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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Crop & Pasture Science is a highly cited and prestigious journal publishing original research on advances in plant sciences, sustainable farming systems, and food quality. More

Editors-in-Chief: Sergio Atienza and Zed Rengel


blank image Crop and Pasture Science
Volume 65 Number 11 2014
Forage Breeding for Changing Environments and Production Systems

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Forage breeding for changing environments and production systems: an overview 
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K. F. Smith and G. Spangenberg
pp. i-ii

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Trifolium interspecific hybridisation: widening the white clover gene pool 
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W. M. Williams
pp. 1091-1106

White clover is the best available forage legume for grazed pastures in temperate zones, but it is not stress resistant and cannot grow in semi-arid, low fertility soils. Several closely related wild clover species are adapted to stressful environments and, although none of these cross naturally with white clover, successful use of tissue culture techniques and genetic bridges has enabled eleven forms of them to be hybridised with white clover. These inter-species hybrids are being used by plant breeders to select resilient new clovers for future-proofing legume-based pastures and expanding them into marginal zones.


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Progress towards developing bloat-safe legumes for the farming industry 
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Kerry Hancock , Vern Collette , Elisabeth Chapman , Katherine Hanson , Stephen Temple , Roger Moraga and John Caradus
pp. 1107-1113

Forage legumes, such as lucerne and white clover, lack foliar proanthocyanidins which leads to bloat, an often lethal condition costing the pastoral industry significant loss of earnings. By overexpressing an R2R3-MYB gene in these species, leaf PA accumulation is achieved; however, additional MYB genes involved in PA regulation have also been identified. Progress towards producing commercial cultivars of both species containing effective levels of PAs has begun as a viable option for mitigating bloat in pastoral agriculture-based farming systems.


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Evaluation and breeding of tedera for Mediterranean climates in southern Australia 
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D. Real , C. M. Oldham , M. N. Nelson , J. Croser , M. Castello , A. Verbyla , A. Pradhan , A. Van Burgel , P. Méndez , E. Correal , N. L. Teakle , C. K. Revell and M. A. Ewing
pp. 1114-1131

The drought tolerant forage legume tedera is a very promising novel species for Mediterranean climates in southern Australia. The evaluation and breeding of tedera commenced in 2006 in Western Australia and the first cultivar was delivered to the seed industry in 2014. The availability of this new technology to Australian farmers will allow them to reduce supplementary feeding by filling the autumn feed-gap with a grazable forage legume.


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The value of improved pastures to Brazilian beef production 
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Liana Jank , Sanzio C. Barrios , Cacilda B. do Valle , Rosangela M. Simeão and Geovani F. Alves
pp. 1132-1137

Brazil has the largest commercial cattle herd in the world and is the largest exporter of beef, due to the vast area of pastures which confer good welfare conditions to the animals. New improved and adapted forage cultivars are necessary to sustain this production. The development of more productive and better quality pastures in the country involves more efficient breeding methodologies and tools, dynamic breeding programs and efficient technology transfer, resulting in progressively better meat and milk production from pastures.


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Breeding red clover for improved persistence in Chile: a review 
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Fernando Ortega , Leonardo Parra and Andrés Quiroz
pp. 1138-1146

Red clover is an important forage legume around the world. However, its main limitation is the lack of persistence of forage yield due to the low survival of plants. To improve this complex character in our breeding program, we have conducted five cycles of recurrent selection, using a modified among and within half-family methodology. The average realised genetic gain for forage yield has been 0.4–2.6% per year, depending on location, showing the effectiveness of the breeding methodology and approach used.


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Progress in developing perennial wheats for grain and grazing 
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Philip J. Larkin , Matthew T. Newell , Richard C. Hayes , Jesmin Aktar , Mark R. Norton , Sergio J. Moroni and Len J. Wade
pp. 1147-1164

Our studies of diverse germplasm, derived from crosses between annual wheat and perennial Triticeae grasses, established that regrowth and grain harvest for a number of seasons is possible, provided at least one genome equivalent from the perennial donor parent is retained. Selected lines demonstrated substantially increased root biomass in the second season compared with resown annual wheat, and produced valuable forage biomass. A breeding strategy for establishing segregating populations and targeted trait improvement is proposed, which should assist in the realisation of projected economic and environmental benefits, resulting from the change to a perennial growth habit.


