International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Assessing crown fire potential in coniferous forests of western North America: a critique of current approaches and recent simulation studies

Miguel G. Cruz A B E and Martin E. Alexander C D

A Bushfire Dynamics and Applications, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

B Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia.

C Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, 5320-122 Street, Edmonton, AB, T6H 3S5, Canada.

D University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources and Alberta School of Forest Science and Management, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada.

E Corresponding author. Email: miguel.cruz@csiro.au

International Journal of Wildland Fire 19(4) 377-398 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF08132
Submitted: 28 July 2008  Accepted: 10 December 2009   Published: 24 June 2010

Abstract

To control and use wildland fires safely and effectively depends on creditable assessments of fire potential, including the propensity for crowning in conifer forests. Simulation studies that use certain fire modelling systems (i.e. NEXUS, FlamMap, FARSITE, FFE-FVS (Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator), Fuel Management Analyst (FMAPlus®), BehavePlus) based on separate implementations or direct integration of Rothermel’s surface and crown rate of fire spread models with Van Wagner’s crown fire transition and propagation models are shown to have a significant underprediction bias when used in assessing potential crown fire behaviour in conifer forests of western North America. The principal sources of this underprediction bias are shown to include: (i) incompatible model linkages; (ii) use of surface and crown fire rate of spread models that have an inherent underprediction bias; and (iii) reduction in crown fire rate of spread based on the use of unsubstantiated crown fraction burned functions. The use of uncalibrated custom fuel models to represent surface fuelbeds is a fourth potential source of bias. These sources are described and documented in detail based on comparisons with experimental fire and wildfire observations and on separate analyses of model components. The manner in which the two primary canopy fuel inputs influencing crown fire initiation (i.e. foliar moisture content and canopy base height) is handled in these simulation studies and the meaning of Scott and Reinhardt’s two crown fire hazard indices are also critically examined.

Additional keywords: canopy base height, canopy bulk density, crown fire behaviour, crown fraction burned, crowning, Crowning Index, dead fuel moisture content, fire behaviour, fire behaviour modelling, fireline intensity, foliar moisture content, forest structure, rate of fire spread, Torching Index, wind speed.


References

Agee JKLolley MR2006Thinning and prescribed fire effects on fuels and potential fire behavior in an Eastern Cascades forest, Washington, USA.Fire Ecology2319doi:10.4996/FIREECOLOGY.0202003

Agee JKSkinner CN2005Basic principles of forest fuel reduction treatments.Forest Ecology and Management2118396doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2005.01.034

Agee JKWright CSWilliamson NHuff MH2002Foliar moisture content of Pacific North-west vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.Forest Ecology and Management1675766doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00690-9

Ager AAMcMahan AJBarrett JJMcHugh CW2007A simulation study of thinning and fuel treatments on a wildland–urban interface in eastern Oregon, USA.Landscape and Urban Planning80292300doi:10.1016/J.LANDURBPLAN.2006.10.009

Albini FA (1976) Estimating wildfire behavior and effects. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-30. (Ogden, UT)

Albini FA, Baughman RG (1979) Estimating windspeeds for predicting wildland fire behavior. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-221. (Ogden, UT)

Alexander ME1982Calculating and interpreting forest fire intensities.Canadian Journal of Botany60349357

Alexander ME (1988) Help with making crown fire hazard assessments. In ‘Protecting People and Homes from Wildfire in the Interior West: Proceedings of Symposium and Workshop’, 6–8 October 1987, Missoula, MT. (Eds WC Fischer, SF Arno) USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT-251, pp. 147–156. (Ogden, UT)

Alexander ME (1998) Crown fire thresholds in exotic pine plantations of Australasia. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.

Alexander ME (2006) Models for predicting crown fire behavior – a review. In ‘V Short Course on Fire Behaviour’, 25–26 November 2006, Figueira da Foz, Portugal. pp. 173–225. (Association for the Development of Industrial Aerodynamics, Forest Fire Research Centre: Coimbra, Portugal) Available at
http://depts.washington.edu/nwfire/publication/Alexander_2006b.pdf [Verified 6 March 2009]

Alexander ME (2007) Simple question; difficult answer: how much fuel is acceptable? Fire Management Today 67(3), 6–11, 30.

Alexander ME2009aWildland fire behavior and ‘The Course of Science’ flowchart: is there a connection?Fire Management Today6934446

Alexander ME2009bAre we abusing our use of models and modeling in wildland fire and fuel management?Fire Management Today6942427


Alexander MECruz MG2006Evaluating a model for predicting active crown fire rate of spread using wildfire observations.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3630153028
doi:10.1139/X06-174

Alexander MEPearce HG1992Follow-up to the Spokane area firestorm ’91 report: what were the Canadian fire danger indices?Wildfire News & Notes6467

Alexander MEQuintilio D1990Perspectives on experimental fires in Canadian forestry research.Mathematical and Computer Modelling13121726
doi:10.1016/0895-7177(90)90095-5

