CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Virtual Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review an Article
Referee Guidelines
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn


Article << Previous     |     Next >>        Online Early    

Tasman Sea biological response to dust storm events during the austral spring of 2009

A. J. Gabric A D, R. Cropp A, G. McTainsh A, H. Butler B, B. M. Johnston C, T. O’Loingsigh A and Dien Van Tran A

A Griffith School of Environment, Nathan campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Qld 4111, Australia.
B School of Agricultural, Computational & Environmental Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.
C School of Natural Science, Nathan campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Qld 4111, Australia.
D Corresponding author. Email: a.gabric@griffith.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF14321
Submitted: 12 October 2014  Accepted: 27 April 2015   Published online: 1 September 2015

PDF (2.8 MB) $25
 Export Citation

During the austral spring of 2009 several significant dust storms occurred in south-east Australia including the so-called ‘Red Dawn’ event in late September. Estimates of 2.5 Mt total suspended particulate sediment lost off the Australian coast in the 3000 km long dust plume make it the largest off-continent loss of soil ever reported. Much of this material was transported over the coastline of New South Wales and into the adjacent Tasman Sea. Long-term model simulations of dust deposition over the south-west Tasman Sea suggest the amount deposited during the spring of 2009 was approximately three times the long-term monthly average. Previous satellite-based analyses of the biological response of Tasman Sea waters to dust-derived nutrients are equivocal or have observed no response. Satellite-derived surface chlorophyll concentrations in the southern Tasman during the spring of 2009 are well above the climatological mean, with positive anomalies as high as 0.5 mg m–3. Dust transport simulations indicate strong deposition to the ocean surface, which during both the ‘Red Dawn’ event and mid-October 2009 dust storm events was enhanced by heavy precipitation. Cloud processing of the dust aerosol may have enhanced iron bioavailability for phytoplankton uptake.

Additional keywords: Additional keywords: Australia, iron, nutrient, phytoplankton.


Ajani, P., Ingleton, T., Pritchard, T., and Armand, L. (2011). Microalgal blooms in the coastal waters of New South Wales, Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 133, 15–31.

Alizadeh Choobari, O., Zawar-Reza, P., and Sturman, A. (2012). Atmospheric forcing of the three-dimensional distribution of dust particles over Australia: a case study. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 117, D11206.
CrossRef |

Anon. (1953) ‘Limits of Oceans and Seas.’ (International Hydrographic Bureau: Monaco.)

Aryal, R., Kandel, D., Acharya, D., Chong, M. N., and Beecham, S. (2012). Unusual Sydney dust storm and its mineralogical and organic characteristics. Environmental Chemistry 9, 537–546.
CrossRef | CAS |

Baker, A. R., and Croot, P. L. (2010). Atmospheric and marine controls on aerosol iron solubility in seawater. Marine Chemistry 120, 4–13.
CrossRef | CAS |

Baker, A. R., and Jickells, T. D. (2006). Mineral particle size as a control on aerosol iron solubility. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L17608.
CrossRef |

Bhattachan, A., and D’Odorico, P. (2014). Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean? Scientific Reports 4, 6009.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Bishop, J. K. B., Davis, R. E., and Sherman, J. T. (2002). Robotic observations of dust storm enhancement of carbon biomass in the North Pacific. Science 298, 817–821.
CrossRef | CAS |

Bowie, A. R., Lannuzel, D., Remenyi, T. A., Wagener, T., Lam, P. J., Boyd, P. W., Guieu, C., Townsend, A. T., and Trull, T. W. (2009). Biogeochemical iron budgets of the Southern Ocean south of Australia: decoupling of iron and nutrient cycles in the subantarctic zone by the summertime supply. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, GB4034.
CrossRef |

Bowie, A. R., Griffiths, F. B., Dehairs, F., and Trull, T. W. (2011). Oceanography of the subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones south of Australia during summer: setting for the SAZ-Sense study. Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography 58, 2059–2070.
CrossRef | CAS |

Boyd, P. W., and Ellwood, M. J. (2010). The biogeochemical cycle of iron in the ocean. Nature Geoscience 3, 675–682.
CrossRef | CAS |