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Persistence traits in perennial pasture grasses: the case of phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.) 
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R. A. Culvenor and R. J. Simpson
pp. 1165-1176

Perennials are a vital component for sustainable production in pastures of south-eastern Australia. Stresses related to climate, soils and grazing pressure often reduce the persistence even of well-adapted perennials in high production pasture systems but plant breeders have recently been able to improve the tolerance of the major grass species, phalaris, to acid soils and high grazing pressure.  Continued plant breeding efforts combined with good management will be needed to maintain perennials such as phalaris in pastures of the future.


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Genomic selection in crops, trees and forages: a review 
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Z. Lin , B. J. Hayes and H. D. Daetwyler
pp. 1177-1191

Genomic selection is now being used at an accelerating pace in many plant species. This review interprets results of plant genomic selection studies considering the factors that affect the accuracy of genomic selection, such as size of reference population, heritability and extent of genetic diversity. Differences between genomic breeding strategies for self-pollinated and open-pollinated species, and between-population level and within-family designs, are highlighted.


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Breeding forages in Florida for resistance to nematodes 
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Kenneth Quesenberry , Patricio Munoz , Ann Blount , Kevin Kenworthy and William Crow
pp. 1192-1198

This paper reviews research conducted at the University of Florida for almost 30 years to enhance resistance to plant parasitic nematodes, primarily root-knot nematode species. We discuss germplasm screening methods, progress in selection for resistance, cultivar development, and look to the future for ways to enhance progress.


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Forages for feedstocks of biorefineries in temperate environments: review of lignin research in bioenergy crops and some insight into Miscanthus studies 
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Maria S. Dwiyanti , J. Ryan Stewart and Toshihiko Yamada
pp. 1199-1206

Miscanthus is a potential bioenergy crop for temperate regions and low-lignin Miscanthus cultivars are desirable for cost-efficient bioethanol production. Limited information on genetic regulation of lignin biosynthesis in Miscanthus led us to review previous studies of lignin biosynthesis in switchgrass and maize, to review current status of lignin research in Miscanthus, and performed preliminary study on characterisation of Miscanthus lignin genes. This review will help us in setting Miscanthus lignin research direction and also support breeding of low lignin Miscanthus cultivars that is suitable for bioethanol production.


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Genetic improvement of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). 2. Breeding for disease and pest resistance 
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P. G. H. Nichols , R. A. C. Jones , T. J. Ridsdill-Smith and M. J. Barbetti
pp. 1207-1229

Subterranean clover, the most widely sown pasture legume in southern Australia, is attacked by a range of diseases and pests which reduce pasture productivity. The identification of genotypes with resistance to important diseases and pests has enabled development of cultivars with improved disease and pest resistance. The advent of new gene technologies has the potential to develop future subterranean clovers with multiple disease and pest resistances, provided skills in pasture plant pathology, entomology, pre-breeding and plant breeding are adequately resourced.


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Estimating the value of genetic gain in perennial pastures with emphasis on temperate species 
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K. F. Smith , C. Ludemann , C. D. Lewis , B. Malcolm , R. G. Banks , J. L. Jacobs , P. F. Fennessy and G. C. Spangenberg
pp. 1230-1237

It has traditionally been difficult to put a value on genetic gain in pasture species as pastures are not a directly traded commodity.  This paper includes a discussion of the principles and processes for valuing genetic gain in pasture species either through comparisons with the cost of obtaining the attributes of the pasture from another source or through the use of the pasture to provide improvements in farm productivity and production.


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Resources and strategies for implementation of genomic selection in breeding of forage species 
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J. W. Forster , M. L. Hand , N. O. I. Cogan , B. J. Hayes , German C. Spangenberg and K. F. Smith
pp. 1238-1247

Genomic selection provides an attractive option for improvement of complex genetic traits in forage species. Strategies for implementation are constrained and informed by multiple biological characteristics of the target crop species. These factors are generally compared and evaluated, and influence on a number of representative species is discussed.


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Published online 21 October 2014
SYBR Green I based RT-qPCR assays for the detection of RNA viruses of cereals and grasses 
T. Dráb, E. Svobodová, J. Ripl, J. Jarošová, F. Rabenstein, U. Melcher and J. K. Kundu

Virus diseases cause significant yield losses in cereals and are an issue of food and feed safety concern. In this paper we describe comprehensive tools for detecting the causal agents of some less prevalence virus diseases of cereal crops, which affect also annual and perennial grass hosts. Our results revealed a high incidence of some of these viruses in grass hosts, from which may shift to cereal crops that may cause potential threat for stability of cereal production.