Alexander ME, Cheney NP, Trevitt ACF (1991a) Tree-crown streets and wildfires in pine plantations of Australasia. In ‘Proceedings of 11th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 16–19 April 1991, Missoula, MT. (Eds PL Andrews, DF Potts) Society of American Foresters, SAF Publication 91–04, p. 167. (Bethesda, MD)

Alexander ME, Stocks BJ, Lawson BD (1991b) Fire behavior in black spruce–lichen woodland: the Porter Lake project. Forestry Canada, Northern Forestry Centre, Information Report NOR-X-310. (Edmonton, AB)

Alexander ME, Cruz MG, Lopes AMG (2006) CFIS: a software tool for simulating crown fire initiation and spread. In ‘Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Forest Fire Research’, 27–30 November 2006, Figueira da Foz, Portugal. (Ed. DX Viegas) (CD-ROM) (Elsevier BV: Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

Anderson HE (1968) Sundance Fire: an analysis of fire phenomena. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-56. (Ogden, UT)

Anderson HE (1969) Heat transfer and fire spread. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-69. (Ogden, UT)

Anderson HE (1974) Appraising forest fuels: a concept. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note INT-87. (Ogden, UT)

Anderson HE (1982) Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-122. (Ogden, UT)

Andrews PL (2007) BehavePlus fire modeling system: past, present, and future. In ‘Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorological Society’, 23–25 October 2007, Bar Harbor, ME. (American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA) Available at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/126669.pdf [Verified 12 October 2009]

Andrews PL, Bevins CD, Seli RC (2008) BehavePlus fire modeling system, version 4.0: user’s guide. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-106WWW Revised. (Fort Collins, CO)

Battaglia MASmith FWShepperd WD2008Can prescribed fire be used to maintain fuel treatment effectiveness over time in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests?Forest Ecology and Management25620292038doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2008.07.026

Bessie WCJohnson EA1995The relative importance of fuels and weather on fire behavior in subalpine forests.Ecology76747762doi:10.2307/1939341

Brown AA, Davis KP (1973) ‘Forest Fire: Control and Use.’ 2nd edn. (McGraw Hill: New York)

Brown JK (1972) Field test of a rate-of-fire-spread model in slash fuels. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-116. (Ogden, UT)

Brown JK, Oberheu RD, Johnston CM (1982) Handbook for inventorying surface fuels and biomass in the Interior West. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-129. (Ogden, UT)

Brown PMWienk CLSymstad AJ2008Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.Ecological Applications1819841999doi:10.1890/07-1337.1

Bruner AD, Klebenow DA (1979) Predicting success of prescribed fires in pinyon–juniper woodland in Nevada. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-219. (Ogden, UT)

Burgan RE (1987) Concepts and interpreted examples in advanced fuel modelling. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT-238. (Ogden, UT)

Burgan RE, Rothermel RC (1984) BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system – FUEL subsystem. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-167. (Ogden UT)

Burrows N, Ward B, Robinson A (1988) Aspects of fire behaviour and fire suppression in a Pinus pinaster plantation. Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management, Landnote 2/88. (Perth, WA)

Burrows ND (1994) Experimental development of a fire management model for jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm.) forest. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.

Butler BWFinney MAAndrews PLAlbini FA2004A radiation-driven model of crown fire spread.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3415881599doi:10.1139/X04-074

Byram GM (1959) Combustion of forest fuels. In ‘Forest Fire: Control and Use’. (Ed. KP Davis) pp. 61–89, 554–555. (McGraw-Hill: New York, NY)

Carlton D (2005) Fuels Management Analyst Plus software, version 3. (Fire Program Solutions LLC: Estacada, OR) Available at http://www.fireps.com/fmanalyst3/index.htm [Verified 8 November 2009]

Catchpole EACatchpole WRRothermel RC1993Fire behavior experiments in mixed fuel complexes.International Journal of Wildland Fire34557doi:10.1071/WF9930045

Chandler C, Cheney P, Thomas P, Trabaud L, Williams D (1983) ‘Fire in Forestry. Volume I: Forest Fire Behavior and Effects.’ (John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY)

Cheney NP (1981) Fire behaviour. In ‘Fire and the Australian Biota’. (Eds AM Gill, RH Groves, IR Noble) pp. 151–175. (Australian Academy of Science: Canberra, ACT)

Cheyette DRupp TSRodman S2008Developing fire behaviour fuel models for the wildland–urban interface in Anchorage, Alaska.Western Journal of Applied Forestry23149154

Clifford MJ, Rocca ME, Delph R, Ford PL, Cobb NS (2008) Drought-induced tree mortality and ensuing bark beetle outbreaks in south-western pinyon–juniper woodlands. In ‘Ecology, Management, and Restoration of Piñon–juniper and Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems: Combined Proceedings of the 2005 St George, Utah and 2006 Albuquerque, New Mexico Workshops’. (Eds A Gottfried, J Gerald, JD Shaw, PL Ford) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P-51, pp. 39–51. (Fort Collins, CO)

