CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > International Journal of Wildland Fire   
International Journal of Wildland Fire
  Published on behalf of the International Association of Wildland Fire
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
20-Year Author Index
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with CP
blank image
facebook twitter LinkedIn

red arrow Connect with IAWF
blank image
facebook twitter LinkedIn


Article << Previous     |         Contents Vol 21(3)

Fuel loadings 5 years after a bark beetle outbreak in south-western USA ponderosa pine forests

Chad M. Hoffman A E, Carolyn Hull Sieg B, Joel D. McMillin C and Peter Z. Fulé D

A Wildland Fire Program, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.
B USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 Pine Knoll Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. Email: csieg@fs.fed.us
C USDA Forest Service, Region 3 Forest Health Protection, 2500 Pine Knoll Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. Email: jmcmillin@fs.fed.us
D School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA. Email: pete.fule@nau.edu
E Corresponding author. Present address: Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship, Warner College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Email: c.hoffman@colostate.edu

International Journal of Wildland Fire 21(3) 306-312 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF11019
Submitted: 2 February 2011  Accepted: 20 June 2011   Published: 20 December 2011

PDF (95 KB) $25
 Export Citation

Landscape-level bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) outbreaks occurred in Arizona ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Law.) forests from 2001 to 2003 in response to severe drought and suitable forest conditions. We quantified surface fuel loadings and depths, and calculated canopy fuels based on forest structure attributes in 60 plots established 5 years previously on five national forests. Half of the plots we sampled in 2007 had bark beetle-caused pine mortality and half did not have mortality. Adjusting for differences in pre-outbreak stand density, plots with mortality had higher surface fuel and lower canopy fuel loadings 5 years after the outbreak compared with plots without mortality. Total surface fuels averaged 2.5 times higher and calculated canopy fuels 2 times lower in plots with mortality. Nearly half of the trees killed in the bark beetle outbreak had fallen within 5 years, resulting in loadings of 1000-h woody fuels above recommended ranges for dry coniferous forests in 20% of the mortality plots. We expect 1000-h fuel loadings in other mortality plots to exceed recommended ranges as remaining snags fall to the ground. This study adds to previous work that documents the highly variable and complex effects of bark beetle outbreaks on fuel complexes.

Additional keywords: Dendroctonus, forest fuels, Ips, Pinus ponderosa, resistance to fire control.


Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears DD, Hogg EH, Gonzalez P, Fensham R, Zhang Z, Castro J, Demidova N, Lim J-H, Allard G, Running SW, Semerci A, Cobb N (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 660–684.
CrossRef |

Amman GD (1991) Bark beetle–fire associations in the greater Yellowstone area. In ‘Fire and the Environment: Ecological and Cultural Perspectives Proceedings’. (Eds SC Nodvin, TA Waldrop) pp. 313–320. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Experiment Station, General Technical Report SE-GTR-69. (Asheville, NC)

Armour CD (1982) Fuel and vegetation succession in response to mountain pine beetle epidemics in northwestern Montana. MSc thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow.

Baker WL, Veblen TT (1990) Spruce beetles and fires in the nineteenth-century subalpine forests of western Colorado, USA. Arctic and Alpine Research 22, 65–80.
CrossRef |

Bentz BB, Ed (2009) ‘Bark Beetle Outbreaks in Western North America: Causes and Consequences.’ (University of Utah Press: Logan, UT)

Bentz BJ, Régnière J, Fettig CJ, Hansen EM, Hayes JL, Hicke JA, Kelsey RG, Negrón JF, Seybold SJ (2010) Climate change and bark beetles of the western United States and Canada: direct and indirect effects. Bioscience 60, 602–613.
CrossRef |

Breece CR, Kolb TE, Dickson B, McMillin JD, Clancy KM (2008) Prescribed fire effects on bark beetle activity and tree mortality in south-western ponderosa pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 119–128.
CrossRef |

Brown JK (1974) Handbook for inventorying downed woody material. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-GTR-16. (Ogden, UT)

Brown JK (1975) Fire cycles and community dynamics in lodgepole pine forests. In ‘Management of Lodgepole Pine Ecosystems’. (Ed. DM Baumgarter) pp. 429–456. (Washington State University Press: Pullman, WA)

Brown JK (1978) Weight and density of crowns of Rocky Mountain conifers. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-GTR-197. (Ogden, UT)

Brown JK, Reinhardt ED, Kramer KA (2003) Coarse woody debris: managing benefits and fire hazard in the recovering forest. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-105. (Fort Collins, CO)

Cahill DB (1977) Net impacts of spruce beetle outbreaks on White River National Forest, 1939–1951. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Regional Report (Fort Collins, CO)

Chambers CL, Mast JN (2005) Ponderosa pine snag dynamics and cavity excavation following wildfire in northern Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 216, 227–240.
CrossRef |

Fettig CJ, Klepzig KD, Billings RF, Munson AS, Nebeker TE, Negrón JF, Nowak JT (2007) The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States. Forest Ecology and Management 238, 24–53.
CrossRef |

Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977) Western forest insects. USDA Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. (Washington, DC)

