial distribution of wildfires in the eastern boreal forest of Canada
    Xavier Cavard, Jean-François Boucher, Yves Bergeron

    WF14092  Accepted 11 September 2014
    Does fire limit tree biomass in Australian savannas?
    Brett Murphy, Adam Liedloff, Garry Cook

    WF14001  Accepted 03 October 2014
    Predicting wildfire occurrence distribution with spatial point process models and its uncertainty assessment: a case study in the Lake Tahoe Basin, USA
    Jian Yang, Peter Weisberg, Thomas Dilts, Eva (Louise) Loudermilk, Robert Scheller, Alison Stanton, Carl Skinner

    WF14102  Accepted 02 October 2014
    Different fire - climate relationships on forested and non-forested landscapes in the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion
    Jon Keeley, Alexandra Syphard

    WF13218  Accepted 29 September 2014
    Effects of wildfire and topography on soil nitrogen availability in a boreal larch forest of northeastern China
    Jian-Jian Kong, Jian Yang, Haiyan Chu, Xingjia Xiang

    WF14091  Accepted 24 September 2014
    Understanding social impact from wildfires: advancing means for assessment.
    Travis Paveglio, Hannah Brenkert-Smith, Troy Hall, Alistair Smith

    WF13097  Accepted 24 September 2014
    Parametric uncertainty quantification in the Rothermel model with randomized quasi-Monte Carlo methods
    Yaning Liu, Edwin Jimenez, Yousuff Hussaini, Giray Ökten, Scott Goodrick

    WF14098  Accepted 16 September 2014
    Predicting hourly litter moisture content of larch stands in the Daxinganling region of China using three vapor-exchange methods
    Ping Sun, Hongzhou Yu, Sen Jin

    WF13212  Accepted 16 September 2014
    The relationship of mindfulness and self-compassion to desired wildland fire leadership
    Alexis Waldron, Vicki Ebbeck

    WF14029  Accepted 16 September 2014
    Integrating ground and satellite-based observations to determine the degree of grassland curing
    Danielle Martin, Tao Chen, David Nichols, Rachel Bessell, Susan Kidnie, Jude Alexander

    WF13201  Accepted 16 September 2014
    Seasonal differences in fire activity and intensity in tropical savannas of northern Australia using satellite measurements of fire radiative power
    Sofia Oliveira, Stefan Maier, Jose Pereira, Jeremy Russell-Smith

    WF13163  Accepted 16 September 2014
    Utah juniper and two-needle pinon reduction alters fuel loads
    Kert Young, B Roundy, Stephen Bunting, Dennis Eggett

    WF14023  Accepted 28 August 2014
    Correlations between components of the water balance and burned area reveal new insights for predicting forest-fire area in the southwest United States
    Park Williams, Richard Seager, Alison Macalady, Max Berkelhammer, Michael Crimmins, Thomas Swetnam, Anna Trugman, Nikolaus Buenning, David Noone, Nate McDowell, Natalia Hryniw, Claudia Mora, Thom Rahn

    WF14035  Accepted 04 September 2014
    It's Not a 'Thing' but a 'Place': Reconceptualising 'Assets' in the Context of Fire Risk Landscapes
    Ruth Beilin, Karen Reid

    WF14031  Accepted 07 September 2014
    Comparison of forest burned areas in Mainland China derived from MCD45A1 and data recorded in yearbooks from 2001-2011
    Jianfeng Li, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Mengmeng Li

    WF12121  Accepted 06 September 2014
    Estimating the heat transfer to an organic soil surface during crown fire
    Dan Thompson, Mike Wotton, James Waddington

    WF14048  Accepted 04 September 2014
    The likelihood of ignition of dry-eucalypt forest litter by firebrands
    Peter Ellis

    WF14020  Accepted 04 September 2014
    Ana Daria Ruiz Gonzalez, Fernando Castedo-Dorado, Jose Antonio Vega, Enrique Jiménez, Jose María Fernández-Alonso, Juan Gabriel Álvarez-González