Cohen JD, Finney MA, Yedinak KM (2006) Active spreading crown fire characteristics: implications for modeling. In ‘Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Forest Fire Research’, 27–30 November 2006, Figueira da Foz, Portugal. (Ed. DX Viegas) (CD-ROM) (Elsevier BV: Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

Countryman CM (1977) Radiation effects on moisture variation in ponderosa pine litter. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper PSW-126. (Berkeley, CA)

Cram DS, Baker TT, Boren JC (2006) Wildland fire effects in silviculturally treated vs. untreated stands of New Mexico and Arizona. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Research Paper RMRS-RP-55. (Fort Collins, CO)

Cronan J, Jandt R (2008) How succession affects fire behavior in boreal black spruce forest of interior Alaska. USDI Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, BLM-Alaska Technical Report 59. (Anchorage, AK)

Cruz MGFernandes PM2008Development of fuel models for fire behaviour in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands.International Journal of Wildland Fire17194204
doi:10.1071/WF07009

Cruz MG, Plucinski MP (2007) Billo Road Fire – report on fire behaviour phenomena and suppression activities. Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, Report No. A.07.02. (Melbourne, Vic.)

Cruz MG, Alexander ME, Wakimoto RH (2003a) Definition of a fire behavior model evaluation protocol: a case study application to crown fire behavior models. In ‘Proceedings of the Fire, Fuel Treatments, and Ecological Restoration Conference’, 16–18 April 2002, Fort Collins, CO. (Tech. Eds PN Omi, LN Joyce) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 29, pp. 49–67. (Fort Collins, CO)

Cruz MGAlexander MEWakimoto RH2003bAssessing the probability of crown fire initiation based on fire danger indices.Forestry Chronicle79976983

Cruz MGAlexander MEWakimoto RH2003cAssessing canopy fuel stratum characteristics in crown fire prone fuel types of western North America.International Journal of Wildland Fire123950
doi:10.1071/WF02024

Cruz MGAlexander MEWakimoto RH2004Modeling the likelihood of crown fire occurrence in conifer forest stands.Forest Science50640658

Cruz MGAlexander MEWakimoto RH2005Development and testing of models for predicting crown fire rate of spread in conifer forest stands.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3516261639
doi:10.1139/X05-085

Cruz MGButler BWAlexander ME2006aPredicting the ignition of crown fuels above a spreading surface fire. Part II: model behavior and evaluation.International Journal of Wildland Fire156172doi:10.1071/WF05045

Cruz MGButler BWAlexander MEForthofer JMWakimoto RH2006bPredicting the ignition of crown fuels above a spreading surface fire. Part I: model idealization.International Journal of Wildland Fire154760doi:10.1071/WF04061

Cruz MGAlexander MEFernandes PAM2008Development of a model system to predict wildfire behaviour in pine plantations.Australian Forestry70113121

Deeming JE, Burgan RE, Cohen JD (1977) The National Fire-Danger Rating System – 1978. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-39. (Ogden, UT)

DeRose RJLong JN2009Wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak: simulation of interacting disturbances in the central Rocky Mountains.Ecoscience162838
doi:10.2980/16-1-3160

Dickinson JRobinson AHarrod RGessler PSmith A2009Flatland in flames: a two-dimensional crown fire propagation model.International Journal of Wildland Fire18527535doi:10.1071/WF07107

Dicus CADelfino KWeise DR2009Predicted fire behaviour and societal benefits in three eastern Sierra Nevada vegetation types.Fire Ecology56778doi:10.4996/FIREECOLOGY.0501067

Dieterich JH1976Jet stream influence on the Willow Fire.Fire Management Notes37268

Dieterich JH (1979) Recovery potential of fire-damaged south-western ponderosa pine. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note RM-379. (Fort Collins, CO)

Duveneck MJPatterson WAIII2007Characterizing canopy fuels to predict fire behavior in pitch pine stands.Northern Journal of Applied Forestry246570


Dyrness CTNorum RA1983The effects of experimental fires on black spruce forest floors in interior Alaska.Canadian Journal of Forest Research13879893
doi:10.1139/X83-118

Ewers FWSchmid R1981Longevity of needle fascicles of Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) and other North American pines.Oecologia51107115doi:10.1007/BF00344660

Faiella SMBailey JD2007Fluctuations in fuel moisture across restoration treatments in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona, USA.International Journal of Wildland Fire16119127doi:10.1071/WF06018

Feller MC, Pollock SL (2006) Variation in surface and crown fire hazard with stand age in managed coastal hemlock zone forests in south-western British Columbia. In ‘Fuels Management – How to Measure Success: Conference Proceedings’, 28–30 March 2006, Portland, OR. (Eds PL Andrews, BW Butler) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 41, pp. 367–380. (Fort Collins, CO)

Fernandes PMLoureiro CBotelho HS2004Fire behaviour and severity in a maritime pine stand under differing fuel conditions.Annals of Forest Science61537544doi:10.1051/FOREST:2004048

