International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire

Wildland surface fire spread modelling, 1990–2007. 1: Physical and quasi-physical models

Andrew L. Sullivan

CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems and CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Email:

International Journal of Wildland Fire 18(4) 349-368
Submitted: 1 November 2006  Accepted: 13 March 2008   Published: 29 June 2009


In recent years, advances in computational power have led to an increase in attempts to model the behaviour of wildland fires and to simulate their spread across the landscape. The present series of articles endeavours to comprehensively survey and précis all types of surface fire spread models developed during the period 1990–2007, providing a useful starting point for those readers interested in recent modelling activities. The current paper surveys models of a physical or quasi-physical nature. These models are based on the fundamental chemistry and physics, or physics alone, of combustion and fire spread. Other papers in the series review models of an empirical or quasi-empirical nature, and mathematical analogues and simulation models. Many models are extensions or refinements of models developed before 1990. Where this is the case, these models are also discussed but in much less detail.


Albini FA1985A model for fire spread in wildland fuels by radiation.Combustion Science and Technology42229258doi:10.1080/00102208508960381

Albini FA1986Wildland fire spread by radiation – a model including fuel cooling by natural convection.Combustion Science and Technology45101113doi:10.1080/00102208608923844

Albini FA1996Iterative solution of the radiation transport equations governing spread of fire in wildland fuel.Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves325534543doi:10.1007/BF01998575

Albini FAStocks BJ1986Predicted and observed rates of spread of crown fires in immature jack pine.Combustion Science and Technology486576doi:10.1080/00102208608923884

Anderson DHCatchpole EAde Mestre NJParkes T1982Modelling the spread of grass fires.Journal of Australian Mathematics Society, Series B23451466doi:10.1017/S0334270000000394

Anderson TBJackson R1967Fluid mechanical description of fluidized beds: equations of motion.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals64527539doi:10.1021/I160024A007

Asensio MFerragut L2002On a wildland fire model with radiation.International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering541137157doi:10.1002/NME.420

Asensio MFerragut LSimon J2005A convection model for fire spread simulation.Applied Mathematics Letters18673677doi:10.1016/J.AML.2004.04.011

Balbi JSantoni PDupuy J1999Dynamic modelling of fire spread across a fuel bed.International Journal of Wildland Fire94275284doi:10.1071/WF00005

Ball RMcIntosh ABrindley J1999The role of char-forming processes in the thermal decomposition of cellulose.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics150355043doi:10.1039/A905867B

Blackshear PL (1974) ‘Heat Transfer of Fires: Thermophysics, Social Aspects and Economic Impact.’ (Scripta Book Co.: Washington, DC)

Butler BFinney MAndrews PAlbini F2004A radiation-driven model for crown fire spread.Canadian Journal of Forest Research34815881599doi:10.1139/X04-074

Byram GM (1959a) Combustion of forest fuels. In ‘Forest Fire Control and Use’. (Ed. K Davis) Ch. 3, pp 61–89 (McGraw-Hill: New York)

Byram GM (1959b) Forest fire behaviour. In ‘Forest Fire Control and Use’. (Ed. K Davis) Ch. 4, pp. 90–123. (McGraw-Hill: New York)

Carrier GFendell FWolff M1991Wind-aided firespread across arrays of discrete fuel elements. I. Theory.Combustion Science and Technology753151doi:10.1080/00102209108924077

Catchpole WR, Catchpole EA, Tate AG, Butler B, Rothermel RC (2002) A model for the steady spread of fire through a homogeneous fuel bed. In ‘Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Forest Fire Research 2002 Wildland Fire Safety Summit’, 18–23 November 2002, Luso, Portugal. (Ed. DX Viegas) p. 106. (Millpress Science Publishers: Rotterdam, the Netherlands)

Chandler CC, Storey TG, Tangren CD (1963) Prediction of fire spread following nuclear explosions. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Research Paper PSW-5. (Berkeley, CA)