Boyd, P. W., McTainsh, G., Sherlock, V., Richardson, K., Nichol, S., Ellwood, M., and Frew, R. (2004). Episodic enhancement of phytoplankton stocks in New Zealand subantarctic waters: Contribution of atmospheric and oceanic iron supply. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB1029.
CrossRef |

Breitbarth, E., Achterberg, E. P., Ardelan, M. V., Baker, A. R., Bucciarelli, E., Chever, F., Croot, P. L., Duggen, S., Gledhill, M., Hassellov, M., Hassler, C., Hoffmann, L. J., Hunter, K. A., Hutchins, D. A., Ingri, J., Jickells, T., Lohan, M. C., Nielsdottir, M. C., Sarthou, G., Schoemann, V., Trapp, J. M., Turner, D. R., and Ye, Y. (2010). Iron biogeochemistry across marine systems – progress from the past decade. Biogeosciences 7, 1075–1097.
CrossRef | CAS |

Carpenter, E. J., Capone, D. G., and Rueter, J. G. (Eds) (1992) ‘Marine Pelagic Cyanobacteria: Trichodesmium and other Diazotrophs.’ (Springer Science and Business Media: Dordrecht, Netherlands.)

Condie, S. A., and Dunn, J. R. (2006). Seasonal characteristics of the surface mixed layer in the Australasian region: implications for primary production regimes and biogeography. Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 569–590.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cropp, R. A., Gabric, A. J., Levasseur, M., McTainsh, G. H., Bowie, A., Hassler, C., Law, C., McGowan, H., Tindale, N., and Rossel, R. V. (2013). The likelihood of observing dust-stimulated phytoplankton growth in waters proximal to the Australian continent. Journal of Marine Systems 117, 43–52.
CrossRef |

de Baar, H. J. W., de Jong, J. T. M., Nolting, R. F., Timmermans, K. R., van Leeuwe, M. A., Bathmann, U., van der Loeff, M. R., and Sildam, J. (1999). Low dissolved Fe and the absence of diatom blooms in remote Pacific waters of the Southern Ocean. Marine Chemistry 66, 1–34.
CrossRef | CAS |

Ellwood, M. J., Law, C. S., Hall, J., Woodward, E. M. S., Strzepek, R., Kuparinen, J., Thompson, K., Pickmere, S., Sutton, P., and Boyd, P. W. (2013). Relationships between nutrient stocks and inventories and phytoplankton physiological status along an oligotrophic meridional transect in the Tasman Sea. Deep-sea Research. Part I, Oceanographic Research Papers 72, 102–120.
CrossRef | CAS |

Everett, J. D., Baird, M. E., Oke, P. R., and Suthers, I. M. (2012). An avenue of eddies: quantifying the biophysical properties of mesoscale eddies in the Tasman Sea. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L16608.
CrossRef |

Gabric, A. J., Cropp, R. A., McTainsh, G. H., Johnston, B. M., Butler, H., Tilbrook, B., and Keywood, M. (2010). Australian dust storms in 2002–2003 and their impact on Southern Ocean biogeochemistry. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24, GB2005.

Godfrey, J. S., Cresswell, G. R., Golding, T. J., and Pearce, A. F. (1980). The separation of the East Australian Current. Journal of Physical Oceanography 10, 430–440.
CrossRef |

Harrison, P. J., Boyd, P. W., Varela, D. E., and Takeda, S. (1999). Comparison of factors controlling phytoplankton productivity in the NE and NW subarctic Pacific gyres. Progress in Oceanography 43, 205–234.
CrossRef |

Hassler, C. S., Ridgway, K. R., Bowie, A. R., Butler, E. C. V., Clementson, L. A., Doblin, M. A., Davies, D. M., Law, C., Ralph, P. J., van der Merwe, P., Watson, R., and Ellwood, M. J. (2014). Primary productivity induced by iron and nitrogen in the Tasman Sea: an overview of the PINTS expedition. Marine and Freshwater Research 65, 517–537.
CrossRef | CAS |

Hayes, D., Lyne, V., Condie, S., Griffiths, B., Pigot, S., and Hallegraeff, G. (2005) Collation and Analysis of Oceanographic Datasets for National Marine Bioregionalisation. A report to the Australian Government, National Oceans Office. CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart.

