Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Genotype by environment interactions in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in the Iberian Peninsula

Marina Martos-Fuentes A , Juan A. Fernández A , Jesús Ochoa A , Márcia Carvalho B , Valdemar Carnide B C , Eduardo Rosa B , Graça Pereira D , Carina Barcelos D , Penelope J. Bebeli E and Catalina Egea-Gilabert F G
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Departamento de Producción Vegetal, ETSIA, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 48, 30203 Cartagena, Spain.

B Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal.

C Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal.

D National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research (INIAV), Estrada de Gil Vaz, Apartado 6, 7351-901 Elvas, Portugal.

E Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Biometry, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece.

F Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria, ETSIA, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 48, 30203 Cartagena, Spain.

G Corresponding author. Email: catalina.egea@upct.es

Crop and Pasture Science 68(11) 924-931 https://doi.org/10.1071/CP17071
Submitted: 16 February 2017  Accepted: 22 June 2017   Published: 11 August 2017

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine the variance components and genetic and environmental stability of 12 cowpea genotypes at three locations (South-east of Spain: Cartagena, South and North of Portugal: Elvas and Vila Real, respectively) in the Iberian Peninsula in two consecutive years (2015 and 2016). The genotype, the environment and the genotype × environment interaction significantly influenced all the morphological and agronomical parameters evaluated. For both years, the highest yields were observed at Elvas, whereas Cartagena and Vila real were the most suitable places to obtain crop precocity. Cartagena was the place where the filling of the seed was the fastest, probably due to the higher temperatures and radiation. The thermal time model (effective degree-days) could be used to predict the period of cowpea development, therefore predict flowering and pod maturity date. Correlation analysis showed that days to flowering, days to maturity and the seed yield vs protein content exhibited negative correlations. The highest heritability was found for plant height and pod length at Cartagena and for 100-seed weight at Elvas and Vila Real. In conclusion, the variations that exist in the studied accessions could give rise to a breeding program to develop cowpea cultivars with interesting agronomic traits.

Additional keywords: degree-days, heritability, legumes, protein content, yield.


References

Adewale BD, Okonji C, Oyekanmi AA, Akintobi DAC, Aremu CO (2010) Genotypic variability and stability of some grain yield components of cowpea. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5, 874–880.

Akande SR (2007) Genotype by environment interaction for cowpea seed yield and disease reactions in the forest and derived savanna agro-ecologies of south-west Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science 2, 163–168.

AOAC (1990) ‘Official methods of analysis.’ 15th edn. (Ed. K Helrich) (AOAC: Arlington, VA, USA)

Bonhomme R (2000) Bases and limits to using ‘degree.day’ units. European Journal of Agronomy 13, 1–10.
Bases and limits to using ‘degree.day’ units.CrossRef |

Bremmer JM (1960) Determination of nitrogen in soil by the Kjeldahl method. The Journal of Agricultural Science 55, 11–33.

Campbell L, Euston SR, Ahmed MA (2016) Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake. Food Chemistry 194, 1230–1237.
Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsVCru7fK&md5=ef8c059bb0bc3bec8e7a9a94f3b94f20CAS |

Craufurd PQ, Summerfield RJ, Ellis RH, Roberts EH (1997) Photoperiod, temperature, and the growth and development of cowpea. In ‘Advances in cowpea research’. (Eds BB Singh, DR Mohan Raj, KE Dashiell, LEN Jackai) pp. 75–86. (IITA: Ibadan and JIRCAS: Tsukuba)

Davis DW, Oelke EA, Oplinger ES, Doll JD, Hanson CV, Putnam DH (1991) Cowpea Exploration. University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension and Alternative Field Crops Manual, Madison, WI, USA.

Domínguez-Perles R, Carnide V, Marques G, de Castro I, de Matos M, Carvalho M, Rosa E (2015) Relevance, constraints and perspectives of cowpea crops in the Mediterranean Basin. Legume Perspectives 10, 40–42.

