Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 9 2017

CP17220Shifts in nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and allocation in response to selection for yield in Chinese winter wheat

Zheng Wang, Victor O. Sadras, Marianne Hoogmoed, Xueyun Yang, Fang Huang, Xiaoyu Han and Shulan Zhang
pp. 807-816

We investigated the changes in nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and partitioning to grain in response to wheat selection for yield. Grain yield increased with no change in nutrient uptake, and a small increase (P) or no change (N) in nutrient harvest index. Yield per unit nutrient uptake thus increased at the expense of nutrient concentration in grain.

Higher methylation of the TAA1 gene was observed in chemically induced male sterility (CIMS), and the expression levels of the TAA1 gene were downregulated in CIMS, resulting in increments of tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid, and abnormal pollen wall formation in CIMS.

Drought and heat often occur together at the time of seed filling in chickpea. Our study indicated severe reduction in antioxidants under combination of two stresses resulting in marked reduction in seed yield. Leaves showed more oxidative damage than seeds. The genotypes tolerant for heat and drought showed less oxidative damage and hence had higher yields, and also indicated the presence of cross tolerance mechanism.

Nineteen QTLs associated with individual fatty acid content were identified through a RIL population derived from a cross between parents with large phenotypic difference across three environments. Twelve QTLs had additive and/or additive × environment interaction effects, most of which could explain less than 10 % of the phenotypic variation. Four epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in different environments. These QTLs and their genetic information were valuable for marker-assisted breeding.

CP17341Latitudinal structured populations of the Mexican wild squash Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia revealed by microsatellite markers

Francisco J. Balvino-Olvera, Karman F. Sánchez-Gómez, Jorge Arturo Lobo, Germán Avila-Sakar, Rogelio Cruz-Reyes, Gumersindo Sánchez-Montoya, Yvonne Herrerías-Diego, Antonio González-Rodríguez and Mauricio Quesada
pp. 850-858

This study analysed the genetic diversity and structure along of the natural geographic distribution of Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia, the closest wild gourd relative of C. pepo and C. moschata. We found three main groups of populations arranged in a latitudinal pattern, from north to south along the pacific coast of Mexico. The greater genetic diversity and heterogeneity of the southern populations, indicates that this region is an important centre of diversity.

CP16341Sward structural characteristics and herbage accumulation of Piatã palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha) in a crop–livestock–forest integration area

Steben Crestani, Jorge Daniel Caballero Mascheroni, Eliana Vera Geremia, Roberta Aparecida Carnevalli, Gerson Barreto Mourão and Sila Carneiro Da Silva
pp. 859-871

Integrated systems of production are technical alternatives for ensuring sustainability of production in agriculture. However, the combination of different components in a single system increases the complexity of the interactions, interfering with responses of individual components, highlighting the need to understand the processes involved and their effect on components and on system productivity. In this study, shaded pastures cultivated under trees were taller and had lower herbage mass, leaf : stem ratio and herbage production than pastures cultivated under full sunlight (no trees), indicating a trade-off between the potential benefits of better conditions for animal comfort and reduced herbage production and poorer sward structure.

CP16365Physiological, anatomical and antioxidant responses to salinity in the Mediterranean pastoral grass plant Stipa lagascae

Raoudha Abdellaoui, Fayçal Boughalleb, Zohra Chebil, Maher Mahmoudi and Azaiez Ouled Belgacem
pp. 872-884

This study investigated the effects of salinity on Stipa lagascae. Total soluble sugars and proline concentrations increased and Ψw and RWC decreased with increasing salt concentrations. Shoot Na+ content increased whereas shoot K+ and Ca2+ concentrations decreased. Stressed plants have evolved antioxidant enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase). The tolerance strategies of S. lagascae to moderate salinity seem to include osmotic adjustment and highly inducible antioxidative defence.

White clover (Trifolium repens) has shallow, fibrous roots vulnerable to drought and pest attack but this can be improved by hybridisation with T. uniflorum, a wild clover from the Mediterranean region that produces single flowers. Although initially poor, seed production of the hybrids was found to be heritable and was improved by breeding without affecting root or shoot traits. Consequently, good seed production in the hybrids can be achieved together with improved root morphology and without loss of forage production.

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