Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 62 Number 10 2011

Doubled haploid lines are a valuable genetic resource for plant breeders and researchers and are produced using plant tissue culture techniques. In wheat however, doubled haploid production can be challenging as different varieties of wheat vary in their response to tissue culture. This study demonstrates how the use of the primary alcohol, n-butanol, can result in significant improvements in wheat doubled haploid production. The results can be utilised by wheat doubled haploid programs in Australia and around the world.

CP11192 Variation for kernel number and related traits in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack)

Rosella Motzo, Simona Bassu and Francesco Giunta
pp. 823-829

Improving cereal production, either for food and for feed, with the same or less amount of land and water will be necessary to cope with the almost 40% increase in population projected for 2050. This paper demonstrates that number of kernels per unit chaff weight is a valuable trait to increase number of kernels per m2 and hence grain yield of triticale. Breeders can select more productive triticale cultivars using this trait.

Plant growth and development are linked to the capability of the crop to use efficiently radiation and water: this efficiency is an indicator of crop adaption to a specific environment. The radiation use efficiency (RUE) is an important crop characteristic and through this field research a range of RUE values for biomass sorghum in the Mediterranean environment were obtained. The RUE values suggested as biomass sorghum can be cropped in Mediterranean environments for energetic purposes.

Inadequate phosphorus (P) supply at crop establishment can reduce dry matter (DM) accumulation. In a field experiment quantifying the effects of banded or broadcast P fertiliser applied at establishment, DM yield for kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) crops increased with P fertiliser application but was unaffected by the method of P application. Yield response to P was attributed to an increased rate of development of leaf area index and consequently earlier canopy closure that led to higher accumulated radiation interception. These results support a starter P application at establishment to maximise yields.

Sugarcane varieties have been selected by breeders to have very high sucrose levels in their stalks, but it has been suggested that these high sucrose levels could inhibit photosynthesis and growth in mature cane. We conducted experiments on a range of sugarcane varieties with varying in stalk sucrose levels and found no evidence that photosynthesis was reduced because of high sucrose levels in the stalks. These results suggest that breeding and selecting varieties for high biomass levels should not necessarily result in lower stalk sucrose levels.

CP11161 Analysis of genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite cotton (Gossypium L.) germplasm in India

Satya Narayan Jena, Anukool Srivastava, Uma Maheswar Singh, Sribash Roy, Nandita Banerjee, Krishan Mohan Rai, Sunil Kumar Singh, Verandra Kumar, Lal Babu Chaudhary, Joy Kumar Roy, Rakesh Tuli and Samir V. Sawant
pp. 859-875

Landmark of chromosomes, scientifically known as molecular marker is playing a crucial role for the crop improvement. Indian cotton breeders are facing problem to choose the diverse parents to be crossed for improved cotton varieties and the present study revealed the genetic differentiation among many cotton cultivars. This will help breeders to choose the right parental lines for their different breeding strategies targeting different traits for improved cotton varieties.

Addressing effective adaptation options of cropping systems to climate warming is essential to ensure food security. This study quantitatively illustrated the negative impacts of temperature warming on soybean system and developed strategies to alleviate the adverse effects. The results suggest that advancing the onset of soybean seed filling could be a successful adaptation option to global warming, providing an average yield benefit of ~14% for per ten days prior to the present date.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas, predicted to increase globally from currently 386 to 550 μmol mol–1 by 2050 and cause significant stimulation to plant growth. Consequently, Australian Grains Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (AGFACE) facilities were established to investigate the effects of elevated CO2, water supply and nitrogen fertiliser on crop growth. However, understanding the distribution patterns of CO2 inside AGFACE rings is crucial for the interpretation of the crop growth data.

CP11199 Molecular genetic marker-based analysis of species-differentiated phenotypic characters in an interspecific ryegrass mapping population

J. Wang, R. C. Baillie, N. O. I. Cogan, N. M. McFarlane, M. P. Dupal, K. F. Smith and J. W. Forster
pp. 892-902

Ryegrass species, which are fundamental components of temperate grassland agriculture, show broad variation for characters such as annual and perennial growth habit that can limit long-term survival in pastures. A molecular genetic study of a family produced by crossing perennial and annual ryegrass types has identified genomic regions controlling traits related to variation for annuality-perenniality and other differences between species. The results provide the basis for efficient certification of seed purity and breeding for improved pasture persistence.

CP11047 Symbiotic performance of Mediterranean Trifolium spp. with naturalised soil rhizobia

E. A. Drew, N. Charman, R. Dingemanse, E. Hall and R. A. Ballard
pp. 903-913

Pasture legumes, the largest group being clovers, are the major contributors of biologically fixed nitrogen in Australian farming systems. This research shows clover species form sub-optimal associations with the rhizobia bacteria in soils responsible for this ‘free nitrogen’, costing potentially millions of dollars in lost nitrogen benefits each year. Inoculation when establishing new pastures and investment into the development of new symbiotically promiscuous pasture species is required to overcome limitations.

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