Cheney NPGould JSCatchpole WR1993The influence of fuel, weather and fire shape variables on fire-spread in grasslands.International Journal of Wildland Fire313144doi:10.1071/WF9930031

Chetehouna KEr-Riani MSéro-Guillaume O2004On the rate of spread for some reaction-diffusion models of forest fire propagation.Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications468765784doi:10.1080/104077890504456

Colman JJ, Linn RR (2003) Non-local chemistry implementation in HIGRAD/FIRETEC. In ‘Fifth Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 16–20 November 2003, Orlando, FL. (American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA)

Colman JJ, Linn RR (2005) Separating combustion from pyrolysis in HIGRAD/FIRETEC. In ‘Sixth Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 25–27 October 2005, Canmore, AB. (American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA)

Colman JJLinn RR2007Separating combustion from pyrolysis in HIGRAD/FIRETEC.International Journal of Wildland Fire164493502doi:10.1071/WF06074

Consalvi JLPorterie BLoraud JC2002A formal averaging procedure for radiation heat transfer in particulate media.International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer451327552768doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(02)00007-8

Croba D, Lalas D, Papadopoulos C, Tryfonopoulos D (1994) Numerical simulation of forest fire propagation in complex terrain. In ‘Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Forest Fire Research, Vol. 1’, November 1994, Coimbra, Portugal. (Ed. DX Viegas) pp. 491–500. (DX Viegas: Coimbra, Portugal)

Cunningham PLinn RR2007Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere–fire model: dynamics of fire spread.Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres112D05108doi:10.1029/2006JD007638

Curry JRFons WL1938Rate of spread of surface fires in the Ponderosa pine type of California.Journal of Agricultural Research574239267

Curry JRFons WL1940Forest-fire behaviour studies.Mechanical Engineering62219225

de Mestre NJCatchpole EAAnderson DHRothermel RC1989Uniform propagation of a planar fire front without wind.Combustion Science and Technology65231244

Di Blasi C1993Modeling and simulation of combustion processes of charring and non-charring solid fuels.Progress in Energy and Combustion Science19171104doi:10.1016/0360-1285(93)90022-7

Di Blasi C1998Comparison of semi-global mechanisms for primary pyrolysis of lignocellulosic fuels.Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis4714364doi:10.1016/S0165-2370(98)00079-5

Drysdale D (1985) ‘An Introduction to Fire Dynamics.’ (Wiley: Chichester, UK)

Dupuy J1995Slope and fuel load effects on fire behaviour: laboratory experiments in pine needle fuel beds.International Journal of Wildland Fire53153164doi:10.1071/WF9950153

Dupuy JL2000Testing two radiative physical models for fire spread through porous forest fuel beds.Combustion Science and Technology155149180doi:10.1080/00102200008947288

Dupuy JLarini M1999Fire spread through a porous forest fuel bed: a radiative and convective model including fire-induced flow effects.International Journal of Wildland Fire93155172doi:10.1071/WF00006

Dupuy JLMorvan D2005Numerical study of a crown fire spreading toward a fuel break using a multiphase physical model.International Journal of Wildland Fire142141151doi:10.1071/WF04028

Emmons H1963Fire in the forest.Fire Research Abstracts and Reviews53163178

Emmons HW1966Fundamental problems of the free-burning fire.Fire Research Abstracts and Reviews81117

Evans DD, Rehm RG, McPherson EG (2003) Physics-based modelling of wildland–urban intermix fires. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd International Wildland Fire Conference’, 3–6 October 2003, Sydney. (CD-ROM) (3rd International Wildland Fire Conference and Exhibition 2003)

Fernandes PAM2001Fire spread prediction in shrub fuels in Portugal.Forest Ecology and Management1441–36774

Ferragut LAsensio MIMonedero S2007A numerical method for solving convection-reaction-diffusion multivalued equations in fire spread modelling.Advances in Engineering Software386366371doi:10.1016/J.ADVENGSOFT.2006.09.007

Ferziger JH, Perić M (1996) ‘Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics.’ (Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany)

