Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 67 Number 9 2016

CP16052Vegetative nitrogen stress decreases lodging risk and increases yield of irrigated spring wheat in the subtropics

A. S. Peake, K. L. Bell, P. S. Carberry, N. Poole and S. R. Raine
pp. 907-920

Canopy management techniques used to reduce lodging in temperate regions may reduce yield potential of irrigated wheat in the subtropics. This field study in south-east Queensland found that ‘in-crop’ N application in combination with soil residual N at sowing of 50–100 kg ha–1 obtained the highest yields with the least lodging, in combination with plant populations of 70–90 plants m2. We conclude that canopy management can reduce lodging and increase yield in the subtropics but requires different implementation to that used in temperate regions of Australia.

CP16153Trends in grain production and yield gaps in the high-rainfall zone of southern Australia

Michael Robertson, John Kirkegaard, Allan Peake, Zoe Creelman, Lindsay Bell, Julianne Lilley, Jon Midwood, Heping Zhang, Sue Kleven, Chris Duff, Roger Lawes and Penny Riffkin
pp. 921-937

In the last decade, there has been a growing recognition of the potential to increase crop production in the high rainfall zone of southern Australia. Using a mix of methods we measured current crop yields being achieved on farm and compared this will what is potentially possible under optimal management. We found substantial scope for yield improvement and outline the priorities for future research, development and extension that will assist in overcoming yield constraints.

Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) from ten accessions of four Aegilops species (Sitopsis section) were evaluated, and 20 novel genes were obtained, of which nine were LMW-m and 11 were LMW-s genes. Only two were pseudogenes, corresponding to one LMW-m and one LMW-s gene. The analysis of reactive epitopes for coeliac disease revealed that these LMW-s and some LMW-m lacked toxicity.

The projected increase in mean temperatures due to climate change is expected to have detrimental impacts on berry quality but inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could help grapevines to cope with abiotic stresses. Different fruit-bearing cuttings clones were inoculated with AMF and subjected to two temperature regimes. In some clones the association of grapevines with AMF may play an important role in the context of climate change to maintain or improve fruit quality by enhancing antioxidant properties.

Amphicarpy is a useful trait for promoting persistence in pasture species. This study describes how the expression of amphicarpy varies between morphotypes in the tropical Australian native legume, Vigna lanceolata. Analysis of the trait in hybrids between morphotypes indicates that it should be feasible to breed an annual amphicarpic ideotype potentially suited as a cover or ley crop and an amphicarpic perennial ideotype potentially suited for pasture or forage purposes.

CP15375Effects of ethephon on anatomical changes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stems associated with lodging

Mariano A. Mangieri, Anita I. Mantese, Alejandro Alvarez Schürmann and Claudio A. Chimenti
pp. 988-999

Stem lodging causes significant losses in crops of cereals and oilseeds. We identifies that the thickness of primary and secondary structures, diameter of the stem lodging zone, sclerenchyma packages area and secondary xylem tissue area, causes stem lodging in sunflower during the ontogeny cycle and in crops with high density. The study provides the first results for sunflower crops, of the basis of intraspecific differences in the susceptibility to stem lodging.

Buckwheat is generally grown in cool temperate regions. With the view to extending the cultivation of buckwheat to Mediterranean environments, the responses of two varieties to three sowing times in rainfed and irrigated conditions were investigated. Results indicated that in Mediterranean environments, buckwheat could be profitably introduced as a minor summer crop, sown in early spring for grain production and in late spring for forage production.

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