Doumbia IZ, Akromah R, Asibuo JY (2013) Comparative study of cowpea germplasms diversity from Ghana and Mali using morphological characteristics. Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics 1, 139–147.

Drabo I, Redden R, Smithson JB, Aggarwal VD (1984) Inheritance of seed size in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Euphytica 33, 929–934.
Inheritance of seed size in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).CrossRef |

Egbadzor KF, Dadoza M, Danquah EY, Yeboah M, Offei SK, Ofori K (2013) Genetic control of seed size in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). International Journal of Agriculture Science 5, 367–371.
Genetic control of seed size in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).CrossRef |

Ehlers JD, Hall AE (1997) Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Field Crops Research 53, 187–204.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.).CrossRef |

European Commission (2016) Trade: Export Helpdesk: EU Customs Union. European Commission 344. Available at: http://exporthelp.europa.eu/thdapp/index.htm (accessed 17 September 2016).

Falconer DS, Mackay TFC (1996) ‘Introduction to quantitative genetics.’ 4th edn. (Longmans Green: Harlow, Essex, UK)

FAOStat (2017) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Production. Available at: http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E (accessed 2 May 2017).

Gonçalves A, Goufo P, Barros A, Domínguez-Perles R, Trindade H, Rosa EAS, Ferreira L, Rodrigues M (2016) Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96, 2941–2951.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints.CrossRef |

Johnson HW, Robinson HF, Comstock RE (1955) Estimates of genetic and environmental variability in soybean. Agronomy Journal 47, 274–318.

Jones HG (2014) ‘Plants and microclimate. A quantitative approach to environmental plant physiology.’ 3rd edn. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Karapanos I, Papandreou A, Skouloudi M, Makrogianni D, Fernández JA, Rosa E, Ntatsi G, Bebeli PJ, Savvas D (2017) Cowpea fresh pods – a new legume for the market. Assessment of their quality and dietary characteristics of 37 cowpea accessions grown in southern Europe. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Cowpea fresh pods – a new legume for the market. Assessment of their quality and dietary characteristics of 37 cowpea accessions grown in southern Europe.CrossRef |

Khalid II, Elhardallou SB, Elkhalifa EA (2012) Composition and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp) flour and protein isolates. American Journal of Food Technology 7, 113–122.
Composition and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp) flour and protein isolates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsFChs7vO&md5=871e7387d6c6159891daee59aa8c106aCAS |

Manggoel W, Uguru MI (2011) Comparative study on the phenology and yield components of two photoperiodic groups of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in two cropping seasons. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6, 5232–5241.

Manggoel W, Uguru MI, Ndam ON, Daskak MA (2012) Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of some yield components of tem cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] accessions. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 4, 80–86.
Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of some yield components of tem cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] accessions.CrossRef |

Mendes-Moreira P, Alves ML, Satovic Z, Santos JP, Santos JN, Souza JC, Pêgo SE, Hallauer AR, Vaz Patto MC (2015) Genetic architecture of ear fasciation in maize (Zea mays) under QTL scrutiny. PLoS One 10, e0124543
Genetic architecture of ear fasciation in maize (Zea mays) under QTL scrutiny.CrossRef |

Mishra P, Singh P (2014) Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient and path analysis in gladiolus. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 7, 23–26.
Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient and path analysis in gladiolus.CrossRef |

Ng NQ, Marechal R (1985) Cowpea taxonomy, origin and germplasm. In ‘Cowpea research, production and utilization’. (Eds SR Singh, KO Rachie) pp. 11–21. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd: London)

Ochoa J, Niñiirola D, Conesa E, Lara L, López-Marín J, Fernández JA (2011) Predicting purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) harvest in a hydroponic floating system. Acta Horticulturae 898, 205–209.
Predicting purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) harvest in a hydroponic floating system.CrossRef |

Oluwatosin OB (1997) Genetic and environmental variation for seed yield, protein, lipid and amino acid composition in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 74, 107–116.
Genetic and environmental variation for seed yield, protein, lipid and amino acid composition in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXjvVWiurg%3D&md5=aaee42588a55ccab7193294dcf68ce7aCAS |

Omoigui LO, Ishiyaku MF, Kamara AY, Alabi SO, Mohammed SG (2006) Genetic variability and heritability studies of some reproductive traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). African Journal of Biotechnology 5, 1191–1195.