Fons WL1946Analysis of fire spread in light forest fuels.Journal of Agricultural Research72393121

Forbes LK1997A two-dimensional model for large-scale bushfire spread.Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society. Series B. Applied Mathematics392171194

Gisborne HT1927The objectives of forest fire-weather research.Journal of Forestry254452456

Gisborne HT1929The complicated controls of fire behaviour.Journal of Forestry273311312

Grishin AM1984Steady-state propagation of the front of a high-level forest fire.Soviet Physics, Doklady2911917919

Grishin AM (1997) ‘Mathematical Modeling of Forest Fires and New Methods of Fighting Them. English Translation Edition.’ (Ed. F Albini) (Publishing House of Tomsk State University: Tomsk, Russia) [Translated from Russian by M Czuma, L Chikina, L Smokotina]

Grishin AMShipulina OV2002Mathematical model for spread of crown fires in homogeneous forests and along openings.Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves386622632

Grishin AMGruzin ADZverev VG1983Mathematical modeling of the spreading of high-level forest fires.Soviet Physics, Doklady284328330

Grishin AMGruzin ADGruzina EE1984Aerodynamics and heat exchange between the front of a forest fire and the surface layer of the atmosphere.Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics256889894

Hanson HPBradley MMBossert JELinn RRYounker LW2000The potential and promise of physics-based wildfire simulation.Environmental Science & Policy34161172doi:10.1016/S1462-9011(00)00083-6

Hawley LF1926Theoretical considerations regarding factors which influence forest fires.Journal of Forestry247756763

Incropera FP, DeWitt DP (1985) ‘Introduction to Heat Transfer.’ (Wiley: New York)

Jiménez J (2006) The numerical computation of turbulence. In ‘Lecture Notes on Turbulence and Coherent Structures in Fluids, Plasmas and Non-linear Media’ (Eds M Shats, H Punzmann) Vol. 4. Lecture Notes in Complex Systems, Ch. 6, pp. 281–307. (World Scientific: Singapore)

Karplus WJ1977The spectrum of mathematical modeling and systems simulation.Mathematics and Computers in Simulation191310

Koo E, Pagni P, Woycheese J, Stephens S, Weise D, Huff J (2005) A simple physical model for forest fire spread. In ‘Fire Safety Science, Proceedings of 8th International Symposium’, 18–23 September 2005, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. (Eds D Gottuk, B Lattimer) pp. 851–862. (International Association of Fire Safety Science)

Larini MGiroud FPorterie BLoraud JC1998A multiphase formulation for fire propagation in heterogeneous combustible media.International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer416–7881897doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(97)00173-7

Launder BEReece GJRodi W1975Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure.Journal of Fluid Mechanics683537566doi:10.1017/S0022112075001814

Lawson DI (1954) Fire and the atomic bomb. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and Fire Offices’ Committee, Fire Research Bulletin No. 1 (London)

Lee SL1972Fire research.Applied Mechanics Reviews253503509

Linn RR (1997) A transport model for prediction of wildfire behaviour. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Science Report LA-13334-T. (Los Alamos, NM)

Linn RRCunningham P2005Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere–fire model: basic fire behavior and dependence on wind speed.Journal of Geophysical Research110D13107

Linn RR, Harlow FH (1998a) FIRETEC: a transport description of wildfire behaviour. In ‘Second Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 11–16 January 1998, Pheonix, AZ, pp. 14–19. (American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA)

Linn RR, Harlow FH (1998b) Use of transport models for wildfire behaviour simulations. In ‘III International Conference on Forest Fire Research, 14th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, Luso, Portugal, 16–20 November 1998. (Ed. DX Viegas) Vol. 1, pp. 363–372. (Associacao para o Desenvolvimento da Aerodinamica Industrial (ADAI): Portugal)

Linn RReisner JColman JJWinterkamp J2002aStudying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC.International Journal of Wildland Fire113–4233246doi:10.1071/WF02007