Jickells, T. D., and Spokes, L. (2001) Atmospheric iron inputs to the oceans. In ‘The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater. (Eds D. R. Turner and K. Hunter.) pp. 85–122. (Wiley: Chichester, UK.)

Jickells, T. D., An, Z. S., Andersen, K. K., Baker, A. R., Bergametti, G., Brooks, N., Cao, J. J., Boyd, P. W., Duce, R. A., Hunter, K. A., Kawahata, H., Kubilay, N., laRoche, J., Liss, P. S., Mahowald, N., Prospero, J. M., Ridgwell, A. J., Tegen, I., and Torres, R. (2005). Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science 308, 67–71.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Law, C. S., Woodward, E. M. S., Ellwood, M. J., Marriner, A., Bury, S. J., and Safi, K. A. (2011). Response of surface nutrient inventories and nitrogen fixation to a tropical cyclone in the southwest Pacific. Limnology and Oceanography 56, 1372–1385.
CrossRef | CAS |

Lenes, J. M., Darrow, B. P., Cattrall, C., Heil, C. A., Callahan, M., Vargo, G. A., Byrne, R. H., Prospero, J. M., Bates, D. E., Fanning, K. A., and Walsh, J. J. (2001). Iron fertilization and the Trichodesmium response on the West Florida shelf. Limnology and Oceanography 46, 1261–1277.
CrossRef | CAS |

Leslie, L. (1998) Weather forecasting models. In ‘Climate Prediction for Agricultural and Resource Management’. (Eds R. Munro and L. Leslie.) pp. 103–116. (Bureau of Resource Sciences: Canberra, ACT, Australia.)

Leys, J. F., Heidenreich, S. K., Strong, C. L., McTainsh, G. H., and Quigley, S. (2011). PM10 concentrations and mass transport during ‘Red Dawn’ – Sydney 23 September 2009. Aeolian Research 3, 327–342.
CrossRef |

Longhurst, A. R. (2007) ‘Ecological Geography of the Sea’, 2nd edn. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA.)

Lu, H., and Shao, Y. P. (2001). Toward quantitative prediction of dust storms: an integrated wind erosion modelling system and its applications. Environmental Modelling & Software 16, 233–249.
CrossRef |

Mackie, D. S., Boyd, P. W., Hunter, K. A., and McTainsh, G. H. (2005). Simulating the cloud processing of iron in Australian dust: pH and dust concentration. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L06809.
CrossRef |

Mackie, D. S., Boyd, P. W., McTainsh, G. H., Tindale, N. W., Westberry, T. K., and Hunter, K. A. (2008). Biogeochemistry of iron in Australian dust: from eolian uplift to marine uptake. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9, Q03Q08.
CrossRef |

Matear, R. J., Chamberlain, M. A., Sun, C., and Feng, M. (2013). Climate change projection of the Tasman Sea from an Eddy-resolving Ocean Model. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 118, 2961–2976.
CrossRef |

McTainsh, G. H., and Leys, J. F. (1993) Wind erosion. In ‘Land Degradation Processes in Australia’. (Eds G. H. McTainsh and W. C. Boughton.) pp. 188–233. (Longman Chesire: Melbourne, Vic., Australia.)

McTainsh, G. H., Lynch, A. W., and Tews, E. K. (1998). Climatic controls upon dust storm occurrence in eastern Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 39, 457–466.
CrossRef |

McTainsh, G., Chan, Y. C., McGowan, H., Leys, J., and Tews, K. (2005). The 23rd October 2002 dust storm in eastern Australia: characteristics and meteorological conditions. Atmospheric Environment 39, 1227–1236.
CrossRef | CAS |

McVicar, T., Walker, J., Jupp, D., Pierce, L., Byrne, G., and Dallwitz, R. (1996a) ‘Relating AVHRR Vegetation Indices to in situ Measurements of Leaf Area Index.’ (CSIRO Division of Water Resources: Canberra, ACT, Australia.)