Ganey J, Vojta SC (2011) Tree mortality in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, Arizona, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 162–168.
CrossRef |

Gara RI, Littke WR, Agee JK, Geiszler DR, Stuart JD, Driver CH (1985) Influences of fires, fungi, and mountain pine beetles on development of a lodgepole pine forest in south-central Oregon. In ‘Lodgepole Pine: the Species and its Management’. (Eds D Baumgartner, R Krebill, J Arnott, G Weetmen) pp. 153–162. (Washington State University: Pullman, WA)

Harrington MG (1996) Fall rates of prescribed fire-killed ponderosa pine. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-RP-489. (Ogden, UT)

Hayes C, DeGomez TE, Clancy KM, Williams K, McMillin JD, Anhold JA (2008) Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona. Journal of Economic Entomology 101, 1253–1265.
CrossRef |

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) ‘Climate Change 2007: the Scientific Basis.’ (Cambridge University Press: Boston, MA)

Jenkins MJ, Dicus CA, Hebertson EG (1998) Post-fire succession and disturbance interactions on an intermountain subalpine spruce–fir forest. In ‘Fire in Ecosystem Management: Shifting the Paradigm from Suppression to Prescription’. (Eds TL Pruden, LA Brennan) pp. 219–229. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference Proceedings 20. (Tall Timbers Research Station: Tallahassee, FL)

Jenkins MJ, Hebertson E, Page W, Jorgensen CA (2008) Bark beetles, fuels, fires and implications for forest management in the Intermountain West. Forest Ecology and Management 254, 16–34.
CrossRef |

Keen FM (1955) The rate of natural falling of beetle-killed ponderosa pine snags. Journal of Forestry 53, 720–723.

Klutsch JG, Negrón JF, Costello SL, Rhoades CC, West DR, Popp J, Caissie R (2009) Stand characteristics and downed woody debris accumulations associated with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in Colorado. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 641–649.
CrossRef |

Lynch HJ, Renkin RA, Crabtree RL, Moorcroft PR (2006) The influence of previous mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) activity on the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Ecosystems 9, 1318–1327.
CrossRef |

Mitchell RG, Preisler HK (1998) Fall rate of lodgepole pine killed by mountain pine beetle in central Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 13, 23–26.

Negrón JF, Bentz BJ, Fettig CJ, Gillette N, Hansen EM, Hayes JL, Kelsey RG, Lundquist JE, Lynch AM, Progar RA, Seybold SJ (2008) US Forest Service bark beetle research in the western United States: looking toward the future. Journal of Forestry 106, 325–331.

Negrón JF, McMillin JD, Anhold JA, Coulson D (2009) Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 257, 1353–1362.
CrossRef |

Olejnik SF, Algina J (1984) Parametric ANCOVA and the rank transform ANCOVA when the data are conditionally non-normal and heteroscedastic. Journal of Educational Statistics 9, 129–149.
CrossRef |

Page WG, Jenkins MJ (2007a) Mountain pine beetle-induced changes to selected lodgepole pine fuel complexes within the Intermountain Region. Forest Science 53, 507–518.

Page WG, Jenkins MJ (2007b) Predicted fire behavior in selected mountain pine beetle-infested lodgepole pine stands within the Intermountain region. Forest Science 53, 662–674.

Reinhardt E, Crookston NL (Tech. Eds) (2003) The fire and fuels extension to the forest vegetation simulator. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-116. (Fort Collins, CO)

Reinhardt E, Scott J, Gray K, Keane R (2006) Estimating canopy fuel characteristics in the western United States using tree and stand measurements. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36, 2803–2814.
CrossRef |

Sanchez-Martínez G, Wagner MR (2002) Bark beetle community structure under four ponderosa pine forest stand conditions in northern Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 170, 145–160.
CrossRef |

Schmid JM, Mata SA, McCambridge WF (1985) Natural falling of beetle-killed ponderosa pine. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note RM-RN-454. (Fort Collins, CO)

Scott JH, Reinhardt ED (2001) Assessing crown fire potential by linking models of surface and crown fire behavior. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Research Paper RMRS-RP-29. (Fort Collins, CO)

Simard M, Romme WH, Griffin JM, Turner MG (2011) Do mountain pine beetle outbreaks change the probability of active crown fire in lodgepole pine forests? Ecological Monographs 81, 3–24.
CrossRef |

USDA Forest Service (2004) Forest insect and disease conditions in the Southwestern Region. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/publications/ [Verified 12 August 2011]

van Mantgem PJ, Stephenson NL, Byrne JC, Daniels LD, Franklin FJ, Fulé PZ, Harmon ME, Larson AJ, Smith JM, Taylor AH, Veblen TT (2009) Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323, 521–524.
CrossRef | CAS |

Williams AP, Allen CD, Millar CI, Swetnam TW, Michaelsen J, Still CJ, Leavitt SW (2010) Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the south-western United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 21 289–21 294.
CrossRef | CAS |

Williams K, McMillin JD, DeGomez TE, Clancy KM, Anhold JA, Miller A (2008) Influence of elevation on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of north-central Arizona. Environmental Entomology 37, 94–109.
CrossRef |

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2015