Linn RR, Reisner JM, Winterkamp JL, Edminster C (2002b) Utility of a physics-based wildfire model such as FIRETEC. In ‘Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Forest Fire Research 2002 Wildland Fire Safety Summit’, 18–23 November 2002, Luso, Portugal (Ed. DX Viegas) p. 101. (Millpress Science Publishers: Rotterdam, the Netherlands)

Linn RWinterkamp JColman JEdminster CBailey JD2005Modeling interactions between fire and atmosphere in discrete element fuel beds.International Journal of Wildland Fire1413748doi:10.1071/WF04043

Lymberopoulos N, Tryfonopoulos T, Lockwood FC (1998) The study of small and meso-scale wind field–forest fire interaction and buoyancy effects using the AIOLOS-F simulator. In ‘III International Conference on Forest Fire Research, 14th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 1’, 16–20 November 1998, Luso, Portugal. (Ed. DX Viegas) pp. 405–418. (Associacao para o Desenvolvimento da Aerodinamica Industrial (ADAI): Portugal)

Margerit JSéro-Guillaume O2002Modelling forest fires. Part II: Reduction to two-dimensional models and simulation of propagation.International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer45817231737doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(01)00249-6

Mell WJenkins MAGould JCheney P2007A physics based approach to modeling grassland fires.International Journal of Wildland Fire161122doi:10.1071/WF06002

Mendes-Lopes JMC, Ventura JMP, Amaral JMP (1998) Rate of spread and flame characteristics in a bed of pine needles. In ‘III International Conference on Forest Fire Research, 14th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 1’, 16–20 November 1998, Luso, Portugal. (Ed. DX Viegas) pp. 497–511. (Associacao para o Desenvolvimento da Aerodinamica Industrial (ADAI): Portugal)

Morandini FSantoni PABalbi JH2000Validation study of a two-dimensional model of fire spread across a fuel bed.Combustion Science and Technology157141165doi:10.1080/00102200008947314

Morandini FSantoni PABalbi JH2001aThe contribution of radiant heat transfer to laboratory-scale fire spread under the influences of wind and slope.Fire Safety Journal366519543doi:10.1016/S0379-7112(00)00064-3

Morandini FSantoni PABalbi JH2001bFire front width effects on fire spread across a laboratory scale sloping fuel bed.Combustion Science and Technology1666790doi:10.1080/00102200108907820

Morandini FSantoni PABalbi JHVentura JMMendes-Lopes JM2002A two-dimensional model of fire spread across a fuel bed including wind combined with slope conditions.International Journal of Wildland Fire1115363doi:10.1071/WF01043

Morandini FSimeoni ASantoni PABalbi JH2005A model for the spread of fire across a fuel bed incorporating the effects of wind and slope.Combustion Science and Technology177713811418doi:10.1080/00102200590950520

Morandini FSilvani XRossi LSantoni PASimeoni ABalbi JHRossi JLMarcelli T2006Fire spread experiment across Mediterranean shrub: influence of wind on flame front properties.Fire Safety Journal413229235doi:10.1016/J.FIRESAF.2006.01.006

Morvan DDupuy J2001Modeling of fire spread through a forest fuel bed using a multiphase formulation.Combustion and Flame1271–219811994doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(01)00302-9

Morvan DDupuy JL2004Modeling the propagation of a wildfire through a Mediterranean shrub using a multiphase formulation.Combustion and Flame1383199210doi:10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2004.05.001

Morvan DLarini M2001Modeling of one-dimensional fire spread in pine needles with opposing air flow.Combustion Science and Technology16413764doi:10.1080/00102200108952161

Morvan D, Larini M, Dupuy JL, Fernandes P, Miranda AI, Andre J, Séro-Guillaume O, Calogine D, Cuinas P (2004) Behaviour modelling of wildland fires: a state of the art. Deliverable D-03-01, EUFIRELAB. Available at [Verified 25 May 2009]

Morvan DDupuy JLRigolot EValette JC2006FIRESTAR: a physically based model to study wildfire behaviour.Forest Ecology and Management234S114doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2006.08.155