    WF14131  Accepted 28 August 2014
    An accuracy assessment of the MTBS burned area product for shrub-steppe fires in the northern Great Basin, United States
    Aaron Sparks, Luigi Boschetti, Alistair Smith, Wade Tinkham, Karen Lannom, Beth Newingham

    WF13197  Accepted 28 August 2014
    Rebuilding and new housing development after wildfire
    Patricia Alexandre, Miranda Mockrin, Susan Stewart, Roger Hammer, Volker Radeloff

    WF14013  Accepted 21 August 2014
    Differences in land ownership, fire management objectives, and source data matter: a reply to Hanson and Odion (2014)
    Hugh Safford, Jay Miller, Brandon Collins

    WF14041  Accepted 08 August 2014
    Modifying the Canadian Fine Fuel Moisture Code for masticated surface fuels
    Thomas Schiks, B Wotton

    WF14052  Accepted 03 August 2014
    The influence of a variable fire regime on woodland structure and composition
    Emma Burgess, Patrick Moss, Murray Haseler, Martine Maron

    WF13152  Accepted 23 July 2014
    Relationships between annual plant productivity, nitrogen deposition and fire size in low elevation California desert scrub
    Leela Rao, John Matchett, Matthew Brooks, Robert Johnson, Richard Minnich, Edith Allen

    WF13058  Accepted 14 July 2014
    The challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modeling
    Penny Morgan, Robert (Bob) Keane, Gregory Dillon, Theresa (Terrie) Jain, Andrew Hudak, Eva Karau, Pamela Sikkink, Zachary Holden, Eva Strand

    WF13046  Accepted 14 July 2014
    Santa Ana winds and predictors of wildfire progression in southern California
    Michael Billmire, Nancy French, Tatiana Loboda, Robert Owen, Marlene Tyner

    WF13219  Accepted 08 July 2014
    Predictors of south-eastern Australian householders’ strengths of intentions to self-evacuate if a wildfire threatens: Two theoretical models
    Jim McLennan, Sean Cowlishaw, Douglas Paton, Ruth Beatson, Glenn Elliott

    WF12169  Accepted 21 June 2014
    Behaviour of fire weather indices in the 2009-10 New Zealand wildland fire season
    Colin Simpson, H Pearce, Andrew Sturman, Peyman Zawar-Reza

    WF13195  Accepted 19 June 2014
    Improvement of Fire Danger Modeling with Geographically Weighted Logistic Model
    Haijun Zhang, Pengcheng Qi, Guangmeng Guo

    WF12189  Accepted 19 June 2014
    Effect of slope on spread of a linear flame front over a pine needle fuel bed: experiments and modeling
    Naian Liu, Jinmo Wu, Haixiang Chen, Xiaodong Xie, Linhe Zhang, Bin Yao, Jiping Zhu, Yanlong Shan

    WF14024  Accepted 16 June 2014
    Location, timing, and extent of wildfire vary by ignition cause
    Alexandra Syphard, Jon Keeley

    WF13079  Accepted 29 May 2014
    Bulk and particle properties of pine needle fuel beds – Influence on combustion
    Paul Santoni, Pauline Bartoli, Albert Simeoni, Jose Torero

    WF13175  Accepted 21 May 2014
    Short-term effect of fuel treatments on fire behaviour in a mixed-heathland: a comparative assessment in an outdoor wind-tunnel
    Eva Marino, Carmen Hernando, Javier Madrigal, Mercedes Guijarro

    WF13206  Accepted 20 March 2014
    An accuracy assessment of the MTBS burned area product for shrub-steppe fires in the northern Great Basin, United States
    Aaron Sparks, Luigi Boschetti, Wade Tinkham, Alistair Smith, Karen Lannom, Beth Newingham

    WF13045  Accepted 24 February 2014
    Flammability of litter sampled according to two different methods: comparison of results in laboratory experiments.
    Anne Ganteaume, Marielle Jappiot, Thomas Curt, Corinne Lampin, Laurent Borgniet

The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 4 February 2014
Is fire severity increasing in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA?