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Published online 16 May 2014
Effects of grazing on crop crown temperature: implications for phenology 
Matthew T. Harrison, Walter M. Kelman and Jim M. Virgona

Temperature is a fundamental driver of crop development, which has important implications for dry matter partitioning, the timing of flowering and grain yield. Although defoliation initially delays crop ontogeny, elevated microclimatic temperatures of up to 6–7°C significantly enhance post-defoliation development rates as the growing season progresses from winter into spring, mitigating the extent of the delay by anthesis. These results will be useful in designing experiments that propose using grazing or defoliation to manipulate crop flowering time and in interpreting the implications of defoliation on phenology and grain yield.

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    CP14201  Accepted 21 October 2014
    Integrating canola & wheat into high rainfall livestock systems in south-east Australia. 2. Pasture and livestock production
    Hugh Dove, John Kirkegaard, Walter Kelman, Susan Sprague, Scott McDonald, John Graham

    CP14079  Accepted 20 October 2014
    Grazing defoliation and nutritive value of Setaria pumila and Digitaria sanguinalis in Lolium perenne-based swards
    Katherine Tozer, Catherine Cameron, Lindsay Matthews

    CP14230  Accepted 17 October 2014
    Optimising grain yield and grazing potential of crops across Australia’s high rainfall zone: a simulation analysis. 1. Wheat
    Lindsay Bell, Julianne Lilley, James Hunt, John Kirkegaard

    CP14162  Accepted 14 October 2014
    The economic significance of maintaining pasture production at its peak value
    Cameron Ludemann, Joe Jacobs, Kevin Smith

    CP14152  Accepted 13 October 2014
    Biomass, fruit yield, water productivity and quality response of processing tomato to plant density and deficit irrigation under a semi-arid Mediterranean climate
    Cristina Patanè, Alessandro Saita

    CP14166  Accepted 06 October 2014
    Break Crop Effects on Wheat Production across Soils and Seasons in a Semi-Arid Environment
    Therese McBeath, Vadakattu Gupta, Rick Llewellyn, Bill Davoren, Anthony Whitbread

    CP13386  Accepted 04 October 2014
    Biochemical and physiological mechanism of herbicidal activity of natural compound 2,4-ditert-butylphenol on weeds
    Tse Seng Chuah, Md Zain Norhafizah, Bin Sahid Ismail

    CP14190  Accepted 29 September 2014
    Growth and yield responses in wheat and barley to potassium supply under drought or moderately saline conditions in south-western Australia
    Qifu Ma, Richard Bell, Craig Scanlan, Gavin Sarre, Ross Brennan

    CP14026  Accepted 18 September 2014
    Performance of spring cereal genotypes under defoliation/grazing on the Eyre Peninsula, SA
    Roy Latta

    CP14164  Accepted 15 September 2014
    In mixtures, lucerne genotype affects morphology, biomass production and nitrogen content of both lucerne and tall fescue
    Amel Maamouri, Gaëtan Louarn, François Gastal, Vincent Béguier, Bernadette Julier

    CP14024  Accepted 11 September 2014
    Phenotypic effects of additional chromosomes on agronomic and photosynthetic traits of common wheat in the background of Chinese Spring
    Caiyun Liu, Zhiyuan Yang, X Chen, H Tsujimoto, Yin-Gang Hu

    CP14193  Accepted 08 September 2014
    Multi-physiological trait selection indices to identify Lotus tenuis genotypes with high dry matter production under drought conditions
    Luis Inostroza, H Acuna, José Méndez

    CP14155  Accepted 08 September 2014
    Comparison of teosinte (Zea mexicana L.) and intersubspecific hybrids (Zea mays × Zea mexicana) for high forage yield under two sowing regimes
    Imtiaz Khan Niazi, Saeed Rauf, Jaime Teixeira da Silva, Hassan Munir

    CP14213  Accepted 04 September 2014
    Reply to ‘Comments on papers relating to soil phosphorus testing in “Making better fertiliser decisions for cropping systems in Australia”’ by I.C.R. Holford
    Philip Moody, Chris Dyson, Simon Speirs, Brendan Scott, Richard Bell

    CP14192  Accepted 03 September 2014
    Effect of soil pH and crop sequence on the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to phosphorus fertiliser
    Craig Scanlan, Ross Brennan, Gavin Sarre

    CP14056  Accepted 04 September 2014
    Comments on papers relating to soil phosphorus testing in "Making better fertiliser decisions for cropping systems in Australia" in Crop and Pasture Science
    Ian Holford.