Fiedler CE, Keegan CE (2003) Reducing crown fire hazard in fire-adapted forests of New Mexico. In ‘Proceedings of the Fire, Fuel Treatments, and Ecological Restoration Conference’, 16–18 April 2002, Fort Collins, CO. (Tech. Eds PN Omi, LN Joyce) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 29, pp. 39–48. (Fort Collins, CO)

Fiedler CE, Keegan CEIII, Woodall CW, Morgan TA (2004) A strategic assessment of crown fire hazard in Montana: potential effectiveness and costs of hazard reduction treatments. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-622. (Portland, OR)

Fiedler CEMetlen KLDodson EK2010Restoration treatment effects on stand structure, tree growth, and fire hazard in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in Montana.Forest Science561831

Finkral AJEvans AM2008The effects of a thinning treatment on carbon stocks in a northern Arizona ponderosa pine forest.Forest Ecology and Management25527432750
doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2008.01.041

Finney MA (2004) FARSITE: Fire area simulator – model development and evaluation. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Research Paper RMRS-RP-4 Revised. (Fort Collins, CO)

Finney MA (2006) An overview of FlamMap fire modelling capabilities. In ‘Fuels Management – How to Measure Success: Conference Proceedings’, 28–30 March 2006, Portland, OR. (Eds PL Andrews, BW Butler) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 41, pp. 213–220. (Fort Collins, CO)

Finney MA, Bartlette R, Bradshaw L, Close K, Collins BM, Gleason P, Hao WM, Langowski P (2003) Report on fire behavior, fuel treatments and fire suppression. In ‘Hayman Fire Case Study Analysis’. (Tech. Ed. RT Graham) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-114, pp. 21–149. (Ogden, UT)

Fitzgerald S, Maguire DA, Singleton R (2005) Simulating structural development and fire resistance of second-growth ponderosa pine stands for two contrasting stand treatments. In ‘Proceeding of Balancing Ecosystem Values: Innovative Experiments for Sustainable Forestry Conference’, 15–20 August 2004, Portland, OR. (Eds CE Peterson, DA Maguire) USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-635, pp. 191–198. (Portland, OR)

Folweiler AD (1937) ‘Theory and Practice of Forest Fire Protection in the United States.’ (JS Swift: St Louis, MO)

Forestry Canada Fire Danger Group (1992) Development and structure of the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction System. Forestry Canada, Science and Sustainable Development Directorate, Information Report ST-X-3. (Ottawa, ON)

Fosberg MA, Deeming JE (1971) Derivation of the 1- and 10-hour timelag fuel moisture calculations for fire-danger rating. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note RM-207. (Fort Collins, CO)

Fried JS, Christensen G, Weyermann D, Barbour RJ, Fight R, Hiserote B, Pinjuv G (2005) Modeling opportunities and feasibility of siting wood-fired electrical generating facilities to facilitate landscape-scale fuel treatment with FIA BioSum. In ‘Systems Analysis in Forest Resources: Proceedings of the 2003 Symposium’, 7–9 October 2003, Stevenson, WA. (Eds M Bevers, TM Barrett) USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-656, pp. 195–204. (Portland, OR)

Fuglem PL, Murphy PJ (1980) Foliar moisture content and crown fires in Alberta conifers. Alberta Energy and Natural Resources, Alberta Forest Service, ENR Report 156. (Edmonton, AB)

Fulé PZ, McHugh C, Heinlein TA, Covington WW (2001a) Potential fire behavior is reduced following forest restoration treatments. In ‘Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems Restoration and Conservation: Steps Toward Stewardship’, 25–27 April 2000, Flagstaff, AZ. (Eds RK Vance, CB Edminster, WW Covington, TA Blake) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 22, pp. 28–35. (Ogden, UT)

Fulé PZWaltz AEMCovington WWHeinlein TA2001bMeasuring forest restoration effectiveness in reducing hazardous fuels.Journal of Forestry99112429

Fulé PZCovington WWSmith HBSpringer JDHeinlein TAHuisinga KDMoore MM2002Comparing ecological restoration alternatives: Grand Canyon, Arizona.Forest Ecology and Management1701941
doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00759-9

Fulé PZCrouse JECocke AEMoore MMCovington WW2004Changes in canopy fuels and potential fire behavior 1880–2040: Grand Canyon, Arizona.Ecological Modelling175231248doi:10.1016/J.ECOLMODEL.2003.10.023

Geddes DJ, Pfeiffer ER (1981) The Caroline Forest Fire, 2 February 1979. Woods and Forests Department of South Australia, Bulletin 26. (Adelaide, SA)

Goens DW, Andrews PL (1998) Weather and fire behavior factors related to the Dude Fire, AZ. In ‘Preprint Volume of Second Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 11–16 January 1998, Phoenix, AZ. pp. 153–158. (American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA)

Grabner K, Dwyer J, Cutter B (1997) Validation of BEHAVE fire behavior predictions in oak savannas using five fuel models. In ‘Proceedings of the 11th Central Hardwood Conference’, 23–26 March 1997, Columbia, MO. (Eds SG Pallard, RA Cecich, HG Garrett, PS Johnson) USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment, pp. 202–215. (St Paul, MN)

Grabner KWDwyer JPCutter BE2001Fuel model selection for BEHAVE in Midwestern oak savannas.Northern Journal of Applied Forestry187480

Graetz DHSessions JGarman SL2007Using stand-level optimization to reduce crown fire hazard.Landscape and Urban Planning80312319
doi:10.1016/J.LANDURBPLAN.2006.10.011

Graham RT (Tech. Ed.) (2003) Hayman Fire case study: summary. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-115. (Ogden, UT)

Graham RT, Harvey AE, Jain TB, Tonn JR (1999) The effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in Western forests. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-463. (Portland, OR)

Graham RT, McCaffrey S, Jain TB (Tech. Eds) (2004) Science basis for changing forest structure to modify wildfire behavior and severity. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-120. (Ogden, UT)

Graves DA, Neuenschwander LF (2001) Crown fire assessment in the urban intermix: modeling the Spokane, Washington ponderosa pine forests. In ‘Proceedings of the Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop Crossing the Millennium: Integrating Spatial Technologies and Ecological Principles for a New Age in Fire Management, Volume II’, 15–17 June 1999, Boise, ID. (Eds LF Neuenschwander, KC Ryan, GE Goldberg, JD Greer) pp. 162–166. (University of Idaho and International Association of Wildland Fire: Moscow, ID)

Gray RWBlackwell BA2008Assessing wildfire hazard and developing hazard reduction prescriptions in the wildland–urban interface.BC Forest Professional1441011

Hall SABurke IC2006Considerations for characterizing fuels as inputs for fire behavior models.Forest Ecology and Management227102114
doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2006.02.022

Harrington MG (1982) Estimating ponderosa pine fuel moisture using national fire-danger rating moisture values. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper RM-233. (Fort Collins, CO)

Harrington MG, Noonan-Wright E, Doherty M (2006) Testing the modeled effectiveness of an operational fuel reduction treatment in a small western Montana interface landscape using two spatial scales. In ‘Fuels Management – How to Measure Success: Conference Proceedings’, 28–30 March 2006, Portland, OR. (Eds PL Andrews, BW Butler) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 41, pp. 301–314. (Fort Collins, CO)

Hartford RA, Rothermel RC (1991) Fuel moisture as measured and predicted during the 1988 fires in Yellowstone Park. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Research Note INT-396. (Ogden, UT)

Hély CFlannigan MBergeron YMcRae D2001Role of vegetation and weather on fire behavior in the Canadian mixedwood boreal forest using two fire behavior prediction systems.Canadian Journal of Forest Research31430441doi:10.1139/CJFR-31-3-430

Hoffman CMathiasen RSieg CH2007Dwarf mistletoe effects on fuel loadings in ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona.Canadian Journal of Forest Research37662670doi:10.1139/X06-259

Hough WA, Albini FA (1978) Predicting fire behavior in palmetto–gallberry fuel complexes. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Research Paper SE-174. (Asheville, NC)

Huggett RJJrAbt KLShepperd W2008Efficacy of mechanical fuel treatments for reducing wildfire hazard.Forest Policy and Economics10408414doi:10.1016/J.FORPOL.2008.03.003

Hummel SAgee JK2003Western spruce budworm defoliation effects on forest structure and potential fire behavior.Northwest Science77159169

Jakeman AJLetcher RANorton JP2006Ten iterative steps in development and evaluation of environmental models.Environmental Modelling & Software21602614
doi:10.1016/J.ENVSOFT.2006.01.004

Johnson MC (2008) Analyzing fuel treatments and fire hazard in the Pacific Northwest. PhD dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Johnson MC, Peterson DL, Raymond CL (2007) Guide to fuel treatments in dry forests of the western United States: assessing forest structure and hazard. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-686. (Portland, OR)

Keeves ADouglas DR1983Forest fires in South Australia on 16 February 1983 and consequent future forest management aims.Australian Forestry46148162

Keyes CR2006Role of foliar moisture content in the silvicultural management of forest fuels.Western Journal of Applied Forestry21228231


Keyes CRO’Hara KL2002Quantifying stand targets for silvicultural prevention of crown fires.Western Journal of Applied Forestry17101109


Keyes CRVarner JM2006Pitfalls in the silvicultural treatment of canopy fuels.Fire Management Today6634650


Kobziar LNMcBride JRStephens SL2009The efficacy of fire and fuels reduction treatments in a Sierra Nevada pine plantation.International Journal of Wildland Fire18791801
doi:10.1071/WF06097

Kuljian HVarner JM2010The effects of sudden oak death on foliar moisture content and crown fire potential in tanoak.Forest Ecology and Management25921032110doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2010.02.022

Lawson BD (1972) Fire spread in lodgepole pine stands. MSc thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.

Lawson BD, Armitage OB (2008) ‘Weather Guide for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System.’ (Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre: Edmonton, AB)

List RJ (1951) ‘Smithsonian Meteorological Tables.’ 6th revised edn. (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC)

Martinson EJOmi PN2008Assessing mitigation of wildfire severity by fuel treatments – an example from the Coastal Plain of Mississippi.International Journal of Wildland Fire17415420doi:10.1071/WF06067

Mason GJBaker TTCram DSBoren JCFernald AGVanLeeuwen DM2007Mechanical fuel treatment effects on fuel loads and indices of crown fire potential in a south central New Mexico dry mixed conifer forest.Forest Ecology and Management251195204doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2007.06.006

McAlpine RS, Xanthopoulos G (1989) Predicted vs. observed fire spread rates in ponderosa pine fuel beds: a test of American and Canadian systems. In ‘Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 17–21 April 1989, Ottawa, ON. (Eds DC MacIver, H Auld, R Whitewood) pp. 287–294. (Forestry Canada and Environment Canada: Ottawa, ON)

McHugh CW (2006) Considerations in the use of models available for fuel treatment analysis. In ‘Fuels Management – How to Measure Success: Conference Proceedings’, 28–30 March 2006, Portland, OR. (Eds PL Andrews, BW Butler) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 41, pp. 81–105. (Fort Collins, CO)

Menning KMStephens SL2007Fire climbing in the forest: a semiqualitative, semiquantitative approach to assessing ladder fuel hazards.Western Journal of Applied Forestry228893

Mitsopoulos IDDimitrakopoulos AP2007Canopy fuel characteristics and potential crown fire behaviour in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) forests.Annals of Forest Science64287299
doi:10.1051/FOREST:2007006

Moghaddas JJCraggs L2007A fuel treatment reduces fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a mixed conifer forest.International Journal of Wildland Fire16673678doi:10.1071/WF06066

Moghaddas JJ, Stephens SL (2007) Fire performance in traditional silvicultural and fire and fire surrogate treatments in Sierran mixed-conifer forests: a brief summary. In ‘Restoring Fire-Adapted Ecosystems: Proceedings of the 2005 National Silviculture Workshop’, 6–10 June 2005, Tahoe City, CA. (Tech. Ed. RF Powers) USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-203, pp. 251–260. (Albany, CA)

Monleon VJAzuma DGedney D2004Equations for predicting uncompacted crown ratio based on compacted crown ratio and tree attributes.Western Journal of Applied Forestry19260267

Muraro SJ (1971) The lodgepole pine fuel complex. Canadian Forestry Service, Forest Research Laboratory, Information Report BC-X-53. (Victoria, BC)

National Wildfire Coordinating Group (2008) S-490 advanced wildland fire behavior calculations student workbook. National Wildfire Coordinating Group, National Fire Equipment System, Publication NFES 2997. (Boise, ID)

Nelson RMJr2003Reaction times and burning rates for wind-tunnel headfires.International Journal of Wildland Fire12195211
doi:10.1071/WF02041

Nelson RMJrAdkins CW1988A dimenionless correlation for the spread of wind-driven fires.Canadian Journal of Forest Research18391397

NFPA (1990) ‘Black Tiger Fire Case Study.’ (National Fire Protection Association: Quincy, MA)

NFPA (1992) ‘Firestorm ’91 Case Study.’ (National Fire Protection Association: Quincy, MA)

Norum RA (1982) Predicting wildfire behavior in black spruce forests in Alaska. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note PNW-401. (Portland, OR)

Ottmar RDSandberg DVRiccardi CLPrichard SJ2007An overview of the Fuel Characteristic Classification System – quantifying, classifying, and creating fuelbeds for resource planning.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3723832393
doi:10.1139/X07-077

Page WJenkins MJ2007Predicted fire behavior in selected mountain pine beetle-infested lodgepole pine.Forest Science53662674

Perry DAJing HYoungblood AOetter DR2004Forest structure and fire susceptibility in volcanic landscapes of the eastern High Cascades, Oregon.Conservation Biology18913926
doi:10.1111/J.1523-1739.2004.00530.X

Peterson DL, Johnson MC, Agee JK, Jain TB, Mckenzie D, Reinhardt ED (2005) Forest structure and fire hazard in dry forests of the Western United States. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-628. (Portland, OR)

Peterson DL, Evers L, Gravenmier RA, Eberhardt E (2007) Analytical and decision support for managing vegetation and fuels: a consumer guide. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-690. (Portland, OR)

Philpot CW (1963) The moisture content of ponderosa pine and whiteleaf manzanita foliage in Central Sierra Nevada. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note PSW-39. (Berkeley, CA)

Philpot CW, Mutch RW (1971) The seasonal trends in moisture content, ether extractives, and energy of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir needles. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-102. (Ogden, UT)

Prior KW1958The Balmoral Forest Fire.New Zealand Journal of Forestry753550

Raymond CLPeterson DL2005Fuel treatments alter the effects of wildfire in a mixed-evergreen forest, Oregon, USA.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3529812995
doi:10.1139/X05-206

