Invertebrate Systematics Invertebrate Systematics Society
Systematics, phylogeny and biogeography
Invertebrate Systematics

Invertebrate Systematics

Volume 31 Number 4 2017

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Protonymphon larvae of numerous sea spiders have as yet not been described, and therefore it is not clear whether their sets of characters allow for differential diagnoses. Using the resolving power of scanning electron microscopy, our analysis of protonymphons of two closely related species of Pallenopsis reveals various species-specific larval characters. Protonymphon features are thus significant in the context of species delimitation and can be used as idependent sets of characters in addition to adult morphology and DNA sequences.

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Scaled Zhuqinia jingwanae, gen. & sp. nov. discovered from Australian Snowy Mountain range cannot be assigned to any tribes of Paronellinae (Collembola), but is strikingly similar to an unscaled genus Paronellides. These findings strongly question the current higher classification of Paronellidae, particularly tribal division based on body scales of independent origins. The present study improves our understanding of systematics of Paronellidae, as well as Entomobryoidea.

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We describe a new species of Neotropical termite whose soldier closely resembles Termes species. However, worker anatomy as well as mitochondrial DNA and chemical analyses revealed that this species should be placed in a new genus, sister to Cavitermes. Our study highlights the importance of using an integrative taxonomic approach to describe new taxa. Photo credits: The Authors.

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Christmas Island has long fascinated researchers and visitors alike owing to the mass migration phenomenon of its endemic Gecarcoidea natalis. Two species known from the Indian and Pacific oceans (G. humei and G. lalandii, respectively) also exist on Christmas Island. The findings suggest that Christmas Island sit at a distinct biogeographic confluence between the two oceans, with factors influencing the creation of endemic fauna on the island. Photograph by H. H. Tan.

IS17005A molecular phylogeny of the Palaearctic and Oriental members of the tribe Boarmiini (Lepidoptera : Geometridae : Ennominae)

Nan Jiang, Xinxin Li, Axel Hausmann, Rui Cheng, Dayong Xue and Hongxiang Han
pp. 427-441

Boarmiini are an important group of Geometrid moths with a high number of species and distributed worldwide. The aim of our work is to reconstruct the first molecular phylogeny of the Palaearctic and Oriental members of Boarmiini, and infer the relationships among tribes within the ‘boarmiine’ lineage. Our results will provide insight into the evolutionary history of Boarmiini species.

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Some Neotropical crab-spiders show vivid body coloration, whereas other species are darker and cryptic. Herein, we present an evolutive hypothesis that shows the intrinsic and paraphyletic relationship between spiders of the genera Epicadus and Tobias. Our results justify taxonomic changes regarding the validity of one of these genera and provide an initial discussion about the behavioral aspects and evolution of the mimetism in this group. Photograph by Alfredo Colón.

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A revision of the harvestman family Sironidae, which includes the oldest known members of Cyphophthalmi, is provided with an up-to-date molecular phylogenetic treatment. Five new taxa from the Iberian Peninsula and North America are described, including the second species in the genus Iberosiro, which has remained monotypic until now. We further revisit the male genitalic morphology for most genera by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Photograph: Siro ligiae, sp. nov. Scale bars = 0.05 mm.

Our study using morphology and a multigene molecular analysis finds that three new species from arid Western Australia belong to a new and previously unrecognised genus, Hesperonatalius. It represents the sister-group to the diverse genus Aname, but differs by the lack of a prominent asetose ventral depression on the pedipalpal tibia and the medium-sized mating spur on tibia I of males. Photograph: Hesperonatalius maxwelli, by M. S. Harvey.

IS16082Exploring the role of within-island ecogeographical factors: insights from the genetic diversity of Cretan trap-door spiders (Cyrtocarenum cunicularium, Ctenizidae : Araneae)

Evanthia Thanou, Panagiotis Kornilios, Dimitris Poursanidis, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Miquel A. Arnedo and Maria Chatzaki
pp. 506-517
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Palaeogeography and climate changes have shaped the biodiversity of most Mediterranean islands, including Crete. Past fragmentation into palaeoislands promoted the genetic divergence of Cretan trap-door spiders, which is still maintained by their limited dispersal capability and niche differentiation. Case studies like this highlight the role of ecogeographical and behavioural factors as part of the insular evolutionary process. Image: Distribution (at 1 million years ago and present time) of the ‘western’ and ‘eastern’ Cretan spiders, according to their mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

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