    CP13406  Accepted 01 September 2014
    The use of functional traits to identify Australian forage grasses, shrubs and legumes for domestication for use in pastoral areas under a changing climate [= COMPLIMENTARY OPEN ACCESS]
    Meredith Mitchell, Hayley Norman, Wal Whalley

    CP14159  Accepted 18 August 2014
    Carbon and nitrogen metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize plants under low temperature stress
    Xiancan Zhu, Fengbin Song, Fulai Liu, Shengqun Liu, Chunjie Tian

    CP14119  Accepted 13 August 2014
    Forage canola – spring-sown winter canola for biennial dual-purpose use in the high rainfall zone of southern Australia
    Annieka Paridaen, John Kirkegaard

    CP14116  Accepted 10 August 2014
    Methane in Australian agriculture: current emissions, sources and sinks and potential mitigation strategies.
    Damien Finn, Ram Dalal, Athol Klieve

    CP14064  Accepted 07 August 2014
    Variation for apical sterility among diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid Iranian wheats under meiotic stage water-stressed and well-watered conditions
    Shahram Mohammady

    CP14172  Accepted 06 August 2014
    High recovery ability overrides the negative effects of flooding on growth of tropical grasses Chloris gayana and Panicum coloratum
    Jose Imaz, Daniel Gimenez, Agustin Grimoldi, Gustavo Striker

    CP14125  Accepted 29 July 2014
    Competitive ability of Australian canola (Brassica napus) genotypes for weed management
    Deirdre Lemerle, David Luckett, Peter Lockley, Eric Koetz, Hanwen Wu

    CP13435  Accepted 29 July 2014
    Amelioration of alkaline phytotoxicity by lowering soil pH
    David Brautigan, Pichu Rengasamy, David Chittleborough

    CP14055  Accepted 25 July 2014
    Relationship of early vigour to grain yield in canola germplasm using remote sensing.
    David Luckett, Raymond Cowley, Sergio Moroni, Simon Diffey

    CP14114  Accepted 23 July 2014
    Genotypic and Environmental Variation in Seed Nutraceutical and Industrial Composition of Non-transgenic Soybeans
    Constanza Carrera, Julio Dardanelli, Diego Soldini

    CP14052  Accepted 23 July 2014
    A semi-quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Rathayibacter toxicus, the bacterium involved in annual ryegrass toxicity, to assist in risk assessment of fodder for domestic use.
    Anne Masters, Bimba Samarasinghe, Martin Kalkhoven, Leo den Hollander, Dieter Palmer

    CP14058  Accepted 21 July 2014
    Diego Pequeno, Carlos Pedreira, Kenneth Boote

    CP14009  Accepted 21 July 2014
    CERES-Rice Model-based Simulations of Climate Change Impacts on Rice Yields and Efficacy of Adaptive Options in Northeast China
    Wenxiang Wu, Qian Fang, Quansheng Ge, Mengzi Zhou, Yumei Lin

    CP14066  Accepted 15 July 2014
    Management of glyphosate-resistant Lolium rigidum Gaud. along crop margins in South Australia using alternative herbicide mixtures
    Christopher Preston, Patricia Adu-Yeboah, Peter Boutsalis, Peter Hooper, Gurjeet Gill

    CP14085  Accepted 10 July 2014
    The role and value of combining dual-purpose crops and lucerne in a mixed enterprise farming system
    Ross Kingwell, Leon Squibb

    CP14117  Accepted 07 July 2014
    Opportunities and challenges for improved management of foliar pathogens in annual clover pastures across southern Australia
    Martin Barbetti, Ming Pei You

    CP14090  Accepted 30 June 2014
    Small effects of pasture deferment through grazing spring wheat crops in Western Australia can benefit livestock productivity
    Dean Thomas, Andrew Moore, Hayley Norman, Clinton Revell

    CP13421  Accepted 27 June 2014
    Evaluating the feasibility of dual-purpose canola in a medium rainfall zone of south-eastern Australia – a simulation approach.
    Jeff McCormick, Jim Virgona, Julianne Lilley, John Kirkegaard

    CP13382  Accepted 22 November 2013
    Forage Breeding for Changing Environments and Production Systems – an Overview of ISFB 2013
    Kevin Smith, German Spangenberg

    CP13154  Accepted 08 June 2013
    Effect of Irrigation Regimes on Spring Seeding of Canola Cultivars under Semi-Arid and High Elevation Conditions
    Jamshid Razmjoo, Seyed Eatesam Ghaemmaghami

    CP13156  Accepted 14 May 2013
    The career and contribution to Australian and International Agricultural Science of Clive McDonald Francis: An introduction
    Mike Ewing, David Chatel, Michael Poole, William Collins

The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 18 December 2013
Water-use efficiency and productivity trends in Australian irrigated cotton: a review