Pagni PJ1975Flame spread over thin solid fuels.Journal of Heat Transfer971153155

Pagni PJ, Peterson TG (1973) Flame spread through porous fuels. In ‘Proceedings of the 14th (International Symposium) on Combustion’, Pittsburgh, PA. pp. 1099–1107. (The Combustion Institute: Pittsburgh, PA)

Pastor EZarate LPlanas EArnaldos J2003Mathematical models and calculation systems for the study of wildland fire behaviour.Progress in Energy and Combustion Science292139153

Perry GLW1998Current approaches to modelling the spread of wildland fire: a review.Progress in Physical Geography222222245

Pitts WM1991Wind effects on fires.Progress in Energy and Combustion Science17283134

Porterie BMorvan DLarini MLoraud JC1998aWildfire propagation: a two-dimensional multiphase approach.Combustion Explosion, and Shock Waves342139150doi:10.1007/BF02672813

Porterie B, Morvan D, Loraud JC, Larini M (1998b) A multiphase model for predicting line fire propagation. In ‘III International Conference on Forest Fire Research, 14th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, Luso, Portugal, 16–20 November 1998. (Ed. DX Viegas) Vol. 1, pp. 343–360. (Associacao para o Desenvolvimento da Aerodinamica Industrial (ADAI): Portugal)

Porterie BMorvan DLoraud JCLarini M2000Fire spread through fuel beds: modeling of wind-aided fires and induced hydrodynamics.Physics of Fluids12717621782doi:10.1063/1.870426

Porterie BConsalvi JLLoraud JCGiroud FPicard C2007Dynamics of wildland fires and their impact on structures.Combustion and Flame1493314328doi:10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2006.12.017

Pyne SJ, Andrews PL, Laven RD (1996) ‘Introduction to Wildland Fire.’ 2nd edn (Wiley: New York)

Rehm RGBaum HR1978The equations of motion for thermally driven, buoyant flows.Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards833297308

Rehm R, Evans D, Mell W, Hostikka S, McGrattan K, Forney G, Boulding C, Baker E (2003) Neighborhood-scale fire spread. In ‘Fifth Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 16–20 November 2003, Orlando, FL. Paper J6E.7. (American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA)

Reisner JM, Bossert JE, Winterkamp JL (1998) Numerical simulations of two wildfire events using a combined modeling system (HIGRAD/BEHAVE). In ‘Second Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 11–16 January 1998, Phoenix, AZ, pp. 6–13. (American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA)

Reisner JWynne SMargolin LLinn R2000aCoupled atmospheric–fire modeling employing the method of averages.Monthly Weather Review1281036833691

Reisner JM, Knoll DA, Mousseau VA, Linn RR (2000b) New numerical approaches for coupled atmosphere–fire models. In ‘Third Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 9–14 January 2000, Long Beach, CA. pp. 11–14. (American Meteorological Society: Boston MA)

Rogers JC, Miller T (1963) Survey of the thermal threat of nuclear weapons. Stanford Research Institute, Technical Report SRI Project No. IMU-4201. Unclassified version, Contract No. OCD-OS-62-135(111). (Menlo Park, CA)

Rothermel RC (1972) A mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wildland fuels. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Research Paper INT-115. (Odgen, UT)

Santoni PA1998Elaboration of an evolving calculation domain for the resolution of a fire spread model.Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications333279298doi:10.1080/10407789808913939

Santoni PABalbi JH1998Modelling of two-dimensional flame spread across a sloping fuel bed.Fire Safety Journal313201225doi:10.1016/S0379-7112(98)00011-3

Santoni PABalbi JHDupuy JL1999Dynamic modelling of upslope fire growth.International Journal of Wildland Fire94285292doi:10.1071/WF00004

Santoni PASimeoni ARossi JLBosseur FMorandini FSilvani XBalbi JHCancellieri DRossi L2006Instrumentation of wildland fire: characterisation of a fire spreading through a Mediterranean shrub.Fire Safety Journal413171184doi:10.1016/J.FIRESAF.2005.11.010