Reich PB, Koike T, Gower ST, Schoettle AW (1995) Causes and consequences of variation in conifer leaf life-span. In ‘Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests’. (Eds WK Smith, TM Hinckley) pp. 225–254. (Academic Press: San Diego)

Reinhardt E, Lutes D, Scott J (2006a) FuelCalc: a method for estimating fuel characteristics. In ‘Fuels Management – How to Measure Success: Conference Proceedings’, 28–30 March 2006, Portland, OR. (Eds PL Andrews, BW Butler) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 41, pp. 273–282. (Fort Collins, CO)

Reinhardt EScott JGray KKeane R2006bEstimating canopy fuel characteristics in five conifer stands in the western United States using tree and stand measurements.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3628032814doi:10.1139/X06-157

Reinhardt ED, Crookston NL (Tech. Eds) (2003) The Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-116. (Ogden, UT)

Reinhardt EDHolsinger LKeane R2010Effects of biomass removal treatments on stand-level fire characteristics in major forest types of the Northern Rocky Mountains.Western Journal of Applied Forestry253441

Richardson DM, Rundel PW (1998) Ecology and biogeography of Pinus: an introduction. In ‘Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus’. (Ed. DM Richardson) pp. 3–46. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Ritchie MWSkinner CNHamilton TA2007Probability of tree survival after wildfire in an interior pine forest of northern California: effects of thinning and prescribed fire.Forest Ecology and Management247200208
doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2007.04.044

Roccaforte JPFulé PZCovington WW2008Landscape-scale changes in canopy fuels and potential fire behavior following ponderosa pine restorations treatments.International Journal of Wildland Fire17293303doi:10.1071/WF06120

Rothermel RC (1972) A mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wildland fuels. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-115. (Ogden, UT)

Rothermel RC (1983) How to predict the spread and intensity of forest and range fires. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-143. (Ogden, UT)

Rothermel RC (1991) Predicting behavior and size of crown fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Research Paper INT-438. (Ogden, UT)

Rothermel RC, Reinhart GC (1983) Field procedures for verification and adjustment of fire behavior predictions. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-142. (Ogden, UT)

Rothermel RC, Wilson RAJr, Morris GA, Sackett SS (1986) Modeling moisture content of fine dead wildland fuels: input to the BEHAVE fire prediction system. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Research Paper INT-359. (Ogden, UT)

Roussopoulos PJ (1978) An appraisal of upland forest fuels and potential fire behavior for a portion of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. PhD dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Sandberg DVRiccardi CLSchaaf MD2007Reformulation of Rothermel’s wildland fire behaviour model for heterogeneous fuelbeds.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3724382455doi:10.1139/X07-094

Sando RW, Wick CH (1972) A method of evaluating crown fuels in forest stands. USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Research Paper NC-84. (St Paul, MN)

Schaaf MDSandberg DVSchreuder MDRiccardi CL2007A conceptual framework for ranking crown fire potential in wildland fuelbeds.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3724642478doi:10.1139/X07-102

Schaefer VJ1957The relationship of jet streams to forest wildfires.Journal of Forestry55419425

Schmidt DATaylor AHSkinner CN2008The influence of fuel treatments and landscape arrangement on simulated fire behavior, Southern Cascade Range, California.Forest Ecology and Management25531703184
doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2008.01.023

Scott JH (1998a) Fuel reduction in residential and scenic forests: a comparison of three treatments in a western Montana ponderosa pine stand. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Research Paper RMRS-RP-5. (Ogden, UT)

Scott JH (1998b) Using the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator to assess long-term changes in crown fire hazard. In ‘III International Conference on Forest Fire Research/14th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology Proceedings, Volume II’, 16–20 November 1998, Luso, Portugal. (Ed. DX Viegas) pp. 2621–2629. (ADAI, University of Coimbra: Coimbra, Portugal)

Scott JH (2003) Canopy fuel treatment standards for the wildland–urban interface. In ‘Proceedings of the Fire, Fuel Treatments, and Ecological Restoration Conference’, 16–18 April 2002, Fort Collins, CO. (Tech. Eds PN Omi, LN Joyce) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P 29, 29–37. (Fort Collins, CO)

Scott JH (2006) Comparison of crown fire modeling systems used in three fire management applications. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Research Paper RMRS-RP-58. (Fort Collins, CO)

Scott JH (2008) Modeling transitions in shrubland fire behaviour using crown fire modeling techniques. In ‘Proceedings of the 2002 Fire Conference: Managing Fire and Fuels in the Remaining Wildlands and Open Spaces of the South-western United States’, 2–5 December 2002, San Diego, CA. (Tech. Coord. MG Narog) USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-189, pp. 301–308. (Albany, CA)

Scott JH, Burgan RE (2005) Standard fire behavior fuel models: a comprehensive set for use with Rothermel’s surface fire spread model. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-153. (Fort Collins, CO)