Guy Roth, Graham Harris, Malcolm Gillies, Janelle Montgomery and David Wigginton

2. Published 30 October 2014
Genomic selection in crops, trees and forages: a review

Z. Lin, B. J. Hayes and H. D. Daetwyler

3. Published 27 June 2014
Opportunities and challenges in Australian grasslands: pathways to achieve future sustainability and productivity imperatives

Lindsay W. Bell, Richard C. Hayes, Keith G. Pembleton and Cathy M. Waters

4. Published 30 January 2014
Genetic variation for resistance to Fusarium head blight in winter durum material

Thomas Miedaner and Carl Friedrich Horst Longin

5. Published 7 August 2014
Adaptations for growing wheat in the drying climate of Western Australia

Hayden Sprigg, Robert Belford, Steve Milroy, Sarita Jane Bennett and David Bowran

6. Published 30 January 2014
The colours of durum wheat: a review

Donatella B. M. Ficco, Anna M. Mastrangelo, Daniela Trono, Grazia M. Borrelli, Pasquale De Vita, Clara Fares, Romina Beleggia, Cristiano Platani and Roberto Papa

7. Published 27 June 2014
Pasture plants and soil fertility management to improve the efficiency of phosphorus fertiliser use in temperate grassland systems

Richard J. Simpson, Alan E. Richardson, Shirley N. Nichols and James R. Crush

8. Published 30 January 2014
Development of a TILLING resource in durum wheat for reverse- and forward-genetic analyses

R. Bovina, A. Brunazzi, G. Gasparini, F. Sestili, S. Palombieri, E. Botticella, D. Lafiandra, P. Mantovani and A. Massi

9. Published 25 February 2014
Ppd1, Vrn1, ALMT1 and Rht genes and their effects on grain yield in lower rainfall environments in southern Australia

H. A. Eagles, Karen Cane, Ben Trevaskis, Neil Vallance, R. F. Eastwood, N. N. Gororo, Haydn Kuchel and P. J. Martin

10. Published 25 February 2014
Preferential retention of chromosome regions in derived synthetic wheat lines: a source of novel alleles for wheat improvement

C. L. McIntyre, A. Rattey, A. Kilian, M. F. Dreccer and R. Shorter

11. Published 26 November 2013
Summer fallow weed control and residue management impacts on winter crop yield though soil water and N accumulation in a winter-dominant, low rainfall region of southern Australia

J. R. Hunt, C. Browne, T. M. McBeath, K. Verburg, S. Craig and A. M. Whitbread

12. Published 26 November 2013
In vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production differ in selected key pasture species in Australia

B. K. Banik, Z. Durmic, W. Erskine, K. Ghamkhar and C. Revell

13. Published 28 August 2014
Interaction between plant physiology and pasture feeding value: a review

D. F. Chapman, J. M. Lee and G. C. Waghorn

14. Published 30 October 2014
Progress in developing perennial wheats for grain and grazing

Philip J. Larkin, Matthew T. Newell, Richard C. Hayes, Jesmin Aktar, Mark R. Norton, Sergio J. Moroni and Len J. Wade

15. Published 30 January 2014
QTL dissection of yield components and morpho-physiological traits in a durum wheat elite population tested in contrasting thermo-pluviometric conditions

M. Graziani, M. Maccaferri, C. Royo, F. Salvatorelli and R. Tuberosa

16. Published 28 August 2014
Quantifying the interactions between grazing interval, grazing intensity, and nitrogen on the yield and growth rate of dryland and irrigated perennial ryegrass

R. P. Rawnsley, A. D. Langworthy, K. G. Pembleton, L. R. Turner, R. Corkrey and D. J. Donaghy

17. Published 28 August 2014
Perennial pasture grasses—an historical review of their introduction, use and development for southern Australia

K. F. M. Reed

18. Published 12 May 2014
Effects of banded ammonia and urea fertiliser on soil properties and the growth and yield of wheat

J. F. Angus, V. V. S. R. Gupta, G. D. Pitson and A. J. Good

19. Published 25 February 2014
Beneficial impacts of climate change on pastoral and broadacre agriculture in cool-temperate Tasmania

D. C. Phelan, D. Parsons, S. N. Lisson, G. K. Holz and N. D. MacLeod

20. Published 18 December 2013
Aquifer heterogeneity and response time: the challenge for groundwater management

B. F. J. Kelly, W. A. Timms, M. S. Andersen, A. M. McCallum, R. S. Blakers, R. Smith, G. C. Rau, A. Badenhop, K. Ludowici and R. I. Acworth

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