Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

cGMP signalling in plants: from enigma to main stream

Jean-Charles Isner A and Frans J. M. Maathuis B C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.

B Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.

C Corresponding author. Email: fjm3@york.ac.uk

This paper originates from a presentation at the Fourth International Symposium on Plant Signaling and Behavior, Komarov Botanic Institute RAS/Russian Science Foundation, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1923 June 2016.

Functional Plant Biology - https://doi.org/10.1071/FP16337
Submitted: 29 September 2016  Accepted: 25 November 2016   Published online: 20 December 2016

Abstract

All living organisms communicate with their environment, and part of this dialogue is mediated by secondary messengers such as cyclic guanosine mono phosphate (cGMP). In plants, most of the specific components that allow production and breakdown of cGMP have now been identified apart from cGMP dependent phosphodiesterases, enzymes responsible for cGMP catabolism. Irrespectively, the role of cGMP in plant signal transductions is now firmly established with involvement of this nucleotide in development, stress response, ion homeostasis and hormone function. Within these areas, several consistent themes where cGMP may be particularly relevant are slowly emerging: these include regulation of cation fluxes, for example via cyclic nucleotide gated channels and in stomatal functioning. Many details of signalling pathways that incorporate cGMP remain to be unveiled. These include downstream targets other than a small number of ion channels, in particular cGMP dependent kinases. Improved genomics tools may help in this respect, especially since many proteins involved in cGMP signalling appear to have multiple and often overlapping functional domains which hampers identification on the basis of simple homology searches. Another open question regards the topographical distribution of cGMP signals are they cell limited? Does long distance cGMP signalling occur and if so, by what mechanisms? The advent of non-disruptive fluorescent reporters with high spatial and temporal resolution will provide a tool to accelerate progress in all these areas. Automation can facilitate large scale screens of mutants or the action of effectors that impact on cGMP signalling.

Additional keywords: cyclic guanosine mono phosphate, CNGC, guard cell, ion homeostasis, signalling, stress.


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