Chad T. Hanson and Dennis C. Odion

2. Published 4 February 2014
Dead fuel moisture research: 1991–2012

Stuart Matthews

3. Published 21 March 2014
Estimation of forest structure and canopy fuel parameters from small-footprint full-waveform LiDAR data

Txomin Hermosilla, Luis A. Ruiz, Alexandra N. Kazakova, Nicholas C. Coops and L. Monika Moskal

4. Published 21 March 2014
Forecasting fire activity in Victoria, Australia, using antecedent climate variables and ENSO indices

Sarah Harris, Neville Nicholls and Nigel Tapper

5. Published 8 May 2014
Wildland firefighter safety zones: a review of past science and summary of future needs

B. W. Butler

6. Published 21 March 2014
Large airtanker use and outcomes in suppressing wildland fires in the United States

David E. Calkin, Crystal S. Stonesifer, Matthew P. Thompson and Charles W. McHugh

7. Published 4 February 2014
Environmental assessment of erosion following prescribed burning in the Mount Lofty Ranges, Australia

Rowena H. Morris, Ross A. Bradstock, Deirdre Dragovich, Meredith K. Henderson, Trent D. Penman and Bertram Ostendorf

8. Published 8 May 2014
Defining extreme wildland fires using geospatial and ancillary metrics

Karen O. Lannom, Wade T. Tinkham, Alistair M.S. Smith, John Abatzoglou, Beth A. Newingham, Troy E. Hall, Penelope Morgan, Eva K. Strand, Travis B. Paveglio, John W. Anderson and Aaron M. Sparks

9. Published 4 February 2014
Can precipitation influence landscape controls on wildfire severity? A case study within temperate eucalypt forests of south-eastern Australia

L. Collins, R. A. Bradstock and T. D. Penman

10. Published 4 February 2014
Current status and future needs of the BehavePlus Fire Modeling System

Patricia L. Andrews

11. Published 2 December 2013
Comparing three sampling techniques for estimating fine woody down dead biomass

Robert E. Keane and Kathy Gray

12. Published 1 August 2014
Mapping the daily progression of large wildland fires using MODIS active fire data

Sander Veraverbeke, Fernando Sedano, Simon J. Hook, James T. Randerson, Yufang Jin and Brendan M. Rogers

13. Published 21 March 2014
Songbird response to wildfire in mixed-conifer forest in south-western Oregon

Nathaniel E. Seavy and John D. Alexander

14. Published 1 August 2014
Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment

E. Chuvieco, I. Aguado, S. Jurdao, M. L. Pettinari, M. Yebra, J. Salas, S. Hantson, J. de la Riva, P. Ibarra, M. Rodrigues, M. Echeverría, D. Azqueta, M. V. Román, A. Bastarrika, S. Martínez, C. Recondo, E. Zapico and F. J. Martínez-Vega

15. Published 4 February 2014
Influence of climate and environment on post-fire recovery of mountain big sagebrush

Zachary J. Nelson, Peter J. Weisberg and Stanley G. Kitchen

16. Published 23 October 2014
Climate and very large wildland fires in the contiguous western USA

E. Natasha Stavros, John Abatzoglou, Narasimhan K. Larkin, Donald McKenzie and E. Ashley Steel

17. Published 18 June 2014
Experimental modelling of crown fire initiation in open and closed shrubland systems

Watcharapong Tachajapong, Jesse Lozano, Shankar Mahalingam and David R. Weise

18. Published 10 September 2014
Simulation and thermal imaging of the 2006 Esperanza Wildfire in southern California: application of a coupled weather–wildland fire model

Janice L. Coen and Philip J. Riggan

19. Published 23 October 2014
Effect of fire on small mammals: a systematic review

Anthony D. Griffiths and Barry W. Brook

20. Published 1 August 2014
Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American lands

Amanda B. Stan, Peter Z. Fulé, Kathryn B. Ireland and Jamie S. Sanderlin

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