McVicar, T. R., Walker, J., Jupp, D., Pierce, L., Byrne, G. T., and Dallwitz, R. (1996b) ‘Relating AVHRR Vegetation Indices to In Situ Measurements of Leaf Area Index.’ (CSIRO Division of Water Resources: Canberra, ACT, Australia.)

Mitchell, R. M., Campbell, S. K., and Qin, Y. (2010). Recent increase in aerosol loading over the Australian arid zone. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 1689–1699.
CrossRef | CAS |

Raupach, M. R. (1994). Simplified expressions for vegetation roughness length and zero-plane displacement as functions of canopy height and area index. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 71, 211–216.
CrossRef |

Ridgway, K. R. (2007). Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L13613.
CrossRef |

Ridgway, K. R., and Dunn, J. R. (2003). Mesoscale structure of the mean East Australian Current System and its relationship with topography. Progress in Oceanography 56, 189–222.
CrossRef |

Rubin, M., Berman-Frank, I., and Shaked, Y. (2011). Dust- and mineral-iron utilization by the marine dinitrogen-fixer Trichodesmium. Nature Geoscience 4, 529–534.
CrossRef | CAS |

Shaked, Y., and Lis, H. (2012). Disassembling iron availability to phytoplankton. Frontiers in Microbiology 3, 123.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Shao, Y. P., and Leslie, L. M. (1997). Wind erosion prediction over the Australian continent. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 102, 30091–30105.
CrossRef |

Shao, Y. P., Leys, J. F., McTainsh, G. H., and Tews, K. (2007). Numerical simulation of the October 2002 dust event in Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 112, D08207.
CrossRef |

Shaw, E. C., Gabric, A. J., and McTainsh, G. H. (2008). Impacts of aeolian dust deposition on phytoplankton dynamics in Queensland coastal waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 59, 951–962.
CrossRef | CAS |

Shi, Z. B., Krom, M. D., Bonneville, S., Baker, A. R., Jickells, T. D., and Benning, L. G. (2009). Formation of iron nanoparticles and increase in iron reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 6592–6596.
CrossRef | CAS |

Shi, Z. B., Krom, M. D., Jickells, T. D., Bonneville, S., Carslaw, K. S., Mihalopoulos, N., Baker, A. R., and Benning, L. G. (2012). Impacts on iron solubility in the mineral dust by processes in the source region and the atmosphere: a review. Aeolian Research 5, 21–42.
CrossRef |

Strong, C. L., Parsons, K., McTainsh, G. H., and Sheehan, A. (2011). Dust transporting wind systems in the lower Lake Eyre Basin, Australia. Aeolian Research 2, 205–214.
CrossRef |

Suthers, I. M., Everett, J. D., Roughan, M., Young, J. W., Oke, P. R., Condie, S. A., Hartog, J. R., Hobday, A. J., Thompson, P. A., Ridgway, K., Baird, M. E., Hassler, C. S., Brassington, G. B., Byrne, M., Holbrook, N. J., and Malcolm, H. A. (2011). The strengthening East Australian Current, its eddies and biological effects – an introduction and overview. Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography 58, 538–546.
CrossRef |

Thompson, P. A., Baird, M. E., Ingleton, T., and Doblin, M. A. (2009). Long-term changes in temperate Australian coastal waters: implications for phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series 394, 1–19.
CrossRef | CAS |

Tilburg, C. E., Subrahmanyam, B., and O’Brien, J. J. (2002). Ocean color variability in the Tasman Sea. Geophysical Research Letters 29, 125-1–125-4.
CrossRef |

Timmermans, K. R., van der Wagt, B., and de Baar, H. J. W. (2004). Growth rates, half-saturation constants, and silicate, nitrate, and phosphate depletion in relation to iron availability of four large, open-ocean diatoms from the Southern Ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 49, 2141–2151.
CrossRef | CAS |

Zhang, T. R., Shi, J. H., Gao, H. W., Zhang, J., and Yao, X. H. (2013). Impact of source and atmospheric processing on Fe solubility in aerosols over the Yellow Sea, China. Atmospheric Environment 75, 249–256.
CrossRef | CAS |

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2016