Séro-Guillaume OMargerit J2002Modelling forest fires. Part I: A complete set of equations derived by extended irreversible thermodynamics.International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer45817051722doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(01)00248-4

Simeoni ASantoni PLarini MBalbi J2001aOn the wind advection influence on the fire spread across a fuel bed: modelling by a semi-physical approach and testing with experiments.Fire Safety Journal365491513doi:10.1016/S0379-7112(00)00063-1

Simeoni ASantoni PALarini MBalbi JH2001bProposal for theoretical improvement of semi-physical forest fire spread models thanks to a multiphase approach: application to a fire spread model across a fuel bed.Combustion Science and Technology16215983doi:10.1080/00102200108952137

Simeoni ALarini MSantoni PABalbi JH2002Coupling of a simplified flow with a phenomenological fire spread model.Comptes Rendus. Mécanique33011783790doi:10.1016/S1631-0721(02)01532-2

Simeoni ASantoni PALarini MBalbi JH2003Reduction of a multiphase formulation to include a simplified flow in a semi-physical model of fire spread across a fuel bed.International Journal of Thermal Sciences42195105doi:10.1016/S1290-0729(02)00009-1

Thomas PH1967Some aspects of the growth and spread of fire in the open.Journal of Forestry40139164doi:10.1093/FORESTRY/40.2.139

Thomas PH1971Rates of spread of some wind-driven fires.Journal of Forestry44155175doi:10.1093/FORESTRY/44.2.155

Van Wagner CE (1967) Calculations on forest fire spread by flame radiation. Canadian Department of Forestry and Rural Development Forestry Branch, Technical Report, Departmental Publication No. 1185. (Ottawa, ON)

Vaz GCAndre JCSViegas DX2004Fire spread model for a linear front in a horizontal solid porous fuel bed in still air.Combustion Science and Technology1762135182doi:10.1080/00102200490255343

Weber RO1991aModelling fire spread through fuel beds.Progress in Energy and Combustion Science1716782doi:10.1016/0360-1285(91)90003-6

Weber RO1991bToward a comprehensive wildfire spread model.International Journal of Wildland Fire14245248doi:10.1071/WF9910245

Williams FA1982Urban and wildland fire phenomenology.Progress in Energy and Combustion Science8317354doi:10.1016/0360-1285(82)90004-1

Williams FA (1985) ‘Combustion Theory: the Fundamental Theory of Chemically Reacting Flow Systems.’ 2nd edn. (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company: Reading, MA)

Wolff MFCarrier GFFendell FE1991Wind-aided firespread across arrays of discrete fuel elements. II. Experiment.Combustion Science and Technology77261289doi:10.1080/00102209108951731

Yakhot VOrszag SA1986Renormalization group analysis of turbulence. I. Basic theory.Journal of Scientific Computing11351doi:10.1007/BF01061452

Zhou XMahalingam S2001Evaluation of reduced mechanism for modeling combustion of pyrolysis gas in wildland fire.Combustion Science and Technology17113970doi:10.1080/00102200108907858

Zhou XPereira J2000A multidimensional model for simulating vegetation fire spread using a porous media submodel.Fire and Materials2413743doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1018(200001/02)24:1<37::AID-FAM718>3.0.CO;2-Q

Zhou XMahalingam SWeise D2005aModeling of marginal burning state of fire spread in live chaparral shrub fuel bed.Combustion and Flame1433183198doi:10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2005.05.013

Zhou XWeise DMahalingam S2005bExperimental measurements and numerical modeling of marginal burning in live chaparral fuel beds.Proceedings of the Combustion Institute30222872294doi:10.1016/J.PROCI.2004.08.022

Zhou XMahalingam SWeise D2007Experimental study and large eddy simulation of effect of terrain slope on marginal burning in shrub fuel beds.Proceedings of the Combustion Institute31225472555doi:10.1016/J.PROCI.2006.07.222

Export Citation Cited By (97)