Padulosi S, Ng NQ (1997) Origin, taxonomy, and morphology of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. In ‘Advances in cowpea research’. (Eds BB Singh, D MohanRaj, KE Dashiell, LEN Jackai) pp. 1–12. (IITA-JIRCAS: Ibadan, Nigeria)

Peksen E, Artik C (2004) Comparison of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes from Turkey for seed yield and yield-related characters. Journal of Agronomy 3, 137–140.
Comparison of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes from Turkey for seed yield and yield-related characters.CrossRef |

Ravelombola WS, Ainong S, Yuejin W, Dennis M, Pengyin C, Vibha S, Clay W (2016) Evaluation of total seed protein content in eleven Arkansas cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) lines. American Journal of Plant Sciences 07, 2288–2296.
Evaluation of total seed protein content in eleven Arkansas cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) lines.CrossRef |

Robinson HF, Comstock RE, Harvey PH (1949) Estimates of heritability and the degree of dominance in corn. Agronomy Journal 41, 353–359.
Estimates of heritability and the degree of dominance in corn.CrossRef |

Scaife A, Cox EF, Morris GEL (1987) The relationship between shoot weight, plant density and time during the propagation of four vegetable species. Annals of Botany 59, 325–334.
The relationship between shoot weight, plant density and time during the propagation of four vegetable species.CrossRef |

Shimelis H, Shiringani R (2010) Variance components and heritabilities of yield and agronomic traits among cowpea genotypes. Euphytica 176, 383–389.
Variance components and heritabilities of yield and agronomic traits among cowpea genotypes.CrossRef |

Shiringani RP, Shimelis HA (2011) Yield response and stability among cowpea genotypes at three planting dates and test environments. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6, 3259–3263.

Silva AC, Morais OM, Santos JL, D’Arede LO, Silva CJ, Rocha M (2014) Estimativa de parâmetros genéticos em Vigna unguiculata. Sociedade de Ciências Agrárias de Portugal 37, 399–407.

Simmonds NC (1995) The relation between yield and protein in cereal grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 67, 309–315.
The relation between yield and protein in cereal grain.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXksV2ltLc%3D&md5=ccdf2f67e4bac26170f1972ca3c1df9bCAS |

Singh BB (2002) Recent genetic studies in cowpea. In ‘Cowpea genetics and breeding’. (Eds CA Fatokun, SA Tarawali, BB Singh, PM Kormawa, M Tamò) pp. 3–13. (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture: Ibadan, Nigeria)

Tarawali SA, Singh BB, Fernandez-Rivera S, Peters M, Smith JW, Schultze-Kraft R, Ajeigbe HA (1997) Optimizing the contribution of cowpea to food and fodder production in crop–livestock systems in West Africa. In ‘Grasslands 2000, Proceedings of the XVIII International Grassland Congress’. Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada. (Eds JG Buchanan-Smith, LD Bailey, P McCaughey) pp. 19–53. (Associate Management Centre: Calgary, Canada)

Timko MP, Singh BB (2008) Cowpea, a multifunctional legume. In ‘Genomics of tropical crop plants’. (Eds PH Moore, R Ming) pp. 227–258. (Springer Science + Business Media LCC: New York)

Timko MP, Ehlers JD, Roberts PA (2007) Cowpea. In ‘Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants: Pulses, sugar and tuber crops’. (Ed. C Kole) pp. 49–67. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation