Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
REVIEW

Sydney Harbour: a review of anthropogenic impacts on the biodiversity and ecosystem function of one of the world’s largest natural harbours

M. Mayer-Pinto A B L , E. L. Johnston A B , P. A. Hutchings C , E. M. Marzinelli A B D , S. T. Ahyong C , G. Birch E , D. J. Booth F , R. G. Creese G , M. A. Doblin H , W. Figueira I , P. E. Gribben B D , T. Pritchard J , M. Roughan K , P. D. Steinberg B D and L. H. Hedge A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

B Sydney Institute of Marine Science, 19 Chowder Bay Road, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia.

C Australian Museum Research Institute, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia.

D Centre for Marine Bio-Innovation, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

E School of GeoSciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

F Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

G New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay, NSW 2315, Australia.

H Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

I Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

J Water and Coastal Science Section, New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage, PO Box A290, Sydney, NSW 1232, Australia.

K Coastal and Regional Oceanography Lab, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia.

L Corresponding author. Email: m.mayerpinto@unsw.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research 66(12) 1088-1105 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF15157
Submitted: 18 April 2015  Accepted: 2 October 2015   Published: 16 November 2015

Abstract

Sydney Harbour is a hotspot for diversity. However, as with estuaries worldwide, its diversity and functioning faces increasing threats from urbanisation. This is the first synthesis of threats and impacts in Sydney Harbour. In total 200 studies were reviewed: 109 focussed on contamination, 58 on habitat modification, 11 addressed non-indigenous species (NIS) and eight investigated fisheries. Metal concentrations in sediments and seaweeds are among the highest recorded worldwide and organic contamination can also be high. Contamination is associated with increased abundances of opportunistic species, and changes in benthic community structure. The Harbour is also heavily invaded, but invaders’ ecological and economic impacts are poorly quantified. Communities within Sydney Harbour are significantly affected by extensive physical modification, with artificial structures supporting more NIS and lower diversity than their natural equivalents. We know little about the effects of fishing on the Harbour’s ecology, and although ocean warming along Sydney is among the fastest in the world, we know little about how the ecosystem will respond to warming. The interactive and cumulative effects of stressors on ecosystem functioning and services in the Harbour are largely unknown. Sustainable management of this iconic natural system requires that knowledge gaps are addressed and translated into coherent environmental plans.

Additional keywords: contamination, habitat modification, NIS, Port Jackson, threats, urbanisation.


References

ABS (2002). ‘Regional Population Growth, Australia and New Zealand.’ (Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, ACT.)

Alquezar, R., Markich, S. J., and Booth, D. J. (2006). Effects of metals on condition and reproductive output of the smooth toadfish in Sydney estuaries, south-eastern Australia. Environmental Pollution 142, 116–122.
Effects of metals on condition and reproductive output of the smooth toadfish in Sydney estuaries, south-eastern Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjvVGhs7k%3D&md5=cc60a2cb0561a235adb67ef6cc33cf96CAS | 16297513PubMed |

AM (2002). Port Surveys for Introduced Marine Species. (Australian Museum Business Centre: Sydney, NSW.)

Arkema, K. K., Abramson, S. C., and Dewsbury, B. M. (2006). Marine ecosystem-based management: from characterization to implementation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4, 525–532.
Marine ecosystem-based management: from characterization to implementation.CrossRef |

Arundel, H., and Mount, R. (2007). National Estuarine Environmental Condition Assessment Framework Round Table, prepared for the National Land & Water Resources Audit. (Deakin University and University of Tasmania: Canberra, ACT.)

Azevedo, I. C., Bordalo, A. A., and Duarte, P. (2014). Influence of freshwater inflow variability on the Douro estuary primary productivity: a modelling study. Ecological Modelling 272, 1–15.
Influence of freshwater inflow variability on the Douro estuary primary productivity: a modelling study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXivVCqsb4%3D&md5=cdc65dd60d21a2b12c7bdaac5a8a0d10CAS |

Beck, H. J., and Birch, G. F. (2012a). Metals, nutrients and total suspended solids discharged during different flow conditions in highly urbanised catchments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184, 637–653.
Metals, nutrients and total suspended solids discharged during different flow conditions in highly urbanised catchments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs12mtbjO&md5=8ddec72f0c9c62968c829200160892ecCAS | 21448629PubMed |

Beck, H. J., and Birch, G. F. (2012b). Spatial and temporal variance of metal and suspended solids relationships in urban stormwater-implications for monitoring. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 223, 1005–1015.
Spatial and temporal variance of metal and suspended solids relationships in urban stormwater-implications for monitoring.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xis1Ogu7o%3D&md5=7941f574803cc7161713010a42bd0bccCAS |

Beeton, R. J. S., Buxton, C. D., Cutbush, G. C., Fairweather, P. G., Johnston, E. L., and Ryan, R. (2012). Report of the independent scientific audit of marine parks in New South Wales. NSW Department of Primary Industries and Office of Environment and Heritage, Sydney, NSW.

Birch, G. F. (1996). Sediment-bound metallic contaminants in Sydney’s estuaries and adjacent offshore, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 42, 31–44.
Sediment-bound metallic contaminants in Sydney’s estuaries and adjacent offshore, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XhsV2ntrg%3D&md5=c5ef9647145512c7cc0b9485e82229beCAS |

Birch, G. (2007). A short geological and environmental history of the Sydney estuary, Australia. Young 17, 2195–2217.

Birch, G. F. (2011). Contaminated soil and sediments in a highly developed catchment-estuary system (Sydney estuary, Australia): an innovative stormwater remediation strategy. Journal of Soils and Sediments 11, 194–208.
Contaminated soil and sediments in a highly developed catchment-estuary system (Sydney estuary, Australia): an innovative stormwater remediation strategy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhs1ajtb7P&md5=c0b947311c5394586e7a545596a2b5dfCAS |

Birch, G., and McCready, S. (2009). Catchment condition as a major control on the quality of receiving basin sediments (Sydney Harbour, Australia). The Science of the Total Environment 407, 2820–2835.
Catchment condition as a major control on the quality of receiving basin sediments (Sydney Harbour, Australia).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXivVegsb8%3D&md5=0eecf2e3638e2409ff6b542656cdfe4aCAS | 19211135PubMed |

Birch, G., and O’Hea, L. (2007). The chemistry of suspended particulate material in a highly contaminated embayment of Port Jackson (Australia) under quiescent, high-wind and heavy-rainfall conditions. Environmental Geology 53, 501–516.
The chemistry of suspended particulate material in a highly contaminated embayment of Port Jackson (Australia) under quiescent, high-wind and heavy-rainfall conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1amurfN&md5=3c35cb0c4645a4d30148641328ce9747CAS |

Birch, G. F., and Rochford, L. (2010). Stormwater metal loading to a well-mixed/stratified estuary (Sydney Estuary, Australia) and management implications. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 169, 531–551.
Stormwater metal loading to a well-mixed/stratified estuary (Sydney Estuary, Australia) and management implications.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtFSnt7zF&md5=fd0ed3c4ba2ad80f337a17f72e8790e0CAS | 19859822PubMed |

Birch, G., and Taylor, S. (2000). Distribution and possible sources of organochlorine residues in sediments of a large urban estuary, Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 47, 749–756.
Distribution and possible sources of organochlorine residues in sediments of a large urban estuary, Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmsVSks74%3D&md5=0fcf35e155d06157165ff60982c21241CAS |

Birch, G., and Taylor, S. (2002a). Possible biological significance of contaminated sediments in Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 77, 179–190.
Possible biological significance of contaminated sediments in Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XkvVemsbc%3D&md5=dcfafafc7ce6a974abcf72985d9e01adCAS | 12180655PubMed |

Birch, G. F., and Taylor, S. E. (2002b). Application of sediment quality guidelines in the assessment and management of contaminated surficial sediments in Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), Australia. Environmental Management 29, 860–870.
Application of sediment quality guidelines in the assessment and management of contaminated surficial sediments in Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), Australia.CrossRef | 11992176PubMed |

Birch, G. F., and Taylor, S. E. (2002c). Assessment of possible sediment toxicity of contaminated sediments in Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia. Hydrobiologia 472, 19–27.
Assessment of possible sediment toxicity of contaminated sediments in Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xlt1ykt78%3D&md5=ff024d4423d3c519631b3b996459c976CAS |

Birch, G. F., and Taylor, S. E. (2004). ‘Sydney Harbour and Catchment: Contaminant Status of Sydney Harbour Sediments: A Handbook for the Public and Professionals.’ (Geological Society of Australia, Environmental, Engineering and Hydrogeology Specialist Group: Canberra, ACT.)

Birch, G. F., Eyre, B., and Taylor, S. E. (1999). The distribution of nutrients in bottom sediments of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38, 1247–1251.
The distribution of nutrients in bottom sediments of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjtlyhsg%3D%3D&md5=3e33951c085cbc6a3de7f280ee6051bcCAS |

Birch, G., Harrington, C., Symons, R., and Hunt, J. W. (2007). The source and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments of Port Jackson, Australia Marine Pollution Bulletin 54, 295–308.
The source and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments of Port Jackson, AustraliaCrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXisVWksL0%3D&md5=d2d7150f26efafb346ca84e243a4af6dCAS | 17125800PubMed |

Birch, G. F., McCready, S., Long, E. R., Taylor, S. S., and Spyrakis, G. (2008). Contaminant chemistry and toxicity of sediments in Sydney Harbour, Australia: spatial extent and chemistry-toxicity relationships. Marine Ecology Progress Series 363, 71–88.
Contaminant chemistry and toxicity of sediments in Sydney Harbour, Australia: spatial extent and chemistry-toxicity relationships.CrossRef |

Birch, G. F., Murray, O., Johnson, I., and Wilson, A. (2009). Reclamation in Sydney Estuary, 1788–2002. Australian Geographer 40, 347–368.
Reclamation in Sydney Estuary, 1788–2002.CrossRef |

Birch, G. F., Cruickshank, B., and Davis, B. (2010). Modelling nutrient loads to Sydney estuary (Australia). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 167, 333–348.
Modelling nutrient loads to Sydney estuary (Australia).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXos1Wqsb4%3D&md5=56900a6ca01f2f5e439bfa42bd6db322CAS | 19568942PubMed |

Birch, G. F., Melwani, A., Lee, J. H., and Apostolatos, C. (2014). The discrepancy in concentration of metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in oyster tissue (Saccostrea glomerata) and ambient bottom sediment (Sydney estuary, Australia). Marine Pollution Bulletin 80, 263–274.
The discrepancy in concentration of metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in oyster tissue (Saccostrea glomerata) and ambient bottom sediment (Sydney estuary, Australia).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtlentb4%3D&md5=089d19f507639d4d47ba5da1e13f17b8CAS | 24461696PubMed |

Blaber, S. J. M., Cyrus, D. P., Albaret, J. J., Ching, C. V., Day, J. W., Elliott, M., Fonseca, M. S., Hoss, D. E., Orensanz, J., Potter, I. C., and Silvert, W. (2000). Effects of fishing on the structure and functioning of estuarine and nearshore ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57, 590–602.
Effects of fishing on the structure and functioning of estuarine and nearshore ecosystems.CrossRef |

Blockley, D. J., and Chapman, M. G. (2006). Recruitment determines differences between assemblages on shaded or unshaded seawalls. Marine Ecology Progress Series 327, 27–36.
Recruitment determines differences between assemblages on shaded or unshaded seawalls.CrossRef |

Booth, D., Figueira, W., Gregson, M., Brown, L., and Beretta, G. (2007). Occurrence of tropical fishes in temperate southeastern Australia: role of the East Australian Current. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72, 102–114.
Occurrence of tropical fishes in temperate southeastern Australia: role of the East Australian Current.CrossRef |

Borowitzka, M. A. (1972). Intertidal algal species diversity and effect of pollution. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 23, 73–84.
Intertidal algal species diversity and effect of pollution.CrossRef |

Boyd, E. (2010). Societal choice for climate change futures: trees, biotechnology, and clean development. Bioscience 60, 742–750.
Societal choice for climate change futures: trees, biotechnology, and clean development.CrossRef |

Browne, M. A., Chapman, M. G., Thompson, R. C., Zettler, L. A. A., Jambeck, J., and Mallos, N. J. (2015). Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change? Environmental Science & Technology 49, 7082–7094.
Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXns1Oht74%3D&md5=3aeb1040fdd540f7fd906f230196e616CAS |

Bulleri, F. (2005). Role of recruitment in causing differences between intertidal assemblages on seawalls and rocky shores. Marine Ecology Progress Series 287, 53–65.
Role of recruitment in causing differences between intertidal assemblages on seawalls and rocky shores.CrossRef |

Bulleri, F., and Airoldi, L. (2005). Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non-indigenous green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, in the north Adriatic Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 42, 1063–1072.
Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non-indigenous green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, in the north Adriatic Sea.CrossRef |

Bulleri, F., and Chapman, M. G. (2010). The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 26–35.
The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments.CrossRef |

Bulleri, F., Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (2005). Intertidal assemblages on seawalls and vertical rocky shores in Sydney Harbour, Australia. Austral Ecology 30, 655–667.
Intertidal assemblages on seawalls and vertical rocky shores in Sydney Harbour, Australia.CrossRef |

Byers, J. E. (2000). Competition between two estuarine snails: implications for invasions of exotic species. Ecology 81, 1225–1239.
Competition between two estuarine snails: implications for invasions of exotic species.CrossRef |

Carlton, J. T. (1985). Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology – an Annual Review 23, 313–371.

Carlton, J. T. (1996). Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77, 1653–1655.
Biological invasions and cryptogenic species.CrossRef |

Carpenter, R. A. (1980). Using ecological knowledge for development planning. Environmental Management 4, 13–20.
Using ecological knowledge for development planning.CrossRef |

Chakraborty, P., Sarkar, A., Vudamala, K., Naik, R., and Nath, B. N. (2015). Organic matter – a key factor in controlling mercury distribution in estuarine sediment. Marine Chemistry 173, 302–309.
Organic matter – a key factor in controlling mercury distribution in estuarine sediment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhvVCms73K&md5=ee0b35e8ccd07bd7230d7609691a791bCAS |

Chapman, M. G. (2003). Paucity of mobile species on constructed seawalls: effects of urbanization on biodiversity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 264, 21–29.
Paucity of mobile species on constructed seawalls: effects of urbanization on biodiversity.CrossRef |

Chapman, M. G. (2006). Intertidal seawalls as habitats for molluscs. The Journal of Molluscan Studies 72, 247–257.
Intertidal seawalls as habitats for molluscs.CrossRef |

Chapman, M. G., and Bulleri, F. (2003). Intertidal seawalls – new features of landscape in intertidal environments. Landscape and Urban Planning 62, 159–172.
Intertidal seawalls – new features of landscape in intertidal environments.CrossRef |

Christensen, N. L., Bartuska, A. M., Brown, J. H., Carpenter, S., Dantonio, C., Francis, R., Franklin, J. F., MacMahon, J. A., Noss, R. F., Parsons, D. J., Peterson, C. H., Turner, M. G., and Woodmansee, R. G. (1996). The report of the ecological society of America committee on the scientific basis for ecosystem management. Ecological Applications 6, 665–691.
The report of the ecological society of America committee on the scientific basis for ecosystem management.CrossRef |

Clark, G. F., and Johnston, E. L. (2005). Manipulating larval supply in the field: a controlled study of marine invasibility. Marine Ecology Progress Series 298, 9–19.
Manipulating larval supply in the field: a controlled study of marine invasibility.CrossRef |

Clark, G. F., and Johnston, E. L. (2009). Propagule pressure and disturbance interact to overcome biotic resistance of marine invertebrate communities. Oikos 118, 1679–1686.
Propagule pressure and disturbance interact to overcome biotic resistance of marine invertebrate communities.CrossRef |

Clark, G. F., Kelaher, B. P., Dafforn, K. A., Coleman, M. A., Knott, N. A., Marzinelli, E. M., and Johnston, E. L. (2015). What does impacted look like? High diversity and abundance of epibiota in modified estuaries. Environmental Pollution 196, 12–20.
What does impacted look like? High diversity and abundance of epibiota in modified estuaries.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhs1Gms7rE&md5=797c9eb7b7be3ba5accfed67daaba635CAS | 25282127PubMed |

Cloern, J. E. (2001). Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 210, 223–253.
Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXisV2hsrw%3D&md5=f09e45e17e81dfb21e368b6667ca95a0CAS |

Clynick, B. G. (2008). Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses. Aquatic Conservation – Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18, 483–492.
Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses.CrossRef |

Clynick, B. G., Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (2008). Fish assemblages associated with urban structures and natural reefs in Sydney, Australia. Austral Ecology 33, 140–150.
Fish assemblages associated with urban structures and natural reefs in Sydney, Australia.CrossRef |

Connell, S. D. (1999). Effects of surface orientation on the cover of epibiota. Biofouling 14, 219–226.
Effects of surface orientation on the cover of epibiota.CrossRef |

Connell, S. D., and Glasby, T. M. (1999). Do urban structures influence local abundance and diversity of subtidal epibiota? A case study from Sydney Harbour, Australia. Marine Environmental Research 47, 373–387.
Do urban structures influence local abundance and diversity of subtidal epibiota? A case study from Sydney Harbour, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhvVyksLY%3D&md5=6200160ef45a3aa1e5955901b78ad652CAS |

Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., Oneill, R. V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R. G., Sutton, P., and van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253–260.
The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXjtlShtbs%3D&md5=25828f5b7a831e14a9c671e6ca22d945CAS |

Costanza, R., de Groot, R., Sutton, P., van der Ploeg, S., Anderson, S. J., Kubiszewski, I., Farber, S., and Turner, R. K. (2014). Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change 26, 152–158.
Changes in the global value of ecosystem services.CrossRef |

Crain, C. M., Kroeker, K., and Halpern, B. S. (2008). Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecology Letters 11, 1304–1315.
Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems.CrossRef | 19046359PubMed |

Crain, C. M., Halpern, B. S., Beck, M. W., and Kappel, C. V. (2009). Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162, 39–62.
Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.CrossRef | 19432644PubMed |

Cunningham, D. J., and Wilson, S. P. (2003). Marine debris on beaches of the Greater Sydney Region. Journal of Coastal Research 19, 421–430.

Curtin, R., and Prellezo, R. (2010). Understanding marine ecosystem based management: a literature review. Marine Policy 34, 821–830.
Understanding marine ecosystem based management: a literature review.CrossRef |

Dafforn, K. A., Glasby, T. M., and Johnston, E. L. (2008). Differential effects of tributyltin and copper antifoulants on recruitment of non-indigenous species. Biofouling 24, 23–33.
Differential effects of tributyltin and copper antifoulants on recruitment of non-indigenous species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXitVyrs7Y%3D&md5=930652fc484191f6aa12314c997052e5CAS | 18066729PubMed |

Dafforn, K. A., Glasby, T. M., and Johnston, E. L. (2009). Links between estuarine condition and spatial distributions of marine invaders. Diversity & Distributions 15, 807–821.
Links between estuarine condition and spatial distributions of marine invaders.CrossRef |

Dafforn, K. A., Glasby, T. M., and Johnston, E. L. (2012a). Comparing the invasibility of experimental ‘reefs’ with field observations of natural reefs and artificial structures. PLoS One 7, e38124.
Comparing the invasibility of experimental ‘reefs’ with field observations of natural reefs and artificial structures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xot12qsLc%3D&md5=54108fa421a05d68dac0befaecc1d38eCAS | 22666459PubMed |

Dafforn, K. A., Simpson, S. L., Kelaher, B. P., Clark, G. F., Komyakova, V., Wong, C. K. C., and Johnston, E. L. (2012b). The challenge of choosing environmental indicators of anthropogenic impacts in estuaries. Environmental Pollution 163, 207–217.
The challenge of choosing environmental indicators of anthropogenic impacts in estuaries.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XitFKqsbg%3D&md5=d51701bd1c2d286e80b62cf3923ed6faCAS | 22265759PubMed |

Dafforn, K. A., Kelaher, B. P., Simpson, S. L., Coleman, M. A., Hutchings, P. A., Clark, G. F., Knott, N. A., Doblin, M. A., and Johnston, E. L. (2013). Polychaete richness and abundance enhanced in anthropogenically modified estuaries despite high concentrations of toxic contaminants. PLoS One 8, e77018.
Polychaete richness and abundance enhanced in anthropogenically modified estuaries despite high concentrations of toxic contaminants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhsFOrtrzO&md5=abadc9843e1433013e3f005efb4f1d49CAS | 24098816PubMed |

Dafforn, K. A., Glasby, T. M., Airoldi, L., Rivero, N. K., Mayer-Pinto, M., and Johnston, E. L. (2015). Marine urban sprawl: how can ecology inform the design of multifunctional artificial structures? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13, 82–90.
Marine urban sprawl: how can ecology inform the design of multifunctional artificial structures?CrossRef |

Darling, E. S., and Cote, I. M. (2008). Quantifying the evidence for ecological synergies. Ecology Letters 11, 1278–1286.
Quantifying the evidence for ecological synergies.CrossRef | 18785986PubMed |

Dauer, D. M., Ranasinghe, J. A., and Weisberg, S. B. (2000). Relationships between benthic community condition, water quality, sediment quality, nutrient loads, and land use patterns in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 23, 80–96.
Relationships between benthic community condition, water quality, sediment quality, nutrient loads, and land use patterns in Chesapeake Bay.CrossRef |

Davis, B., and Birch, G. (2010a). Comparison of heavy metal loads in stormwater runoff from major and minor urban roads using pollutant yield rating curves. Environmental Pollution 158, 2541–2545.
Comparison of heavy metal loads in stormwater runoff from major and minor urban roads using pollutant yield rating curves.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXos1yktro%3D&md5=9d6c797db82714ab5b18cca97c81a980CAS | 20561726PubMed |

Davis, B., and Birch, G. (2010b). Comparison of heavy metal loads in stormwater runoff from major and minor urban roads using pollutant yield rating curves. Environmental Pollution 158, 2541–2545.
Comparison of heavy metal loads in stormwater runoff from major and minor urban roads using pollutant yield rating curves.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXos1yktro%3D&md5=9d6c797db82714ab5b18cca97c81a980CAS | 20561726PubMed |

Davis, B. S., and Birch, G. F. (2011). Spatial distribution of bulk atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 214, 147–162.
Spatial distribution of bulk atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in metropolitan Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsFOgt7vP&md5=c11d90c47acb039e1b52653263e45019CAS |

deRivera, C. E., Ruiz, G. M., Hines, A. H., and Jivoff, P. (2005). Biotic resistance to invasion: native predator limits abundance and distribution of an introduced crab. Ecology 86, 3364–3376.
Biotic resistance to invasion: native predator limits abundance and distribution of an introduced crab.CrossRef |

Derraik, J. G. B. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44, 842–852.
The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XmvVWns78%3D&md5=1473e64ea31b249af8cd86a4898aa7b4CAS |

Diaz, R. J. (2001). Overview of hypoxia around the world. Journal of Environmental Quality 30, 275–281.
Overview of hypoxia around the world.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXltVehtrw%3D&md5=79376901c39aa624d687ad0c434a1229CAS | 11285887PubMed |

Diaz-Pulido, G., McCook, L. J., Chin, A., Davidson, J., and McCook, L. J. (2007). Cyclone promotes rapid colonisation of benthic diatoms in the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 26, 787.
Cyclone promotes rapid colonisation of benthic diatoms in the Great Barrier Reef.CrossRef |

Didham, R. K., Tylianakis, J. M., Gemmell, N. J., Rand, T. A., and Ewers, R. M. (2007). Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22, 489–496.
Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline.CrossRef |

Dugan, J. E., Airoldi, L., Chapman, M. G., Walker, S. J., and Schlacher, T. (2011). Estuarine and coastal structures: environmental effects, a focus on shore and nearshore structures. In ‘Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science’. (Eds E. Wolanski and D. S. McLusky.) pp. 17–41. (Academic Press: Waltham, MA, USA.)

Edge, K. J., Johnston, E. L., Roach, A. C., and Ringwood, A. H. (2012). Indicators of environmental stress: cellular biomarkers and reproductive responses in the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). Ecotoxicology (London, England) 21, 1415–1425.
Indicators of environmental stress: cellular biomarkers and reproductive responses in the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XovVWqsL0%3D&md5=969ba609c4a78b8f56c5b3c8a51f66acCAS |

Edge, K. J., Dafforn, K. A., Simpson, S. L., Roach, A. C., and Johnston, E. L. (2014). A biomarker of contaminant exposure is effective in large scale assessment of ten estuaries. Chemosphere 100, 16–26.
A biomarker of contaminant exposure is effective in large scale assessment of ten estuaries.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsVyqt7Y%3D&md5=cf83ca430df6d0785819ba66f8e43a61CAS | 24468111PubMed |

Fairfull, S. (2013). ‘Policy and Guidelines for Fish Habitat Conservation and Management.’ (NSW Department of Primary Industries: Orange, NSW.)

FAO (2014). ‘The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture.’ (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.)

Feary, D. A., Pratchett, M. S., Emslie, M. J., Fowler, A. M., Figueira, W. F., Luiz, O. J., Nakamura, Y., and Booth, D. J. (2014). Latitudinal shifts in coral reef fishes: why some species do and others do not shift. Fish and Fisheries 15, 593–615.
Latitudinal shifts in coral reef fishes: why some species do and others do not shift.CrossRef |

Ferrier-Pagès, C., Gattuso, J. P., Cauwet, G., Jaubert, J., and Allemand, D. (1998). Release of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen by the zooxanthellate coral Galaxea fascicularis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 172, 265–274.
Release of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen by the zooxanthellate coral Galaxea fascicularis.CrossRef |

Figueira, W. F., and Booth, D. J. (2010). Increasing ocean temperatures allow tropical fishes to survive overwinter in temperate waters. Global Change Biology 16, 506–516.
Increasing ocean temperatures allow tropical fishes to survive overwinter in temperate waters.CrossRef |

Floerl, O., and Inglis, G. J. (2003). Boat harbour design can exacerbate hull fouling. Austral Ecology 28, 116–127.
Boat harbour design can exacerbate hull fouling.CrossRef |

Förstner, U., and Wittmann, G. T. W. (1981). ‘Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment.’ (Springer: Berlin.)

Gallucci, F., Hutchings, P., Gribben, P. E., and Fonseca, G. (2012). Habitat alteration and community-level effects of an invasive ecosystem engineer: a case study along the coast of NSW, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 449, 95–108.
Habitat alteration and community-level effects of an invasive ecosystem engineer: a case study along the coast of NSW, Australia.CrossRef |

Ghosn, D. L., Steffe, A. S., and Murphy, J. J. (2010). An assessment of the effort and catch of shore-based and boat-based recreational fishers in the Sydney Harbour estuary over the 2007/08 summer period. Industry & Investment NSW, Cronulla, Sydney, Australia.

Gibson, C. P., and Wilson, S. P. (2003). Imposex still evident in eastern Australia 10 years after tributyltin restrictions. Marine Environmental Research 55, 101–112.
Imposex still evident in eastern Australia 10 years after tributyltin restrictions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XoslajsLc%3D&md5=4393af252ed49457026f1c14c8905290CAS | 12502033PubMed |

Glasby, T. M. (1999a). Differences between subtidal epibiota on pier pilings and rocky reefs at marinas in Sydney, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 48, 281–290.
Differences between subtidal epibiota on pier pilings and rocky reefs at marinas in Sydney, Australia.CrossRef |

Glasby, T. M. (1999b). Interactive effects of shading and proximity to the seafloor on the development of subtidal epibiotic assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 190, 113–124.
Interactive effects of shading and proximity to the seafloor on the development of subtidal epibiotic assemblages.CrossRef |

Glasby, T. M. (2000). Surface composition and orientation interact to affect subtidal epibiota. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 248, 177–190.
Surface composition and orientation interact to affect subtidal epibiota.CrossRef | 10771301PubMed |

Glasby, T. M. (2001). Development of sessile marine assemblages on fixed versus moving substrata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 215, 37–47.
Development of sessile marine assemblages on fixed versus moving substrata.CrossRef |

Glasby, T. M. (2013). Caulerpa taxifolia in seagrass meadows: killer or opportunistic weed? Biological Invasions 15, 1017–1035.
Caulerpa taxifolia in seagrass meadows: killer or opportunistic weed?CrossRef |

Glasby, T. M., and Connell, S. D. (2001). Orientation and position of substrata have large effects on epibiotic assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 214, 127–135.
Orientation and position of substrata have large effects on epibiotic assemblages.CrossRef |

Glasby, T. M., and Lobb, K. (2008) Assessing likelihoods of marine pest introductions in Sydney estuaries: a transport vector approach. Fisheries Final Report Series 105, NSW Department of Primary Industries.

Glasby, T. M., Connell, S. D., Holloway, M. G., and Hewitt, C. L. (2007). Nonindigenous biota on artificial structures: could habitat creation facilitate biological invasions? Marine Biology 151, 887–895.
Nonindigenous biota on artificial structures: could habitat creation facilitate biological invasions?CrossRef |

Glasby, T. M., Gibson, P. T., West, G., Davies, P., and Voerman, S. (2015). Range and habitat associations of the native macroalga Caulerpa filiformis in New South Wales, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 66, 1018–1026.
Range and habitat associations of the native macroalga Caulerpa filiformis in New South Wales, Australia.CrossRef |

Goodsell, P. J. (2009). Diversity in fragments of artificial and natural marine habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 384, 23–31.
Diversity in fragments of artificial and natural marine habitats.CrossRef |

Goodsell, P. J., Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (2007). Differences between biota in anthropogenically fragmented habitats and in naturally patchy habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 351, 15–23.
Differences between biota in anthropogenically fragmented habitats and in naturally patchy habitats.CrossRef |

Gribben, P. E., Wright, J. T., O’Connor, W. A., Doblin, M. A., Eyre, B., and Steinberg, P. D. (2009). Reduced performance of native infauna following recruitment to a habitat-forming invasive marine alga. Oecologia 158, 733–745.
Reduced performance of native infauna following recruitment to a habitat-forming invasive marine alga.CrossRef | 18941786PubMed |

Gribben, P. E., Byers, J. E., Wright, J. T., and Glasby, T. M. (2013). Positive versus negative effects of an invasive ecosystem engineer on different community components. Oikos 122, 816–824.
Positive versus negative effects of an invasive ecosystem engineer on different community components.CrossRef |

Grumbine, R. E. (1994). Wildness, wide use and sustainable development. Environmental Ethics 16, 227–249.
Wildness, wide use and sustainable development.CrossRef |

Harasti, D., Glasby, T. M., and Martin-Smith, K. M. (2010). Striking a balance between retaining populations of protected seahorses and maintaining swimming nets. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20, 159–166.
Striking a balance between retaining populations of protected seahorses and maintaining swimming nets.CrossRef |

Harrison, H. B., Williamson, D. H., Evans, R. D., Almany, G. R., Thorrold, S. R., Russ, G. R., Feldheim, K. A., van Herwerden, L., Planes, S., Srinivasan, M., Berumen, M. L., and Jones, G. P. (2012). Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries. Current Biology 22, 1023–1028.
Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XnslSntLs%3D&md5=4ce8760e99da48daec6b8517b233c023CAS | 22633811PubMed |

Hatje, V., and Barros, F. (2012). Overview of the 20th century impact of trace metal contamination in the estuaries of Todos os Santos Bay: Past, present and future scenarios. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64, 2603–2614.
Overview of the 20th century impact of trace metal contamination in the estuaries of Todos os Santos Bay: Past, present and future scenarios.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsFyiu7jK&md5=ea3b2dc5be9b2b831a9c023176dddd0bCAS | 22841387PubMed |

Hatje, V., Birch, G. F., and Hill, D. M. (2001). Spatial and temporal variability of particulate trace metals in Port Jackson Estuary, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 53, 63–77.
Spatial and temporal variability of particulate trace metals in Port Jackson Estuary, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlsFGqsLw%3D&md5=9dedb83dd184555c2f1b5884736d7824CAS |

Hawkins, S. J., and Hartnoll, R. G. (1983). Grazing of intertidal algae by marine invertebrates. Oceanography and Marine Biology 21, 195–282.

Hayes, T. B., Collins, A., Lee, M., Mendoza, M., Noriega, N., Stuart, A. A., and Vonk, A. (2002). Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 5476–5480.
Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XjtFKlsbc%3D&md5=2643c45a85be7d39bc50a8fed7594787CAS | 11960004PubMed |

Hedge, L. H., and Johnston, E. L. (2012). Propagule pressure determines recruitment from a commercial shipping pier. Biofouling 28, 73–85.
Propagule pressure determines recruitment from a commercial shipping pier.CrossRef | 22248243PubMed |

Hedge, L. H., O’Connor, W. A., and Johnston, E. L. (2012). Manipulating the intrinsic parameters of propagule pressure: implications for bio-invasion. Ecosphere 3, art48.
Manipulating the intrinsic parameters of propagule pressure: implications for bio-invasion.CrossRef |

Hedge, L. H., Turnbull, J., Hoisington, C., and Johnston, E. L. (2014a). Sydney Harbour Background Report 2014. Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Sydney.

Hedge, L., Johnston, E. L., Ahyong, S. T., Birch, G., Booth, D., Creese, R., Doblin, M., Figueira, W., Gribben, P., Hutchings, P., Mayer-Pinto, M., Marzinelli, E. M., Pritchard, T., and Steinberg, P. (2014b). Sydney Harbour: a systematic review of the science. The Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Sydney, Australia.

Hellyer, C. B., Harasti, D., and Poore, A. G. B. (2011). Manipulating artificial habitats to benefit seahorses in Sydney Harbour, Australia. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21, 582–589.
Manipulating artificial habitats to benefit seahorses in Sydney Harbour, Australia.CrossRef |

Hoskins, I. (2010). ‘Sydney Harbour: A History.’ (New South Publishing: Sydney, NSW.)

Hutchings, P., Ahyong, S. T., Ashcroft, M. B., McGrouther, M. A., and Reid, A. L. (2013). Sydney Harbour: its diverse biodiversity. Australian Zoologist 36, 257–320.

Irvine, I., and Birch, G. F. (1998). Distribution of heavy metals in surfical sediments of Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 45, 297–304.
Distribution of heavy metals in surfical sediments of Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjt1ais7c%3D&md5=33d64985c95ff5f6b4c672b51dc9998aCAS |

Ivesa, L., Chapman, M. G., Underwood, A. J., and Murphy, R. J. (2010). Differential patterns of distribution of limpets on intertidal seawalls: experimental investigation of the roles of recruitment, survival and competition. Marine Ecology Progress Series 407, 55–69.
Differential patterns of distribution of limpets on intertidal seawalls: experimental investigation of the roles of recruitment, survival and competition.CrossRef |

Jackson, A. C., Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (2008). Ecological interactions in the provision of habitat by urban development: whelks and engineering by oysters on artificial seawalls. Austral Ecology 33, 307–316.
Ecological interactions in the provision of habitat by urban development: whelks and engineering by oysters on artificial seawalls.CrossRef |

Johnston, E. L., and Roberts, D. A. (2009). Contaminants reduce the richness and evenness of marine communities: A review and meta-analysis. Environmental Pollution 157, 1745–1752.
Contaminants reduce the richness and evenness of marine communities: A review and meta-analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXksVCgsLk%3D&md5=db0ae8a2ffd239f4b04b414976d575b5CAS | 19286291PubMed |

Johnston, E. L., Mayer-Pinto, M., Hutchings, P., Marzinelli, E. M., Ahyong, S. T., Birch, G., Booth, D., Creese, R., Doblin, M. A., Figueira, W., Gribben, P. E., Pritchard, T., Roughan, M., Steinberg, P. D., and Hedge, L. H. (2015a). Sydney Harbour: what we do and do not know about this highly diverse estuary. Marine and Freshwater Research 66, 1073–1087.
Sydney Harbour: what we do and do not know about this highly diverse estuary.CrossRef |

Johnston, E. L., Mayer-Pinto, M., and Crowe, T. P. (2015b). Contaminant effects on ecosystem functioning: a review. Journal of Applied Ecology 52, 140–149.
Contaminant effects on ecosystem functioning: a review.CrossRef |

Kappel, C. V. (2005). Losing pieces of the puzzle: threats to marine, estuarine, and diadromous species. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3, 275–282.
Losing pieces of the puzzle: threats to marine, estuarine, and diadromous species.CrossRef |

Kelaher, B. P., Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (1998). Changes in benthic assemblages near boardwalks in temperate urban mangrove forests. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228, 291–307.
Changes in benthic assemblages near boardwalks in temperate urban mangrove forests.CrossRef |

Kelleway, J., Williams, R. J., and Allen, C. B. (2007) An assessment of the saltmarsh of the Parramatta River and Sydney Harbour. Fisheries Final Report Series 90, NSW Department of Primary Industries.

Kemp, W. M., Boynton, W. R., Adolf, J. E., Boesch, D. F., Boicourt, W. C., Brush, G., Cornwell, J. C., Fisher, T. R., Glibert, P. M., Hagy, J. D., Harding, L. W., Houde, E. D., Kimmel, D. G., Miller, W. D., Newell, R. I. E., Roman, M. R., Smith, E. M., and Stevenson, J. C. (2005). Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 303, 1–29.
Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions.CrossRef |

Kennish, M. J. (2002). Environmental threats and environmental future of estuaries. Environmental Conservation 29, 78–107.
Environmental threats and environmental future of estuaries.CrossRef |

Kiesecker, J. M. (2002). Synergism between trematode infection and pesticide exposure: a link to amphibian limb deformities in nature? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 9900–9904.
Synergism between trematode infection and pesticide exposure: a link to amphibian limb deformities in nature?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XlslKgsbw%3D&md5=2f8413dbc6969603c1c32464b44d1c1fCAS | 12118118PubMed |

Klein, J. C., Underwood, A. J., and Chapman, M. G. (2011). Urban structures provide new insights into interactions among grazers and habitat. Ecological Applications 21, 427–438.
Urban structures provide new insights into interactions among grazers and habitat.CrossRef | 21563574PubMed |

Knott, N. A., Aulbury, J. P., Brown, T. H., and Johnston, E. L. (2009). Contemporary ecological threats from historical pollution sources: impacts of large-scale resuspension of contaminated sediments on sessile invertebrate recruitment. Journal of Applied Ecology 46, 770–781.
Contemporary ecological threats from historical pollution sources: impacts of large-scale resuspension of contaminated sediments on sessile invertebrate recruitment.CrossRef |

Kremen, C., and Ostfeld, R. S. (2005). A call to ecologists: measuring, analyzing, and managing ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3, 540–548.
A call to ecologists: measuring, analyzing, and managing ecosystem services.CrossRef |

Krumgalz, B. S. (1989). Unusual grain-size effect on trace metals and organic matter in contaminated sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20, 608–611.
Unusual grain-size effect on trace metals and organic matter in contaminated sediments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXks1CrtbY%3D&md5=f5466862474cef0d84a7e6e4c59c19d6CAS |

Lee, S. B., Birch, G. F., and Lemckert, C. J. (2011). Field and modelling investigations of fresh-water plume behaviour in response to infrequent high-precipitation events, Sydney Estuary, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 92, 389–402.
Field and modelling investigations of fresh-water plume behaviour in response to infrequent high-precipitation events, Sydney Estuary, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXlsV2murY%3D&md5=3190690ea71af61b526fd21933ccb350CAS |

Lester, S. E., Halpern, B. S., Grorud-Colvert, K., Lubchenco, J., Ruttenberg, B. I., Gaines, S. D., Airame, S., and Warner, R. R. (2009). Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 384, 33–46.
Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis.CrossRef |

Levi, F., and Francour, P. (2004). Behavioural response of Mullus surmuletus to habitat modification by the invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia. Journal of Fish Biology 64, 55–64.
Behavioural response of Mullus surmuletus to habitat modification by the invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia.CrossRef |

Liggins, G., Kennelly, S., and Broadhurst, M. (1996). Observer-based survey of by-catch from prawn trawling in Botany Bay and Port Jackson, New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 877–888.
Observer-based survey of by-catch from prawn trawling in Botany Bay and Port Jackson, New South Wales.CrossRef |

Lockwood, J. L., Cassey, P., and Blackburn, T. (2005). The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20, 223–228.
The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions.CrossRef |

Longepierre, S., Robert, A., Levi, F., and Francour, P. (2005). How an invasive alga species (Caulerpa taxifolia) induces changes in foraging strategies of the benthivorous fish Mullus surmuletus in coastal Mediterranean ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation 14, 365–376.
How an invasive alga species (Caulerpa taxifolia) induces changes in foraging strategies of the benthivorous fish Mullus surmuletus in coastal Mediterranean ecosystems.CrossRef |

Lotze, H. K., Lenihan, H. S., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., Cooke, R. G., Kay, M. C., Kidwell, S. M., Kirby, M. X., Peterson, C. H., and Jackson, J. B. C. (2006). Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312, 1806–1809.
Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XmtVSnt7Y%3D&md5=5f6542f350a356e7cbdaa27615500a95CAS | 16794081PubMed |

MacFarlane, G. R., and Burchett, M. D. (2003). Assessing effects of petroleum oil on intertidal invertebrate communities in Sydney Harbour: preparedness pays off. Australian Journal of Ecotoxicology 9, 29–38.

MacFarlane, G. R., Pulkownik, A., and Burchett, M. D. (2003). Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.)Vierh.: biological indication potential. Environmental Pollution 123, 139–151.
Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.)Vierh.: biological indication potential.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXitlGjtbc%3D&md5=ae162cc33fc5766d89365d453603b48cCAS | 12663214PubMed |

Marzinelli, E. M. (2012). Artificial structures influence fouling on habitat-forming kelps. Biofouling 28, 339–349.
Artificial structures influence fouling on habitat-forming kelps.CrossRef | 22452393PubMed |

Marzinelli, E. M., Zagal, C. J., Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (2009). Do modified habitats have direct or indirect effects on epifauna? Ecology 90, 2948–2955.
Do modified habitats have direct or indirect effects on epifauna?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1MjjvVOiug%3D%3D&md5=ac51cb3ed629554cac9ef84ba75bd009CAS | 19886503PubMed |

Marzinelli, E. M., Underwood, A. J., and Coleman, R. A. (2011). Modified habitats influence kelp epibiota via direct and indirect effects. PLoS One 6, e21936.
Modified habitats influence kelp epibiota via direct and indirect effects.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFChsLg%3D&md5=12ef4935d28a016c2fa89bac045f759dCAS | 21755011PubMed |

McCready, S., Slee, D., Birch, G., and Taylor, S. (2000). The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments of Sydney Harbour, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40, 999–1006.
The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments of Sydney Harbour, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXovFChs7g%3D&md5=76a47a52335f9c378b292080d31edc25CAS |

McKinley, A., Ryan, L., Coleman, M., Knott, N., Clark, G., Taylor, M., and Johnston, E. (2011a). Putting marine sanctuaries into context: a comparison of estuary fish assemblages over multiple levels of protection and modification. Aquatic Conservation-Marine And Freshwater Ecosystems 21, 636–648.
Putting marine sanctuaries into context: a comparison of estuary fish assemblages over multiple levels of protection and modification.CrossRef |

McKinley, A. C., Miskiewicz, A., Taylor, M. D., and Johnston, E. L. (2011b). Strong links between metal contamination, habitat modification and estuarine larval fish distributions. Environmental Pollution 159, 1499–1509.
Strong links between metal contamination, habitat modification and estuarine larval fish distributions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXltFOqsbs%3D&md5=b8f9e299f2379ed47b7f925869c24016CAS | 21470729PubMed |

McKinnon, J. G., Gribben, P. E., Davis, A. R., Jolley, D. F., and Wright, J. T. (2009). Differences in soft-sediment macrobenthic assemblages invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia compared to uninvaded habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 380, 59–71.
Differences in soft-sediment macrobenthic assemblages invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia compared to uninvaded habitats.CrossRef |

McLoughlin, L. C. (2000a). Estuarine wetlands distribution along the Parramatta River, Sydney, 1788–1940: Implications for planning and conservation. Cunninghamia 6, 579–610.

McLoughlin, L. C. (2000b). Shaping Sydney Harbour: sedimentation, dredging and reclamation 1788–1990s. Australian Geographer 31, 183–208.
Shaping Sydney Harbour: sedimentation, dredging and reclamation 1788–1990s.CrossRef |

Melville, F., and Burchett, M. (2002). Genetic variation in Avicennia marina in three estuaries of Sydney (Australia) and implications for rehabilitation and management. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44, 469–479.
Genetic variation in Avicennia marina in three estuaries of Sydney (Australia) and implications for rehabilitation and management.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XktFOnu70%3D&md5=7e8ddee9bc86ecb0ca0251c9bfaa5bd2CAS | 12146830PubMed |

Minh, T. B., Leung, H. W., Loi, I. H., Chan, W. H., So, M. K., Mao, J. Q., Choi, D., Lam, J. C. W., Zheng, G., Martin, M., Lee, J. H. W., Lam, P. K. S., and Richardson, B. J. (2009). Antibiotics in the Hong Kong metropolitan area: ubiquitous distribution and fate in Victoria Harbour. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58, 1052–1062.
Antibiotics in the Hong Kong metropolitan area: ubiquitous distribution and fate in Victoria Harbour.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXnvVWmtbw%3D&md5=975f4b6de525812c731ced12c6ff3c2dCAS | 19268314PubMed |

Miskiewicz, A. G., and Gibbs, P. J. (1994). Organoclhorine pesticides and hexachlorobenzene in tissues of fish and invertebrates caught near a sewage outfall. Environmental Pollution 84, 269–277.
Organoclhorine pesticides and hexachlorobenzene in tissues of fish and invertebrates caught near a sewage outfall.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXit1Khsbk%3D&md5=43e03d68da1f4a8c95286d5fb98fc77dCAS | 15091698PubMed |

Moreira, J. (2006). Patterns of occurrence of grazing molluscs on sandstone and concrete seawalls in Sydney Harbour (Australia). Molluscan Research 26, 51–60.

Moreira, J., Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (2006). Seawalls do not sustain viable populations of limpets. Marine Ecology Progress Series 322, 179–188.
Seawalls do not sustain viable populations of limpets.CrossRef |

Najjar, R. G., Pyke, C. R., Adams, M. B., Breitburg, D., Hershner, C., Kemp, M., Howarth, R., Mulholland, M. R., Paolisso, M., Secor, D., Sellner, K., Wardrop, D., and Wood, R. (2010). Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 86, 1–20.
Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhs1WisrvF&md5=8f015b00f820d9021363c3cc742f25abCAS |

Naylor, R. L., Williams, S. L., and Strong, D. R. (2001). Aquaculture – a gateway for exotic species. Science 294, 1655–1656.
Aquaculture – a gateway for exotic species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXosleqtb0%3D&md5=a30cc826a3c0dcd6347e662b090eeaaeCAS | 11721035PubMed |

Nicholson, S., Hui, Y. H., and Lam, P. K. S. (2011). Pollution in the coastal waters of Hong Kong: case studies of the urban Victoria and Tolo Harbours. Water and Environment Journal : the Journal/the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management 25, 387–399.
Pollution in the coastal waters of Hong Kong: case studies of the urban Victoria and Tolo Harbours.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtlWqs77O&md5=4f1fd0338d2f68c20c409037ef10d9eeCAS |

Nixon, S. W. (1995). Coastal marine eutrophication – a definition, social causes and future concerns. Ophelia 41, 199–219.
Coastal marine eutrophication – a definition, social causes and future concerns.CrossRef |

NSW Fisheries (2002). Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales – Interim report. NSW Fisheries. Sydney.

NSW Fisheries (2014). Status of fisheries resources in NSW 2011–2012 summary. NSW Fisheries, Sydney.

Parker, L. M., Ross, P. M., O’Connor, W. A., Borysko, L., Raftos, D. A., and Poertner, H.-O. (2012). Adult exposure influences offspring response to ocean acidification in oysters. Global Change Biology 18, 82–92.
Adult exposure influences offspring response to ocean acidification in oysters.CrossRef |

Pennings, S. C., and Bertness, M. D. (2001). Salt Marsh Communities. In ‘Marine Community Ecology’. (Eds M. D. Bertness, S. D. Gaines, and M. E. Hay.) (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA.)

Pimentel, D., Zuniga, R., and Morrison, D. (2005). Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien invasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics 52, 273–288.
Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien invasive species in the United States.CrossRef |

Piola, R. F., and Johnston, E. L. (2008). Pollution reduces native diversity and increases invader dominance in marine hard-substrate communities. Diversity & Distributions 14, 329–342.
Pollution reduces native diversity and increases invader dominance in marine hard-substrate communities.CrossRef |

Pitblado, R. M. (1978). Estuarine modelling: the development and validation of a 2-layer, real-time model for the Parramatta River Estuary. PhD thesis, University of Sydney.

Ridgway, K. R. (2007). Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L13613.
Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current.CrossRef |

Rilov, G., Benayahu, Y., and Gasith, A. (2004). Prolonged lag in population outbreak of an invasive mussel: a shifting-habitat model. Biological Invasions 6, 347–364.
Prolonged lag in population outbreak of an invasive mussel: a shifting-habitat model.CrossRef |

Roberts, D. A., and Poore, A. G. B. (2006). Habitat configuration affects colonisation of epifauna in a marine algal bed. Biological Conservation 127, 18–26.
Habitat configuration affects colonisation of epifauna in a marine algal bed.CrossRef |

Roberts, D. A., Johnston, E. L., and Poore, A. G. B. (2008). Contamination of marine biogenic habitats and effects upon associated epifauna. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 1057–1065.
Contamination of marine biogenic habitats and effects upon associated epifauna.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmvFehsrs%3D&md5=a3b65e00a6c9c4ab36da55deeb9b4e7aCAS | 18405924PubMed |

Roberts, L., Butcher, P., Broadhurst, M., and Cullis, B. (2011). Using a multi-experimental approach to assess the fate of angled-and-released yellowtail king fish (Seriola Lalandi). ICES Journal of Marine Science 68, 67–75.
Using a multi-experimental approach to assess the fate of angled-and-released yellowtail king fish (Seriola Lalandi).CrossRef |

Robinson, C., Suggett, D., Ralph, P. J., and Doblin, M. A. (2014). Performance of fast repetition rate fluorometry based estimates of primary productivity in coastal waters. Journal of Marine Systems 139, 299–310.
Performance of fast repetition rate fluorometry based estimates of primary productivity in coastal waters.CrossRef |

Rochman, C. M., and Browne, M. A. (2013). Classify plastic waste as hazardous. Nature 494, 169–171.
Classify plastic waste as hazardous.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXis1ajt7k%3D&md5=d46c7a7b8217a157fc278b52b0ff0567CAS | 23407523PubMed |

Rogers, K., Saintilan, N., and Cahoon, D. (2005). Surface elevation dynamics in a regenerating mangrove forest at Homebush Bay, Australia. Wetlands Ecology and Management 13, 587–598.
Surface elevation dynamics in a regenerating mangrove forest at Homebush Bay, Australia.CrossRef |

Rohr, J. R., Kerby, J. L., and Sih, A. (2006). Community ecology as a framework for predicting contaminant effects. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21, 606–613.
Community ecology as a framework for predicting contaminant effects.CrossRef |

Ruiz, G. M., Fofonoff, P., Hines, A. H., and Grosholz, E. D. (1999). Non-indigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: assessing invasion impacts and interactions. Limnology and Oceanography 44, 950–972.
Non-indigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: assessing invasion impacts and interactions.CrossRef |

Ruiz, G. M., Fofonoff, P. W., Carlton, J. T., Wonham, M. J., and Hines, A. H. (2000a). Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31, 481–531.
Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases.CrossRef |

Ruiz, G. M., Rawlings, T. K., Dobbs, F. C., Drake, L. A., Mullady, T., Huq, A., and Colwell, R. R. (2000b). Global spread of microorganisms by ships – Ballast water discharged from vessels harbours a cocktail of potential pathogens. Nature 408, 49–50.
Global spread of microorganisms by ships – Ballast water discharged from vessels harbours a cocktail of potential pathogens.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXotValu74%3D&md5=f48ce66a37656bbdf955c4e899241b05CAS | 11081499PubMed |

Saintilan, N., and Rogers, K. (2013). The significance and vulnerability of Australian saltmarshes: implications for management in a changing climate. Marine and Freshwater Research 64, 66–79.
The significance and vulnerability of Australian saltmarshes: implications for management in a changing climate.CrossRef |

Short, A. D., and Trembanis, A. C. (2004). Decadal scale patterns in beach oscillation and rotation Narrabeen Beach, Australia – time series, PCA and wavelet analysis. Journal of Coastal Research 20, 523–532.
Decadal scale patterns in beach oscillation and rotation Narrabeen Beach, Australia – time series, PCA and wavelet analysis.CrossRef |

Smayda, T. J. (1990). Novel and nuisance phytoplankton blooms in the sea: evidence for a global epidemic. In ‘Toxic Marine Phytoplankton’. (Eds E. Graneli, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler, and D. M. Anderson.) pp. 29–40. (Elsevier: New York.)

Smith, S. D. A., and Edgar, R. J. (2014). Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats. PLoS One 9, e94593.
Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats.CrossRef |

Stachowicz, J. J., and Byrnes, J. E. (2006). Species diversity, invasion success, and ecosystem functioning: disentangling the influence of resource competition, facilitation, and extrinsic factors. Marine Ecology Progress Series 311, 251–262.
Species diversity, invasion success, and ecosystem functioning: disentangling the influence of resource competition, facilitation, and extrinsic factors.CrossRef |

Steffe, A., and Murphy, J. (2011). Recreational fishing surveys in the Greater Sydney region. Fisheries Final Report Series 131. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Sydney, NSW.

Suh, J. Y., Brown, P. L., and Birch, G. F. (2003a). Geochemical factors affecting leachate composition derived from soils in reclaimed lands using laboratory fresh and saline water column experiments. Marine and Freshwater Research 54, 885–893.
Geochemical factors affecting leachate composition derived from soils in reclaimed lands using laboratory fresh and saline water column experiments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptFGltw%3D%3D&md5=e9b978ce6d4fa2827c601e57704e6e6eCAS |

Suh, J. Y., Brown, P. L., and Virch, G. F. (2003b). Hydrogeochemical characteristics and importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on soil and groundwater in reclaimed land adjacent to Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 54, 767–779.
Hydrogeochemical characteristics and importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on soil and groundwater in reclaimed land adjacent to Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXovVGmtbk%3D&md5=152b339ff435cc9e8c267455a2dff90aCAS |

Suh, J. Y., Birch, G. F., Hughes, K., and Matthai, C. (2004). Spatial distribution and source of heavy metals in reclaimed lands of Homebush Bay: the venue of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sydney, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 51, 53–67.
Spatial distribution and source of heavy metals in reclaimed lands of Homebush Bay: the venue of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sydney, New South Wales.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjtlKis78%3D&md5=7b3e2fada7df6578c7bbe86b071db2eaCAS |

Sun, M. Y., Dafforn, K. A., Brown, M. V., and Johnston, E. L. (2012). Bacterial communities are sensitive indicators of contaminant stress. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64, 1029–1038.
Bacterial communities are sensitive indicators of contaminant stress.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xmt1WmtL0%3D&md5=74869dbf8ad26ad53448c8dd5e66947cCAS | 22385752PubMed |

Sun, M. Y., Dafforn, K. A., Johnston, E. L., and Brown, M. V. (2013). Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients. Environmental Microbiology 15, 2517–2531.
Core sediment bacteria drive community response to anthropogenic contamination over multiple environmental gradients.CrossRef | 23647974PubMed |

Thompson, R. C., Crowe, T. P., and Hawkins, S. J. (2002). Rocky intertidal communities: past environmental changes, present status and predictions for the next 25 years. Environmental Conservation 29, 168–191.
Rocky intertidal communities: past environmental changes, present status and predictions for the next 25 years.CrossRef |

Thompson, P. A., Baird, M. E., Ingleton, T., and Doblin, M. A. (2009). Long-term changes in temperate Australian coastal waters: implications for phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series 394, 1–19.
Long-term changes in temperate Australian coastal waters: implications for phytoplankton.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXotVOmtA%3D%3D&md5=a2b3696e918a45f3b76a8a4040b5e5e5CAS |

Underwood, A. J., and Jernakoff, P. (1981). Effects of interactions between algae and grazing gastropods on the structure of a low-shore inter-tidal algal community. Oecologia 48, 221–233.
Effects of interactions between algae and grazing gastropods on the structure of a low-shore inter-tidal algal community.CrossRef |

Valette-Silver, N. J. (1993). The use of sediment cores to reconstruct historical trends in contamination of estuarine and coastal sediments. Estuaries 16, 577–588.
The use of sediment cores to reconstruct historical trends in contamination of estuarine and coastal sediments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXisFaktrk%3D&md5=aea01987d4c39caf632a2e106ee62fdbCAS |

Verges, A., Steinberg, P. D., Hay, M. E., Poore, A. G. B., Campbell, A. H., Ballesteros, E., Heck, K. L., Booth, D. J., Coleman, M. A., Feary, D. A., Figueira, W., Langlois, T., Marzinelli, E. M., Mizerek, T., Mumby, P. J., Nakamura, Y., Roughan, M., van Sebille, E., Sen Gupta, A., Smale, D. A., Tomas, F., Wernberg, T., and Wilson, S. K. (2014). The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts. Proceedings of the Royal Society. B – Biological Sciences 281, 20140846.
The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts.CrossRef | 25009065PubMed |

Walker, D. I., and McComb, A. J. (1992). Seagrass degradation in Australian coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 25, 191–195.
Seagrass degradation in Australian coastal waters.CrossRef |

White, N. J., Haigh, I. D., Church, J. A., Koen, T., Watson, C. S., Pritchard, T. R., Watson, P. J., Burgette, R. J., McInnes, K. L., You, Z.-J., Zhang, X., and Tregoning, P. (2014). Australian sea levels – trends, regional variability and influencing factors. Earth-Science Reviews 136, 155–174.
Australian sea levels – trends, regional variability and influencing factors.CrossRef |

Widmer, W. M., and Underwood, A. J. (2004). Factors affecting traffic and anchoring patterns of recreational boats in Sydney Harbour, Australia. Landscape and Urban Planning 66, 173–183.
Factors affecting traffic and anchoring patterns of recreational boats in Sydney Harbour, Australia.CrossRef |

Wilcove, D. S., and Master, L. L. (2005). How many endangered species are there in the United States? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3, 414–420.
How many endangered species are there in the United States?CrossRef |

Wilcove, D. S., McLellan, C. H., and Dobson, A. P. (1986). Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. In ‘Conservation Biology’. (Ed. M. E. Soule.) pp. 237–256. (Sinauer: Sunderland, MA, USA.)

Wilson, S. P., Ahsanullah, M., and Thompson, G. B. (1993). Imposex in Neogastropods – an indicator of tributyltin contamination in Eastern Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26, 44–48.
Imposex in Neogastropods – an indicator of tributyltin contamination in Eastern Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXisVShtr0%3D&md5=adafdf4b930c8bb4ef74b02ac250b524CAS |

Wong, Y.S., Tam, N.F.Y., Lau, P.S., and Xue, X.Z. (1995). The toxicity of marine sediments in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Marine Pollution Bulletin 31, 464–470.
The toxicity of marine sediments in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XislWhsw%3D%3D&md5=e936adb9880c0d23206409cf457aeb63CAS |

Wright, J. T., and Gribben, P. E. (2008). Predicting the impact of an invasive seaweed on fitness of native fauna. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 1540–1549.
Predicting the impact of an invasive seaweed on fitness of native fauna.CrossRef |

Wright, J. T., Byers, J. E., and Gribben, P. E. (2012). Differences in anti-predator traits of a native bivalve following invasion by a habitat-forming seaweed. Marine and Freshwater Research 63, 246–250.
Differences in anti-predator traits of a native bivalve following invasion by a habitat-forming seaweed.CrossRef |

Wright, S. L., Thompson, R. C., and Galloway, T. S. (2013). The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review. Environmental Pollution 178, 483–492.
The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXltVCrtLc%3D&md5=24cba56f2e032dc935923a51da1fbf27CAS | 23545014PubMed |

Wu, L., Cai, W., Zhang, L., Nakamura, H., Timmermann, A., Joyce, T., McPhaden, M. J., Alexander, M., Qiu, B., Visbecks, M., Chang, P., and Giese, B. (2012). Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Climate Change 2, 161–166.
Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XivVentb8%3D&md5=92a958705793cc4234c2daaaf007f434CAS |

York, P. H., Booth, D. J., Glasby, T. M., and Pease, B. C. (2006). Fish assemblages in habitats dominated by Caulerpa taxifolia and native seagrasses in south-eastern Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 312, 223–234.
Fish assemblages in habitats dominated by Caulerpa taxifolia and native seagrasses in south-eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Zhang, D., Glasby, T. M., Ralph, P. J., and Gribben, P. E. (2014). Mechanisms influencing the spread of a native marine alga. PLoS One 9, e94647.
Mechanisms influencing the spread of a native marine alga.CrossRef | 24722520PubMed |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (518 KB) Export Citation Cited By (12)

View Altmetrics