Scott JH, Reinhardt ED (2001) Assessing crown fire potential by linking models of surface and crown fire behavior. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Research Paper RMRS-RP-29. (Fort Collins, CO)

Scott JH, Reinhardt ED (2005) Stereo photo guide for estimating canopy fuel characteristics in conifer stands. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-145. (Fort Collins, CO)

Scott JH, Reinhardt ED (2007) Effects of alternative treatments on canopy fuel characteristics in five conifer stands. In ‘Restoring Fire-Adapted Ecosystems: Proceedings of the 2005 National Silviculture Workshop’, 6–10 June 2005, Tahoe City, CA. (Tech. Ed. RF Powers) USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-203, pp. 193–209. (Albany, CA)

Skog KE, Barbour RJ, Abt KL, Bilek EM (Ted), Burch F, Fight RD, Hugget RJ, Miles PD, Reinhardt ED, Sheppard WD (2006) Evaluation of silvicultural treatments and biomass use for reducing fire hazard in Western States. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Research Paper FPL-RP-634. (Madison, WI)

Stephens SL1998Evaluation of the effects of silvicultural and fuels treatments on potential fire behavior in Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests.Forest Ecology and Management1052135doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00293-4

Stephens SLMoghaddas JJ2005aSilvicultural and reserve impacts on potential fire behavior and forest conservation: twenty-five years of experience from Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests.Biological Conservation125369379doi:10.1016/J.BIOCON.2005.04.007

Stephens SLMoghaddas JJ2005bExperimental fuel treatment impacts on forest structure, potential fire behavior, and predicted tree mortality in a California mixed conifer forest.Forest Ecology and Management2152136doi:10.1016/J.FORECO.2005.03.070

Stephens SLMoghaddas JJEdminster CFiedler CEHaase SHarrington MKeeley JEKnapp EE2009Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western US forests.Ecological Applications19305320doi:10.1890/07-1755.1

Stocks BJ, Walker JD (1973) Climatic conditions before and during four significant forest fire situations in Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forestry Research Centre, Information Report O-X-187. (Sault Ste. Marie, ON)

Stocks BJAlexander MEWotton BMStefner CNFlannigan MDTaylor SWLavoie NMason JAet al2004Crown fire behaviour in a northern jack pine–black spruce forest.Canadian Journal of Forest Research3415481560doi:10.1139/X04-054

Stratton RD2004Assessing the effectiveness of landscape fuel treatments on fire growth and behavior.Journal of Forestry10273240

Vaillant NMFites-Kaufman JStephens SL2009aEffectiveness of prescribed fire as a fuel treatment in Californian coniferous forests.International Journal of Wildland Fire18165175
doi:10.1071/WF06065

Vaillant NMFites-Kaufman JReiner ALNoonan-Wright EKDailey SN2009bEffect of fuel treatments on fuels and potential fire behavior in California, USA, National Forests.Fire Ecology521429doi:10.4996/FIREECOLOGY.0502014

Van Wagner CE (1964) History of a small crown fire. Forestry Chronicle 40, 202–205, 208–209.

Van Wagner CE (1967) Seasonal variation in moisture content of eastern Canadian tree foliage and possible effect on crown fires. Canada Department of Forestry and Rural Development, Forestry Branch, Departmental Publication No. 1204. (Ottawa, ON)

Van Wagner CE (1968) Fire behaviour mechanisms in a red pine plantation: field and laboratory evidence. Canada Department of Forestry and Rural Development, Forestry Branch, Departmental Publication No. 1229. (Ottawa, ON)

Van Wagner CE (1974) A spread index for crown fires in spring. Canadian Forestry Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment Station, Information Report PS-X-55. (Chalk River, ON)

Van Wagner CE1977Conditions for the start and spread of crown fire.Canadian Journal of Forest Research72334doi:10.1139/X77-004

Van Wagner CE (1989) Prediction of crown fire behavior in conifer stands. In ‘Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 17–21 April 1989, Ottawa, ON. (Eds DC MacIver, H Auld, R Whitewood) pp. 207–212. (Forestry Canada and Environment Canada: Ottawa, ON)

Van Wagner CE1993Prediction of crown fire behavior in two stands of jack pine.Canadian Journal of Forest Research23442449doi:10.1139/X93-062

van Wagtendonk JWBotti SJ1984Modeling behavior of prescribed fires in Yosemite National Park.Journal of Forestry82479484

Varner JMKeyes CR2009Fuels treatments and fire models: errors and corrections.Fire Management Today6934750


Williams DF (1977) Influence of fuel quantity, distribution and moisture content on fire management of radiata pine plantations. MSc thesis, University of Melbourne.

Williamson NM (1999) Crown fuel characteristics, stand structure, and fire hazard in riparian forests of the Blue Mountains, Oregon. MSc thesis, University of Washington, Seattle.

Wotton BMBeverly JL2007Stand-specific litter moisture content calibrations for the Canadian Fine Fuel Moisture Code.International Journal of Wildland Fire16463472
doi:10.1071/WF06087



Export Citation