CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Crop & Pasture Science   
Crop & Pasture Science
Journal Banner
  Plant Sciences, Sustainable Farming Systems & Food Quality
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Farrer Reviews
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Farrer Reviews
blank image

Invited Farrer Review Series. More...

red arrow PrometheusWiki
blank image
Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 58(6)

Wheat leaf and stem rust in the United States

J. A. Kolmer A B, Y. Jin A, D. L. Long A

A USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
B Corresponding author. Email: jkolmer@umn.edu
PDF (301 KB) $25
 Export Citation


Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common and widespread disease of wheat in the US. On an annual basis, over 50 races of the leaf rust fungus are detected. There are at least 5 major groups of genetically distinct P. triticina isolates in the US based on allelic variation at microsatellite loci. Distinct regional race populations of P. triticina are found in the US, due to the widespread use of race-specific leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes in different market classes of wheat. In the south-eastern States where soft red winter wheats are grown, races with virulence to Lr9, Lr11, and Lr18 are predominant. In the southern Great Plains region where hard red winter wheats are grown, races with virulence to genes Lr9, Lr17, Lr24, and Lr26 are common. In the northern Great Plains region where hard red spring wheats are grown, races with virulence to Lr2a and Lr16 are common. Due to the wide dispersal of P. triticina, some races are found in all regions of the US. Highly effective durable resistance to leaf rust has been difficult to achieve due to the high degree of virulence variation in the P. triticina population and the rapid selection of races with virulence to effective Lr genes in wheat cultivars. Hard red spring wheat cultivars with genes Lr16, Lr23, and Lr34 have been highly resistant for more than 10 years in Minnesota and the Dakotas. Stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, has not been a common disease of wheat in the US since the last major epidemics in the 1950s. The low levels of stem rust infections in the US can be attributed to the increasing use of highly resistant winter and spring wheat cultivars, which has greatly reduced the overall level of stem rust urediniospores. Eradication of the alternate host, Berberis vulgaris, has reduced the number of races and slowed the emergence of new races. Resistance genes Sr2, Sr6, Sr17, Sr24, Sr31, Sr36, and SrTmp are common in the winter wheats. Genes Sr6, Sr9b, Sr11, and Sr17 are common in the spring wheats. Spring wheat cultivars may also have adult plant stem rust resistance derived from cv. Thatcher. Many of the winter and spring wheats are susceptible to the new stem rust race from East Africa; however, cultivars with resistance to this race can be found in each of the major wheat classes.

Keywords: race specific resistance, specific virulence, Puccinia triticina, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici.

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2014